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The European Union

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The European Coal and Steel Community (Paris 1951) ... against drugs, arms trade, xenophobia, terrorism, trafficking in human beings ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The European Union


1
WELCOME ?
2
Agenda
  • History
  • Comparisons with other world powers
  • The Treaties
  • The Institutions
  • Decision Making
  • The EU's Budget
  • EU on the web
  • Final words

3
Historic background
  • 1951 The European Coal and Steel Community
  • 1957 The European Economic Community (EEC 6)
  • 1960 EFTA
  • 1973 EEC 9
  • 1961 EEC 10
  • 1986 EEC 12
  • 1995 EU 15
  • 2004 EU 25
  • 2007 EU 27

4
The European Coal and Steel Community (Paris 1951)
5
The European Economic Community (EEC) Rome 1957
6
EFTA 1960 Austria, Denmark, Norway, Portugal,
Sweden, Switzerland and the UKFinland
(Associated 1961 full member 1986) Iceland
(1970) Liechtenstein (1991)
7
1973 EEC-9 Denmark Ireland UK
8
1981 EEC-10 Greece
9
1986 EEC-12 Spain and Portugal
10
1995 EU-15Finland, Sweden and Austria
11
2004 EU-25Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland,
Czechia, Slovakia, Hungary, Slovenia, Malta and
Cyprus
12
2007 EU-27Romania and Bulgaria
13
EU-27, 28 ,29, 30
14
Surface EU-25, Japan, USA and Russia
(million m2) 
15
Population
(in millions)
16
Gross National Product
(billion euros, in 2005)
17
GNP per Person
Year 2007 (EU-27 100)
18
GNP per person
Year 2007 (EU-27 100)
19
The main Treaties
  • The European Coal and Steel Community - Paris
    1951
  • The European Economic Community (EEC) Rome
    1957
  • The European Atomic Energy Community Rome 1957
  • The Maastricht Treaty 1992 gt The European Union
    (EU)
  • The Nice Treaty 2001
  • A new treaty in 2009 ???

20
Proposed Treaty changes
  • A permanent President of the European Council
  • A European "Foreign Minister"
  • Council Majority decisions in more areas (vetoes
    abolished) -gt 55 of the Member States,
    representing 65 of the EU's population, must
    vote for a proposal for it to be adopted.

21
The Pillars of the EU
The European Union
Customs Union, CAP, Structural policy, Trade
policy, Education and Culture, Consumer
protection, health, environment, research, social
policy, asylum policy, immigration policy, EMU,
etc.
Foreign policy, Peacekeeping, Human rights,
disarmament, financial aspects of defence,
Europes long-term security framework
Cooperation between judicial authorities, Police
cooperation, fight against drugs, arms trade,
xenophobia, terrorism, trafficking in human
beings
First pillar EC
Second pillar EU
Third pillar EU
22
EU Institutions

European Commission
European Parliament
Council of the European Union
Court of Justice of the European Communities
European Court of Auditors
23
EU Institutions
European Commission Headquarter in Brussels.
Some departments in Luxembourg, and delegations
in all EU Member States and most other parts of
the world. Council of the European
Union Headquarter in Brussels, but many meetings
take place in president country. European
Parliament Most plenary sessions in Strasbourg,
but also some plenary sessions plus most other
meetings in Brussels. Some secretariat functions
are located in Luxembourg.
24
EU Institutions
Court of Justice The Court of Justice ensures
that Community law is uniformly interpreted and
effectively applied. It has jurisdiction in
disputes involving Member States, EU
institutions, businesses and individuals.
Headquarter in Luxembourg. Court of Auditors
The Court of Auditors checks that all the
Union's revenue has been received and all its
expenditure incurred in a lawful and regular
manner and that financial management of the EU
budget has been sound. Headquarter in Luxembourg.
European Ombudsman All individuals or entities
(institutions or businesses) resident in the
Union can apply to the European Ombudsman if they
consider that they have been harmed by an act of
"maladministration" by an EU institution or
body. His seat is that of the European
Parliament, in Strasbourg.
25
EU Bodies
European Economic and Social Committee The
European Economic and Social Committee represents
the views and interests of organised civil
society vis-à-vis the Commission, the Council and
the European Parliament. The Committee has to be
consulted on matters relating to economic and
social policy it may also issue opinions on its
own initiative on other matters which it
considers to be important Headquarter in
Brussels. Committee of the Regions The
Committee of the Regions ensures that regional
and local identities and prerogatives are
respected. It has to be consulted on matters
concerning regional policy, the environment and
education. It is composed of representatives of
regional and local authorities. Headquarter in
Brussels.
26
EU Bodies
European Central Bank Frames and implements
European monetary policy it conducts foreign
exchange operations and ensures the smooth
operation of payment systems. Headquarter in
Frankfurt. European Investment Bank The
European Investment Bank (EIB) is the European
Union's financial institution. It finances
investment projects which contribute to the
balanced development of the Union. The seat is in
Luxembourg
27
The EU Council
  • adopts regulations, directives and decisions
    together with Parliament
  • adopts the EU's budget
  • coordinates the Member States' economic policies.

28
The EU Council
The European Council The Prime Ministers meet at
a "summit" (2-4 times a year)
Council meetings for specific policies All the
Member States' Ministers in a specific area
(finance, agriculture,) meet to make decisions
(several different meetings a month)
Coreper The Member States' ambassadors meet every
week in the "Committee of the Permanent
Representatives"
The Presidency in the Council rotates between
Member States twice a year
29
Number of votes in Council
From 1/1/2007
30
The President of the Commission José Manuel
Barroso
31
The Commission
Link to the photo gallery of the Commissioners
http//ec.europa.eu/commission_barroso/index_en.ht
m
32
The European Commission
  • The Commission has four main rights
  • propose legislative acts to Parliament and
    Council
  • implement the EU policies
  • act as a representative of the EU and negotiate
    international agreements (in the trade and
    cooperation areas)
  • supervise the implementation of the EU law.

33
The European Commission
Its Directorates General and Services
  • Policy areas
  • Regional Policy
  • Employment and Social affairs
  • Education and Culture
  • Energy and Transport
  • Agriculture
  • Maritime policy
  • Health and Consumer Protection
  • Environment
  • Research
  • Information Society
  • Enterprise
  • The Single Market
  • Competition
  • Economic and Financial affairs
  • Justice and Home affairs
  • Customs and taxation
  • External relations
  • External relations
  • Trade
  • Cooperation aid / EuropeAid
  • The Office for humanitarian aid
  • Enlargement
  • Support services
  • The General Secretariat
  • Personnel and Administration
  • Budget
  • Press and communication
  • Group of political advisors
  • Legal service
  • Conference and interpretation service
  • Translation service
  • Publications office
  • Statistical office
  • Internal audit service
  • Fraud prevention office

34
The EU's Decision Making
  • Proposal (regulation, directive etc)
  • - from the Commission

2. Adoption- by Council and Parliament
3. Implementation- by the Commission
35
Staff in European Institutions (budget 2007)
36
What is the money spent on?
EUR 129.1 billion
  • The EU's budget represents only 1.03 of EU's
    total GNP.
  • Average cost 71 cents per day per EU citizen.

37
Revenue
  • Own resources
  • Customs agricultural duties 16
  • VAT resources 16
  • Fourth resource (GNI) 67
  • Total budget 2008 120 bn

38
Financial framework
Ceilings 2007-2013
39
2007-2013 More money for economic progress
Changes in expenditure 2006/2013,
Sustainable Transport
40
Budget balances Benefits outweigh costs
41
Who manages the EU budget?
The bulk of EU expenditure is managed jointly
between the Commission and the Member States
( shared management )
18
80
2
42
EU on the web
  • KEY SOURCES FOR INFO ON THE EU
  • The Europa site
  • http//europa.eu
  • http//europa.eu/geninfo/info/index_en.htm
  • Europe direct
  • http//ec.europa.eu/europedirect/index_en.htm

43
Ypres Belgium 1917
44

E-mail margareta.olson_at_ec.europa.eu
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