Hominid Evolution Part 2 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Hominid Evolution Part 2 PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 12699f-ZmRkZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Hominid Evolution Part 2

Description:

Hominid Evolution Part 2 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:133
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 48
Provided by: claref
Category:
Tags: evolution | hominid | part | wone

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Hominid Evolution Part 2


1
Hominid EvolutionPart 2
2
Australopithecus boisei
  • First specimen was the OH 5 skull (Zinj) found
    at Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania) in 1959 by Mary
    Leakey and named Zinjanthropus boisei
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/oh5.h
    tml

3
Australopithecus boisei example of
Zinjanthropus (1959) (in this picture)
  • 2.2-1.3 mya
  • East Africa
  • First specimen at Olduvai Gorge named
    Zinjanthropus boisei by Mary Leakey
  • Cranial capacity 500-530 cc

4
Australopithecus boisei
  • Skull known as KNM ER 406
  • Adult male
  • Cranial capacity of 510 cc
  • Dates to 1.7 mya
  • Found by Richard Leaky at Koobi Fora, Kenya in
    1969
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/er406
    .html

5
Australopithecus boisei example of KNM-ER 406
(1969) (in this picture)
  • Large molars and premolars
  • Sagittal crest
  • Prominent brow ridges
  • Heavy bones, lager than A robustus
  • Lots of veggies in diet but some meat as well
  • Co-existed with H habilis
  • Evolutionary dead-end

6
Australopithecus robustus
  • 2-1.5 mya ((1.8 to 1 mya in your text Ember et
    al.)
  • Found beginning in the 1930s in South African
    caves
  • Kromdraai
  • Swartkrans
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/rob.h
    tm

7
Australopithecus robustusEurydice discovered
in 1994
  • 2-1.5 mya
  • South Africa
  • Similar to A africanus in size but robust bones
  • Sagittal crest
  • Cranial capacity 490-530cc
  • Possibly descended from A africanus but not an
    ancestor of modern humans (evolutionary dead end)

8
Australopithecus robustus
  • Like Australopithecus boisei, this hominid is
    also sometimes called Paranthropus.
  • This is because it is thought to be a different
    genus than the gracile Australopithecines

9
Australopithecus robustus
  • Skeletal features
  • Similar to A. africanus in size but thick bones
    with markings where strong muscles were attached.
  • Body would have been bigger and more muscular
    than that of A africanus
  • Skull
  • Sagittal crest running from front to back along
    top to hold jaw muscles needed for eating
  • Efficient chewing machine

10
Australopithecus robustus
  • Cranial capacity 490-530 cc
  • Weight 32-40 kg.
  • Dentition
  • Larger molars and premolars but smaller incisors
    than A. africanus
  • Geneaology
  • May have been descended from A. africanus
  • NOT an ancestor of modern humans. Evolutionary
    dead end

11
Comparison of A. boisei, A. robustus and other
Australopithecines
  • A boisei had larger molars, expanded pre-molars,
    thicker jaw and cheekbones and a larger sagittal
    crest than A robustus.
  • This is probably evidence of great chewing
    capability

12
Comparison of A. boisei, A. robustus and other
Australopithecines
  • Robust forms were of similar body size to gracile
    forms, but skulls were more robust
  • Was robust form a vegetarian while gracile forms
    were omniverous? Recent evidence makes us
    question this assumption.
  • Both A robustus and A boisei died out about 1.2
    to 1 mya so could not have been our ancestors

13
Early Homo species habilis and rudolfensis
  • 2.5-1.5 mya
  • Mostly in east Africa (Kenya and Tanzania) but
    have also been found in southern Africa
  • Some anthropologists place both in the same
    species, H habilis
  • Homo habilis is thought to be in direct ancestral
    line to modern humans
  • Lived in the same places and at the same time as
    the robust australopithecines (A robustus and A
    boisei)

14
(No Transcript)
15
Homo habilis
  • Earlier than A rudolfensis beginning 2.3 mya
  • OH 7 was the first fossil evidence of Homo
    habilis at Olduvai Gorge
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/oh7.h
    tml
  • OH 24 Twiggy was the oldest H habilis fossil
    skull found at Olduvai Gorge
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/oh24.
    html

16
Homo habilis
  • Larger brain than australopithecies at 630-640 cc
  • Reduced molars and premolars
  • Body similar to australopithecines
  • Long arms may indicate that they were still
    partly arboreal

17
Homo rudolfensis
  • Contemporary with H habilis
  • Many anthropologists place them in the same
    species (H habilis)
  • Brain the same size as H habilis and larger than
    the australopithecines
  • Modern limb proportions
  • Cheek teeth thickly enamelled
  • Flat, Broad face
  • KNM ER 1470
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/er147
    0.html

18
Homo habilis, the first tool maker?
  • Stone tools first found at Olduvai Gorge in the
    1930s with no associated fossil bones
  • Stone tools found from sites in East Africa date
    to 2.5 mya and on, about the same time as H
    habilis
  • Assumption has been made that H habilis was the
    first tool maker
  • Tools found at Olduvai Gorge and from other sites
    date from 2.5 to 1.5 mya and are referred to as
    Oldowan.

19
Homo humorous, 1950-?
20
Oldowan Tools
  • Flakes and cobble or core tools
  • Percussion flaking
  • Choppers at Olduvai Gorge were core tools that
    had been partially flaked and may have been used
    for chopping
  • Scrapers are core tools flaked on one side
  • Most Oldowan tools were unifacial rather than
    bifacial

21
Homo habilis (KMN-ER 1470)
  • 2.5-1.5 mya
  • East and southern Africa
  • Smaller molars and premolars than
    Australopithecines
  • Cranial capacity 630-640 cc
  • Associated with Oldowan tools, mostly small
    flakes and choppers
  • May have been a scavenger?

22
Homo habilis
  • Oldowan tool tradition, 2.6 mya hominines used
    the percussion flaking technique
  • H habilis as hunter or scavenger?
  • Homo habilis as a woman made to run?

23
Oldowan tools
  • After 2 mya hominids were cutting up animal
    carcasses
  • They were probably scavengers rather than hunters
  • These hominids were mobile, with the Olduvai
    Gorge site used only in the dry season
  • Hominids used many kinds of animalsfrom wild
    pigs to elephants

24
Homo habilis
  • Homo habilis had culture
  • Culture is learned and shared
  • Culture is adaptive
  • Culture is always changing
  • Home bases?
  • Sharing food
  • Making tools
  • H habilis was a social being with culture
  • Language?

25
(No Transcript)
26
(No Transcript)
27
Other views of the human family tree?
  • The Smithsonian Museum http//www.mnh.si.edu/anth
    ro/humanorigins/ha/a_tree.html
  • See Ember et al. Figure 8-5 on page 174

28
Homo erectus
  • First hominid found and was found in Asia (Java
    and China) before it was found in Africa
  • Africa, Asia and later in Europe
  • 1.6 mya until 400,000 before present (BP)
  • Assumption was always made that H erectus evolved
    in Africa and then moved out to Asia and Europe.
    Recent early dated finds (1.7 mya) in Republic of
    Georgia suggests H habilis or transitional forms
    of H habilis to H erectus may have moved out of
    Africa

29
Homo erectus
  • Smaller teeth than H habilis
  • Cranial capacity 895-1040
  • Long low skull with thick walls, flat frontal
    area and prominent brow ridges
  • Sagittal keel and occipital or transverse torus
    added to the length of the skull
  • Body similar to modern humans

30
How many species?
  • Homo erectus-for some paleoanthropologists all
    specimens are in this category
  • Homo ergasterfor some paleoanthropologists those
    specimens from Africa which have larger brains
    and smaller facial bones can be called H ergaster
    with Asian forms called H erectus and European
    forms called H heidelbergensis
  • Some paleoanthropologists think that some finds
    labelled H erectus in Europe are actually archaic
    H sapiens
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/sulcu
    s.html

31
(No Transcript)
32
Homo erectus (ergaster)
  • Specimen KNM-ER 3733
  • From Koobi Fora in Kenya in 1975
  • Dated to 1.7 mya
  • Cranial capacity 850 cc
  • In same stratum as A boisei specimen (ER406)

33
Homo erectus (ergaster), Turkana Boy, 1.6 mya,
Kenya
34
Homo erectus
  • Pithecanthropus erectus1891Eugene Dubois
  • This specimen, Sangiran 17, is from Java
  • First date was 800,000 BP but new date may be 1.7
    mya?
  • Cranial capacity 1000cc

35
Homo erectus Peking Man
  • 500,000-300,000 BP
  • Cranial capacity 1000 cc
  • First discovered in China in 1929 by Canadian
    Davidson Black who called it Sinanthropus
    pekinensis

36
Peking man
  • Specimens of craniums, teeth, jaws and body bones
    found
  • Original specimens disappeared during shipping
    out of China to US in 1941

37
(No Transcript)
38
Homo erectus (ergaster) cultural features
  • Associated with Acheulian stone tool tradition
    which included bifaces
  • Controlled fire and probably hunted
  • Shelter?
  • Found in many parts of the world but not in the
    Americas, Oceania or Australia

39
Homo erectus
  • Choppers and flakes used at Zhoukoudian, China
  • Lack of more sophisticated stone tools made by H
    erectus in east Asia may be due to use of bamboo
    and wood.

40
H erectus Acheulian hand axes
  • Bifacial rather than unifacial
  • Acheulian tradition found in Southwest Asia (not
    in east Asia), Europe and Africa.
  • Earliest examples in Africa at 1.4 mya where they
    developed out of the Oldowan tradition as shown
    at Olduvai, Bed II

41
More about Acheulian hand axes
  • Formed by definite, planned strikes to form a
    standard pear shape.
  • Flake tools made from the by-products of hand ax
    manufacture, i.e., scrapers
  • Stone used for hand axes began to be chosen
    specifically for its knapping properties, that
    is, it was more fine grained than that used for
    the Oldowan tradition tools
  • During the later Acheulian time the baton method
    and striking platform method were used

42
Pressure flaking technique
43
Acheulian tradition small tools
44
Homo erectus and Fire
  • Use of fire at the 700,000 BP in the Kao Poh Nam
    rock shelter in Thailand
  • Evidence of fire in southern Africa as early as 1
    to 1.3 mya
  • Fire allowed H erectus to scare away animals,
    move into colder areas and possibly begin to cook
    food.
  • Cooking food would have allowed the size of the
    teeth to diminish. We see this in the fossil
    record.
  • Fire would also have resulted in changes in the
    environment through controlled burns

45
Homo erectus
  • With Homo erectus we see the beginning of
    symbolic thought as shown in this simple
    engraving on a piece of bone.

46
Homo erectus Conclusion
  • 1.8 mya to 500,000 BP in Africa, Asia and Europe
  • H erectus shows interplay of cultural, physical
    and environmental factors
  • Social organization and technology developed
  • Brain size and complexity increased. The Cranial
    capacity of late H erectus is 31 larger than
    early H erectus
  • Increased use of technology and fire allowed H
    erectus to use the environment in new ways and
    move into new areas

47
Sources
  • Ember, Carol, Melvin Ember, Peter Peregrine and
    Robert Hoppa (2006) Physical Anthropology and
    Archaeology, 2nd Canadian Edition. Toronto
    Pearson/Prentice Hall.
  • Haviland, William A. (1997) Anthropology, 8th
    edition. Fort Worth Harcourt Brace.
  • http//www.talkorigins.org/faqs/homs/
  • http//www.mnh.si.edu/anthro/humanorigins/ha/ances
    _start.html
About PowerShow.com