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Title: Andrei M. Shkel MicroSystems Laboratory Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering Department University of California, Irvine


1
Andrei M. ShkelMicroSystems LaboratoryMechanica
l and Aerospace Engineering DepartmentUniversity
of California, Irvine
MicroSensors and MicroActuators
2
Plan for Today
  • Microsensors and MicroActuators
  • Words of Wisdom from Graduate Students
  • Max Perez
  • Alex Trusov
  • Nivedan Tiwary
  • MicroSystems Lab Tour EG 2110

3
Pioneers of the 1st Silicon Revolution
Physicists John Bardeen, William B. Shockley, and
Walter Brattain shared the 1956 Nobel Prize for
jointly inventing the transistor, a solid-state
device that could amplify electrical current.
1947
Vacuum tube
A model of the first transistor
4
Jack Kilbys Big Idea All parts of a circuit
should be made of the same material-silicon (Nobe
l Prize in Physics, 2000)
In 1961Fairchild Camera and Instrument Corp.
invented Resistor-Transistor Logic.
Frequency shifter a transistor and other
components on a slice of germanium
(7/16-by-1/16-inches in size ). Invented by Jack
Kilby, 1958.
5
Smaller, Cheaper, Faster,
The Pentium 4 chip contains 42 million
transistors !!!
As transistors become smaller, they become
faster, you can pack more and more of them on a
chip, and chips are able to store and process
more information. To date, this has been the
silicon revolution.
6
Computers
1940-1950
In 1958 Jack Kilby introduced concept of
Integrated Circuits
7
Moores Law
  • Moore's Law. Estimates that the
  • number of transistors/chip doubles every 18
    months.
  • Exponential Growth!
  • Has been true for 20 years!

If we had similar progress in automotive
technology, today you could buy a Lexus for about
2. It would travel at the speed of sound, and
get about 600 Miles on a thimble of gas. -Randall
Tobias Former Vice Chairman of ATT.
8
What is next ?
To give chips the ability to sense, communicate,
learn, and interact
Sense
Communicate
Learn
Interact
9
The Next Logical Step
connect chips to the physical world
10
From Pure Electronics Into
Micro- Mechanics
Chemistry
Medicine
Genetics
Biology
11
Micromachining
Surface Micromachining
Deposition
Photolithography
Etching
Reactive Ion Etching (RIE)
Wafer Bonding
Wet etch (anisotropic or isotropic)
Micrograph showing the surface micromachined
structure
SEM micrograph showing the high aspect ratio
feature
12
Micro-Fabrication
13
Batch fabrication
What is batch fabrication?
Example Cronos surface micromachining
Courtesy of IMI (http//www.imi-mems.com)
  • Through batch fabrication, device and
    electronics can be made on the same chip in the
    same fabrication sequernce!
  • Thousands of devices can be made at one time,
    reducing costs

Courtesy of the Cronos website (http//www.memsrus
.com)
14
MEMS GO Beyond
Thicker films deeper etches fewer steps
Removal of underlying materials to
release mechanical structures
Multiple Processing Cycles
DEPOSITION
REMOVAL
PATTERN
OF
OF
TRANSFER
MATERIAL
MATERIAL
PROBE
INDIVIDUAL
ASSEMBLY
PACKAGE
FINAL
SECTIONING
TESTING
DIE
INTO PACKAGE
SEAL
TEST
Special probing, sectioning and handling
procedures to protect released parts
Encapsulate some parts of device but expose
others
Test more than just electrical functions
15
New Design Paradigm
  • Compliance - a preferred effect
  • Elastic deformation - an intended source for
    motion and forces
  • Devices can be constructed out of a single-piece
  • Design compliant mechanisms is based combining
    the traditional kinematic formulations with
    continuum mechanics based structural optimization
    methods

Conventional rigid-link crimping mechanism with
six moving parts, six pin joints, and a spring
Compliant crimping mechanism
Compliant Clamp
Compliant gripper
Silicon Microtweezer. Photo courtesy of Chris
Keller, MEMS Precision Instruments
16
What is a Micro-Sensor ?
Micro Sensors measure the environment without
modifying it. Micro sensors are useful because
their small physical size allows them to be less
invasive and work in smaller areas.
Examples of micro sensors include devices which
measure pressure, acceleration, strain,
temperature, vibration, rotation, proximity,
acoustic emission, and many others.
Transduction mechanisms are used by micro sensors
to convert environmental changes into electrical
signals. Many of these transduction methods use
mechanical structures.
planar polysilicon pressure transducer
Polysilicon resonant transducer
Microdynamomemter
17
What is a Micro-Actuator ?
Micro Actuators interact with the environment.
Micro actuators are useful because the amount of
work they perform on the environment is small and
therefore can be very precise
Examples relays, optical fiber switches, and
other micro positioners. They can also be used as
the active component of a sensor
Energy for actuator motion is stored in volumes.
The larger the volume the larger the energy
storage and therefore, the greater energy
available for actuator motion.
Surface area sets the fabrication costs of most
micro actuators. This is because most micro
actuators are created with modified integrated
circuit fabrication techniques where the device
area sets the cost. In a sense the height of the
structure is free as long as there is additional
time associated with the creation of tall devices
which take up the same area.
18
Optical MEMS
Laser-to-fiber coupling
Micropositioners of mirrors and gratings
High-resolution raster scanner
19
Micromachining is not precision machining!
20
Fabrication Imperfections
21
Benefits of Micromachining
  • Small size
  • Significantly decrease in cost
  • Low power consumption
  • Integrated MEMS solutions
  • (mechanics IC)
  • Faster dynamic response
  • In some cases increased reliability

Silicon motor with a strand of human hair.
Photo courtesy of BSAC
Photo courtesy of Draper Lab.
  • Z-axis accelerometer
  • Surface Micromachining
  • 3 mass sensor
  • 2 µm polysilicon
  • 2 µm minimum gap
  • Electronics
  • standard 2 µm CMOS
  • 1000 transistors

On one wafer can be fabricated more than
10,000 integrated systems
Ref Lemkin, M., et. al., A 3-axis surface
micromachined accelerometer, ISSCC, Tech.
Digest, pp. 202-203, 1997
22
From Micro-structures to Micro-systems
  • Co-Fabricating Electronics and Microstructures
    not easy!
  • Mixed MEMS CMOS boutique process
    expensive!
  • MEMS first, CMOS last own your foundary or
    control your own CMOS fab (example Sandia and
    Analog Devices)
  • CMOS first, MEMS last best way, but thermal
    budget for MEMS is a challenge

23
iMEMS Manufacturing Process
1. Surface micromachining process using
polysilicon
2. Well filled with oxide and planarized (CMP)
3. Standard CMOS process
Ref Smith, J.H., et. al., Embedded
micromechanical devices for the monolithic
integration of MEMS with CMOS, IEDM, Tech.
Digest, pp. 609-612, 1995.
24
Angle Gyroscopes Implemented in Sandias
Integrated MEMS (iMEMS) Technology
Z-axis RIG
X-axis RIG
Z-axis RIG
Die includes two Z-axis RIGs
Die includes one X-axis RIG
These dies also include basic drive/sense
electronics and rate gyroscopes designed by
Ashwin Seshia
25
Projects on Sensor Development
SPECTRUM ANALYZER
ALIGNMENT STAGE
  • SiC Pressure Sensors
  • (sponsored by Endevco Inc.)
  • -65-600 F, 0.1 Full Scale PSIA
  • High-g accelerometers
  • (sponsored by VIP Sensors)
  • DC to 20kHz, upto 5,000g
  • Optical accelerometers
  • (sponsored by NSF, VIP, Agoura)
  • micro-g, EM immune, 1kHz band
  • Gyroscopes
  • (sponsored by NSF, BEI,Honeywell)
  • -40-125C, better than 1 deg/sec

TUNABLE LASER
26
Measurement of Rotation
  • Navigation in Nature
  • Engineered Devices
  • Inclinometers, Gyroscopes,

Rotating Mass
Ring Laser
Vibrating Mass
Fiber Optic
27
Gyroscopes
6-DOF Inertial Sensor System
10 mm
28
Vibratory MEMS Gyros
Anchor
Sense direction
(y)
Sense Capacitors
  • Single proof mass driven into resonance in x
    direction.
  • Coriolis Force in y direction.

29
The Senses
Vision
Smell
Hearing
Taste
Touch
30
Artificial Implants
31
Totally Implantable Vestibular Prosthesis
Natural Balance MEMS Gyroscope
Full range 200deg/sec 200deg/sec
Sensitivity 0.5deg/sec 0.1deg/sec
Bandwidth lt8Hz lt500Hz
32
MEMS Vibratory Gyroscopes
5 Surface-Micr. Runs 6 Bulk-Micr. Runs. 9
patents (3 issued), 4 commercialized, 2 PhDs, 4
dozens of publications
33
Recent Rate-Table Measurements
34
I/O Mathematical Model
  • Change in resting potential due to rotational
    accelerations  

Goldberg, J. and C. Fernandez (1971). Physiology
of peripheral neurons innervating semi-circular
canals of the squirrel monkey. II. Response to
sinusoidal stimulation and dynamics of peripheral
vestibular system. Journal of Neurophysiology
34 661.
35
Experimental Results
Experimental prototype
Frequency Domain
F350V2
36
Opportunities
  • There is a need
  • Driving hope
  • medium performance devices
  • small size
  • consume little power
  • outperform natural organ
  • Challenges
  • Interface with neurons
  • long-term stability of the sensor
  • drift suppression over time
  • accurate mathematical model
  • Bio-compatible package
  • wireless programming

37
Development Cycle
IDEA
38
Gallery of Labs Micro-Devices
39
Labs Applications
40
Silicon Anteaters
Current Post-Docs and Students
  • Dragos Constantin (Post-Doc)
  • Max Perez (MAE, M.S./Ph.D.)
  • Adam Schofield (MAE, M.S./Ph.D)
  • Alex Trusov (MAE, M.S./Ph.D.)
  • Andreu Fargas (UPC, Ph.D.)
  • Jasmina Casals (UPC, Ph.D.)
  • Jesper Eklund (EECS, Ph.D.)
  • Chandra Tupelly (MAE, M.S./Ph.D)
  • Nivedan Tiwary (MAE, Ph.D.)
  • Alex Nikolaenko (MAE, Ph.D.)
  • Ilya Chepurko (Researcher)

Alumni Chris Painter (Ph.D. 2005), Cenk Acar
(Ph.D. 2004), Sauman Holston (M.S., 2004), Sebnem
Eler (Compac Inc.) M.S. 2001 Jung-sik Moon
(Solus Inc.) M.S. 2001 Andreu Fargas
(Consulting) M.S. 2001 Johanna Young (UCI GRA)
M.S. 2001 Rabih Zaouk (MAE M.S./Ph.D.) Alia
Marafie (MAE, M.S.) John Gemmell (Materials,
Ph.D.) Chris Ikei (BioMed, Ph.D.) Liz
Hollenbeck (MAE,M.S./Ph.D.) Carol Chou (ECE,
B.S.) Matt Murakami (ECE, M.S.) Joann Dacanay
(MAE, B.S. ) Michael Williams (ECE, B.S.)
Jasmina Casals (MAE, M.S.) Michael Williams
(ECE, B.S.) Le Yan (MAE, M.S.) Jiayin Liu (MAE,
M.S.)
41
A View of the Future
Sandia Labs Vision We believe that the next
step in the silicon revolution will be different,
and more important than simply packing more
transistors onto the silicon. We believe that the
hallmark of the next thirty years of the silicon
revolution will be the incorporation of new types
of functionality onto the chip structures that
will enable the chip to not only think, but to
sense, act and communicate as well. This
revolution will be enabled by MEMS
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