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Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight


Underweight people should gain body fat as an energy reserve. Risks ... Fat people are more likely to be judged on their appearance rather than their character ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight

Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight
Chapter 9
Energy Balance and Healthy Body Weight
  • Being both overweight and underweight present
    risks to health
  • Extreme Obesity BMI 40 Too much fat
  • Obesity BMI 30-39.9 Too much fat
  • Overweight BMI 25.0 - 29.9 Too much fat
  • Healthy Weight 18.5- 24.9
  • Underweight BMI

Too Little or Too Much Body Fat
  • In the U.S.
  • Too little body fat is not a widespread problem
  • Obesity is an escalating epidemic
  • In the year 2000
  • 64 of U.S. adults were overweight
  • 30 were obese
  • One of every seven U.S. children and teenagers is

Risks from Underweight
  • Underweight people are at risk of dying
  • During a famine
  • When hospitalized if they go without food for
    days when undergoing tests for surgery
  • Underweight people are at greater risk when
    fighting a wasting disease
  • People with cancer often die from starvation, not
    the cancer itself
  • Underweight people should gain body fat as an
    energy reserve

Risks from Overweight
  • Hypertension, diabetes, heart disease
  • Abdominal hernias, arthritis, complications in
    pregnancy and surgery, flat feet, gallbladder
    disease, gout, high blood lipids, liver
    malfunction, respiratory problems, sleep apnea,
    some cancers, varicose veins, high accident rate
  • Only tobacco contributes to more preventable
    diseases and premature deaths

  • Central Obesity
  • Fat within the central abdominal area of the body
    (waist circumference)
  • Increases the risk of diabetes, stroke,
    hypertension, coronary artery disease
  • Apple Shape (visceral fat)
  • Pear shape (subcutaneous fat)

Risks from Overweight?
  • Who is prone to central obesity
  • Men and postmenopausal women
  • Smokers
  • Those with high alcohol intake
  • Those who are physically inactive

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Risks from Overweight
  • Social and Economic Costs of Obesity
  • Fat people are more likely to be judged on their
    appearance rather than their character
  • Our society places enormous value on thinness,
    especially for women
  • harder to get job, insurance, higher clothing
  • Prejudice often stereotypes obese people as lazy,
    stupid and self indulgent
  • Obese people suffer emotional pain when treated
    with hostility and contempt

What Is The Bodys Energy Balance
  • When more food energy is consumed than is needed,
    excess fat accumulates in the fat cells of the
    bodys adipose tissue
  • Energy Balance
  • Energy in Energy out
  • energy in foods and beverages
  • energy out lifestyle and metabolism

The Bodys Energy Balance
  • Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) on DRI chart
  • Apply only to the characteristics of the
    reference man and woman
  • Reference man active physical activity level,
    22.5 BMI, 510, 154 lb.
  • Reference woman active physical activity
    level, 21.5 BMI, 54, 126 lb.

The Bodys Energy Balance
  • Taller people have a greater surface area
    require more energy
  • Older people need less energy than younger
    people- 5 for each decade beyond the age of 30
  • Due to a slower metabolism and reduced muscle

How Many Calories Do I Need Each Day?
  • Energy output
  • Basal metabolism
  • Sum total of energy expended on all of the
    involuntary activities needed to sustain life
  • Excludes digestion
  • Voluntary activities
  • Thermic effect of food
  • 5-10 of a meals energy is expended in
    stepped-up metabolism in the 5 hours after a meal

How Many Calories Do I Need Each Day?
  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR)
  • Varies from person to person
  • Varies with activity level
  • Positively correlates with thyroxin secretion
  • Lowest during sleep
  • Lean tissue has a higher BMR than fat tissue

How Many Calories Do I Need Each Day?
  • Estimated Energy Intake
  • EER is based on gender, age, weight , height, and
    physical activity
  • This was built into the Food Pyramid.
  • The equation is in your text book.

Body Weight versus Body Fatness
  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • Correlates with body fatness
  • Used to evaluate health risks associated with
    underweight or overweight
  • In general, for adults
  • Overweight is defined as a BMI of 25.0 - 29.9
  • Obesity as BMI 30
  • Body Mass Index (BMI)
  • BMI (weight in kg)/(height in m2)
  • BMI ((weight in lb)/(height in in2)) x 705

Body Weight versus Body Fatness
  • BMI values fail to distinguish between how much
    of a persons weight is fat and where the fat is
  • This limits the value of BMI with
  • Athletes highly developed muscle falsely
    increases BMI
  • Pregnant and lactating women increased weight is
    normal during childbearing
  • Adults over 65 because BMI values are based on
    data collected from younger people and because
    people shrink with age

Body Weight versus Body Fatness
  • Methods used to Measure Body Composition and Fat
  • Anthropometry
  • Fat fold tests
  • Waist circumference
  • Density
  • Underwater weighing
  • Conductivity Radiographic techniques
  • Bioelectrical impedance
  • Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA)
  • Radiographic techniques

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Body Weight versus Body Fatness
  • How Much Body Fat Is Ideal?
  • Varies with gender, age, stage of life
  • Percent body fat
  • Man of healthy weight 12 - 20
  • Overfat greater than 22
  • 25 if over 40 years
  • Female of healthy weight 20 - 30
  • Overfat greater than 32
  • 35 if over 40 years

  • Factors that correlate with obesity
  • Birth order, Number of brothers
  • Divorced/single parents, Nonprofessional parents
  • Unemployed parents
  • Early menstruation
  • Ethnicity
  • Exposure to a variety of foods
  • Fast-food consumption
  • Fat, protein, carbohydrate intake-too much
  • Increased wealth (In developing nations)
  • Less leisure time
  • International travel
  • Geographic location

  • More factors that correlate with obesity
  • Lower education level
  • Lower social class
  • Maternal famine
  • Obesity during gestation
  • Meal skipping, Meals eaten away from home
  • Napping habits, Sleep deprivation
  • Reduced alcohol intake, Increased alcohol intake
  • Sedentary behavior, Television watching
  • Substandard housing
  • Everything!!! But mostly eating too much!!!!

Eating Behavior
  • Eating behavior is regulated by mechanisms that
    stimulate eating and mechanisms that signal the
    body to stop eating
  • 1 Hunger and Appetite
  • 2 Seek Food and Eat
  • 3 Keep Eating
  • 4 Satiation, End Meal
  • 5 Post Absorptive Influences

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Eating Behavior
  • What is Hunger?
  • Sensation that signals a need for food
  • Occurs roughly 4-6 hours after eating
  • After the food has left the stomach and much of
    the nutrient mixture has been absorbed
  • Triggered by a contracting empty stomach and
    empty small intestine
  • The stomach hormone ghrelin produced between
    meals signals the hypothalamus (brain) to
    simulate eating
  • The hunger response quickly adapts to changes in
    food intake (to larger or smaller quantities of
  • Food deprivation can lead to overeating to
    overcompensate for the calories lost during

Eating Behavior
  • What is Appetite?
  • The psychological desire to eat
  • Can be experienced without hunger
  • The sight and smell of food can stimulate the
    brains endorphins, molecules that create an
    appetite despite an already full stomach
  • Illness or stress may result in the loss of
    appetite in a person in physical need of food

Eating Behavior
  • Other factors affecting appetite
  • Hormones
  • Inborn appetites (for salt, sweet, fat)
  • Learned preferences, aversions, timings
  • Customary eating habits
  • Social interactions (companionship)
  • Some disease states (cold flu)
  • Appetite stimulants, depressants, mood-altering
  • Environmental conditions (hot and cold)

Eating Behavior
  • What are Satisfaction and Satiety?
  • The perception of fullness that builds throughout
    a meal
  • The stomach sends signals to the brain to tell it
    that its full
  • The brain also detects nutrients in the blood
  • Hunger strongly stimulates eating behavior
  • Satiation and satiety exert weaker control over
    food intake and can be ignored
  • (keep eating)

Eating Behavior
  • Leptin A Satiety Hormone
  • Leptin
  • An appetite-suppressing hormone
  • Produced by adipose tissue
  • Travels to the brain
  • Directly linked to appetite and body fatness
  • Gain of body fatness stimulates leptin production
  • Reducing food consumption resulting in fat loss
  • Loss of body fat reduces leptin secretion
  • Increasing appetite

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Why Did I Eat That?
  • Energy Nutrients and Satiety
  • At least 15 studies show that a low-glycemic
    index diets reduced or delayed hunger
  • 16 studies have found the opposite or no effect
  • Showed that diets based on refined grains are
    just as satisfying as diets based on low-glycemic
    index diets

Why Did I Eat That?
  • Of the energy-yielding nutrients, protein may be
    the most satiating
  • May account for the popularity of high-protein
    weight-loss diets
  • Fat is also known for its satiety effects
  • Protein and fat trigger the release of an
    intestinal hormone that slows stomach emptying
    and prolongs feelings of fullness
  • Satiety is also associated with
  • High-fiber foods
  • Water
  • Foods that have been puffed up from air
  • ???What works for you???

Inside-the-Body Causes of Obesity
  • Selected Metabolic Theories of Obesity
  • Attempt to explain the ease with which people
    gain/lose weight when eating more/less food
    energy than they use

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Causes of Obesity
  • Genetics
  • Decrease energy expended in activities required
    for daily living
  • Inactivity
  • Food Price, Availability, and Advertising
  • High-calorie fast foods are relatively
    inexpensive, widely available
  • A steady diet of them correlates with obesity
  • External Cues to Overeating
  • eat even when not hungry
  • Loneliness, Yearning, Craving, Addiction,
  • Compulsion, Depression, Time of day
  • ???Do thin people deal with these things??

Causes of Obesity
  • End of Story?
  • There is no clear evidence as to which factor(s)
    bears the greatest responsibility for obesity
  • For most people, the best way to obtain a healthy
    body weight is to
  • Maintain a proper diet
  • Engage in daily physical activity
  • Practice behavior modification
  • Can low price, advertising and availability of
    healthy foods attract consumers????

Activity for Healthy Body Weight
  • Moderate exercise is defined by NIH as using 150
    calories per day (1,000 calories per week)
  • Exercise does not have to be excessive to achieve
    fat loss
  • The DRI definition of an active lifestyle
    requires walking for 1 hour per day
  • Is this enough activity?????

Activity for Healthy Body Weight
  • Physical activity for weight loss or maintenance
  • Moderate activities
  • Use large muscle groups
  • Increase in physical activity
  • Adopt informal strategies to be more active
  • Physical activity for building body mass
  • Strength-building exercises
  • Perform exercises with increasing intensity,
    resistance training

Weight Loses and Gains
  • Moderate Weight Loss versus Rapid Weight Loss
  • When energy input is less than energy output, the
    body draws on its energy stores
  • With exercise, moderate calorie restriction and a
    balanced diet, a body will use its stores of fat

How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
  • Rapid wt loss
  • The Bodys Response to Fasting
  • Less than 1 day into the fast liver glycogen
    stores are exhausted
  • Protein is broken down and converted to
    carbohydrate to meet the brains need for glucose
  • If left unchecked the breakdown of protein
    (muscle of the heart, skeletal muscle, liver,
    etc) results in death within about 10 days
  • To prevent this, the body converts fat into
    ketone bodies, a fuel the nervous system can
    adapt to using

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How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
  • Ketosis
  • In ketosis, instead of breaking down fat to CO2
    and H2O, the body takes partially broken-down fat
    fragments and combines them to form ketone bodies
  • Some amino acids that cannot be converted to
    glucose, are converted to ketone bodies
  • After about 10 days of fasting, most of the
    nervous systems energy needs are met by ketone

How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
  • Fasting may harm the body
  • Ketosis upsets the acid-base balance of the blood
  • Promoting excessive mineral loss in the urine
  • In as little as 24 hours of fasting, the
    intestinal lining deteriorates
  • Food deprivation leads to overeating/ binging
    when food becomes available
  • Fasting breaks down the bodys lean tissues
  • The body adapts to fasting by slowing its
    metabolic rate

How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
  • The Bodys Response to a Low-Carbohydrate Diet
  • Responses are similar to those of fasting
  • As carbohydrate runs low the body breaks down fat
    and protein for energy and ketones form to feed
    the brain
  • To prevent this the DRI for carbohydrates is set
    at 130 grams/day 45-65
  • Initial weight loss is the water and glycogen
    losses when carbohydrate is lacking
  • Loss of appetite accompanies any low-calorie diet

How the Body Loses and Gains Weight
  • Weight Gain Energy-yielding nutrients contribute
    to excess body stores
  • Protein excess amino acids have their nitrogen
    removed and are used for energy or converted to
    glucose or fat
  • Fat fatty acids can be broken down for energy or
    stored as fat with great efficiency glycerol
    enters a pathway similar to carbohydrate
  • Carbohydrate (other than fiber) glucose may be
    used for energy or excess may be converted to
    glycogen or fat and stored
  • Alcohol used for fuel or converted to body fat
    and stored as visceral fat
  • Excess consumption of any food will be turned to
    fat within hours

(No Transcript)
Popular High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diets
  • Laboratory studies have shown that, when energy
    intake is the same, there is no difference in
    weight loss on a high-protein, low-carbohydrate
    diet or a lower-protein, higher-carbohydrate

Popular High-Protein, Low-Carbohydrate Diets
  • High in saturated fat
  • Increased cardiovascular disease risk
  • Increased risk of breast cancer
  • Low Carbohydrate Intake
  • Mixed results with regard to cardiovascular risk
  • Missing nutrients from the diet
  • Chronic ketosis

What Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005
  • Energy in must be less than energy expended
  • Calorie intake must decrease to attain weight
  • Diet based on all the food groups may be the
    safest and easiest in the long term
  • Increase physical activity

What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Setting Goals
  • For an overweight person
  • First reasonable goal may be to prevent weight
  • Reduce body weight by 5-10 over the course of a
  • Recognize that maintenance is often more
    difficult than weight loss
  • Keep Records
  • A tool for spotting trends and identifying areas
    in need of improvement
  • Measure waist circumference to track changes in
    central obesity

What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Realistic Calorie Intakes
  • Energy intakes lower than 800 calories are not
    good for achieving lasting weight loss, and may
    promote eating disorders
  • Diets for weight management should provide the
    DRI recommended ranges
  • Carbohydrate 45 - 65 of total calorie intake
  • Fat 20 - 35 of total calorie intake
  • Protein 10 - 35 of total calorie intake

What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Fats
  • Avoid saturated and trans fats
  • Include enough of the health-supporting fats to
    provide satiety but not so much as to oversupply
    calories olive, canola oil
  • Protein
  • Choose lean meats or other low-fat protein
  • Limit these foods but dont eliminate them
  • Carbohydrates
  • Choose whole grains and starchy vegetables rather
    than refined grains, added fats, and sugars
  • High-fiber, unprocessed or lightly processed
    foods offer bulk and satiety for fewer calories
    than quickly consumed refined foods

What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • Alcohol
  • Limit intake
  • Alcohol provides calories but no nutrients
  • Alcohol reduces inhibitions and can sabotage a
    dieters plans
  • Portion Sizes
  • Be aware of portions in restaurants and food
  • Use a measuring cup to learn portion sizes
  • Learn fat grams- they add calories more quickly
    than carbohydrate or protein

Demonstration Diet
What Diet Strategies Are Best for Weight Loss?
  • People who eat small, frequent meals are reported
    to be more successful at weight loss and weight
  • Make sure that hunger, not appetite, prompts
  • Eat regularly, before becoming hungry
  • Eat the entire meal
  • Save calorie-free or favorite foods or beverages
    for a planned snack
  • Eat breakfast
  • Those who consume the majority of their calories
    after 600 p.m. often find it harder to lose

Physical Activity for Weight Loss
  • 30 - 60 minutes of moderate physical activity
    per day are needed to prevent weight gain and
    support weight loss
  • Diet, in combination with exercise, promotes fat
    loss, promotes muscle retention, inhibits weight
  • Exercise helps people follow diet plans more
  • Exercise reduces abdominal obesity
  • Improves BP, insulin resistance, heart and lung
    fitness even without weight loss

Physical Activity for Weight Loss
  • Benefits of Exercise
  • Short-term it increases energy expenditure
  • Long-term increase in BMR
  • increase lean tissue
  • Improved body composition
  • Appetite control??
  • Stress reduction and control of stress eating
  • Physical and psychological well-being
  • Improved self-esteem
  • Any activity is better than no activity
  • Expenditure of at least 2,000 calories per week
    in physical activity promotes weight management

What Strategies are Best for Weight Gain?
  • An underweight person should not necessarily try
    to gain weight
  • If you are healthy, maintain your current weight
  • Examples of those who may be at health risk from
    a too-low body weight
  • Physician has advised you to gain weight
  • You are excessively tired
  • You are unable to keep warm
  • You fall into the underweight category of the BMI
  • You are a woman who has missed at least three
    consecutive menstrual periods

What Strategies are Best for Weight Gain?
  • To Gain Muscle and Fat
  • Best achieved through physical activity
    especially strength training in combination with
    a high-calorie diet
  • Diet alone can bring about weight gain in the
    form of fat
  • Good for someone with a wasting disease
  • Gaining a pound of muscle and fat requires an
    intake of 3,500 extra calories

What Strategies are Best for Weight Gain?
  • Weight Gain Supplements
  • Most weight-gain supplements are useless
  • No benefits beyond adding calories and a few
  • Items such as instant breakfast powders or milk
    flavorings can do the same thing for less money
  • Tobacco (avoid)
  • Suppresses appetite
  • Makes taste buds less sensitive

What Strategies are Best for Weight Gain?
  • Choose Foods with High Energy Density
  • Chose nutritious energy-dense foods, for example
  • Peanut butter in place of lean meat
  • Avocado in place of cucumber
  • Increase portion sizes
  • Expect to feel full
  • Eat frequently
  • Make foods appealing

Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity
  • BMI30 and those with elevated disease risk may
    benefit from prescription medication, along with
    diet, exercise, and behavior therapy, to lose
  • Extreme obesity (BMI40 BMI35 with coexisting
    disease) surgery may be an option
  • Reduction of stomach size
  • Not a cure for obesity
  • Some do not lose the expected pounds
  • Some who initially lose weight gain it back
    through the course of time

Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity
  • Gastric surgery- Long-term safety depends on
    compliance with diet
  • Complications following surgery include
  • Infections
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Dehydration
  • Vitamin and mineral deficiencies
  • Psychological problems
  • Such surgery requires lifelong medical

Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity
  • Liposuction
  • Cosmetic procedure-surgical
  • There can be serious complications, including
  • Herbal Products
  • For many, their effectiveness and safety have not
    been proved
  • Natural does not mean safe
  • Belladonna, hemlock, and sassafras all contain
  • Ephedra (ma huang) contains ephedrine
  • weight loss
  • Side effects--Cardiac arrest, abnormal heart
    beat, hypertension, stoke, seizure, death
  • FDA has banned sales, available on internet
  • Sold as diet aid
  • Hormone that interferes with thyroid function
  • Has caused heart attack and stroke
  • Marketed as dietary supplements and escape FDA

Drugs and Surgery to Treat Obesity
  • Herbal laxatives containing senna, aloe, rhubarb
    root, cascara, castor oil, or buckthorn
  • Sold as dieters tea
  • Can cause temporary water loss of 1-2 pounds
  • Side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea,
    cramping, fainting, possible deaths

Weight Control
  • Weight loss strategy
  • Behavior Modification
  • Learning to say No might be the first habit to
  • Learning not to clean your plate is another
    behavioral change
  • Change enviornment

Eating Disorders
  • 5 million people in the U.S. suffer from eating
  • Anorexia nervosa
  • Bulimia nervosa
  • Binge eating disorder
  • 85 of eating disorders start during adolescents

Eating Disorders
  • Causes of eating disorders
  • Excessive pressure to be thin is partly to blame
  • When low body weight becomes a goal, people begin
    to view normal, healthy body weight as too fat
  • Excessive dissatisfaction with body weight or
    feeling fat

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Eating Disorders
  • Eating Disorders in Athletes
  • Athletes and dancers are at special risk of
    eating disorders
  • Female athlete triad
  • Disordered eating, Amenorrhea, Osteoporosis
  • Female athletes often compare themselves to
    unsuitable weight standards
  • An ultra-slim appearance has long been considered
    desirable in activities such as dancing,
    gymnastics, and figure skating
  • Males have some of the same physical problems

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Eating Disorders
  • Practices by wrestlers trying to make weight
    can compromise their abilities and endanger their
  • Male athletes are susceptible to weight-gain
  • Athletes with well-muscled bodies see themselves
    as underweight and weak
  • Such distorted body image leads to frequent
    weighing, excessive exercise, overuse of special
    diets or protein supplements, or even abuse of
    steroid drugs

Eating Disorders
  • Characteristics of Anorexia Nervosa
  • Most anorexia nervosa victims come from middle or
    upper-class families
  • Males account for 5 to 10 of cases
  • The incidence among male athletes and dancers may
    be higher
  • Central to its diagnosis is a distorted body
    image that overestimates body fatness
  • Family attitudes contribute to eating disorders
  • Families of anorexics are likely to be critical
    and to overvalue outward appearances rather than
    inner self-worth

Eating Disorders
  • Anorexics may be perfectionists
  • Respectful of authority polite, controlled,
  • Rejecting food is a way of gaining control
  • Anorexia Nervosa Self-Starvation
  • Discipline is used to strictly limit portions of
    low-calorie foods
  • Hunger is denied
  • Become accustomed to little food
  • Calorie contents of foods are memorized
  • Calorie expended during exercises are memorized

Eating Disorders
  • Anorexia Nervosa
  • Causes the same damage as classic protein-energy
  • Body tissues are depleted of needed fat and
  • In young people, growth ceases and normal
    development stops
  • So much lean tissue is lost that BMR slows for
    self preservation
  • In athletes
  • The loss of lean tissue impairs performance
  • The heart pumps inefficiently and irregularly
  • Heart muscle becomes weak and thin
  • Blood pressure falls
  • Electrolytes that help to regulate heart beat go
    out of balance
  • Many deaths are due to heart failure

Eating Disorders
  • Treatment of Anorexia Nervosa
  • Requires a multidisciplinary approach
  • Low risk clients may benefit from
  • Family counseling
  • Cognitive therapy
  • Behavior modification
  • Nutrition guidance
  • High risk clients may also need
  • Other forms of psychotherapy
  • Supplemental formulas to provide energy and
  • Drugs are commonly prescribed, but their
    usefulness is limited

Eating Disorders
  • Few anorexics seek treatment on their own
  • Denial makes treatment difficult
  • Many relapse into abnormal eating behaviors
  • Anorexia nervosa has a high mortality rates among
    psychiatric disorders

Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia Nervosa
  • More common then anorexia nervosa
  • People often suffer in secret and may deny the
    existence of a problem
  • More men suffer from bulimia nervosa than from
    anorexia nervosa
  • However, more common in women

Eating Disorders
  • Binge Eating and Purging
  • Food is not consumed for its nutritional value
  • Eating is accelerated by hunger from previous
    caloric restriction
  • Nearly 1,000 extra calories are consumed at a
  • There may be several binges in a day
  • Typical binge foods
  • Easy-to-eat foods
  • Low-fiber
  • Smooth-texture
  • High-fat
  • High-carbohydrate

Eating Disorders
  • After the binge
  • Hands may be scraped raw against the teeth during
    induced vomiting
  • Swollen neck glands and reddened eyes from
    straining to vomit
  • Bloating, fatigue, headache, nausea, pain
  • Vomiting causes
  • Irritation and infection of the pharynx,
    esophagus, salivary glands
  • Erosion of the teeth and dental caries
  • The esophagus or stomach may rupture or tear
  • Overuse of emetics (cause vomiting) can lead to
    death by heart failure

Eating Disorders
  • Bulimia Nervosa Physical and Psychological
  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalances are caused by
    vomiting or diarrhea
  • They can cause abnormal heart rhythms and injury
    to the kidneys, UTIs can lead to kidney failure
  • Unlike anorexics, bulimics are aware that their
    behavior is abnormal, and they are ashamed of it
  • Bulimics are less likely to be in denial and more
    likely to recover

Eating Disorders
  • Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa
  • To regain control over food and establish regular
    eating patterns requires adherence to a
    structured eating plan
  • Regular exercise may be of benefit
  • Restrictive dieting is forbidden
  • Steady maintenance of weight
  • Prevention of relapse into cyclic gains and
  • Learning to consistently eat enough food to
    satisfy hunger needs
  • 50 of females recover completely after 5 - 10
    years with or without treatment
  • Antidepressant medication may be of benefit

Eating Disorders
  • Binge Eating Disorder
  • Up to 50 of all people who restrict eating to
    lose weight periodically binge without purging
  • Obesity itself does not constitute an eating
  • Binge eating behavior responds more readily to
    treatment than other disorders
  • Successful treatment improves physical health,
    mental health, and the chances of breaking the
    cycle of rapid weight losses and gains

Eating Disorders
  • Eating Disorders in Society
  • Eating disorders have many causes
  • Sociocultural
  • Known only in developed nations
  • Become more prevalent as wealth increases and
    food becomes plentiful
  • Psychological
  • Heredity
  • Probably neurochemical unbalance
  • Society sets unrealistic ideals for body
    weight-Especially for women