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Chapter 8: The Vitamins

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Absorbed along with fat. Concern for people with fat malabsorption. Vitamin A ... Excessive body fat affect sex hormone production ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 8: The Vitamins


1
Chapter 8 The Vitamins
2
Vitamins
  • Essential organic substances
  • Yield no energy, but facilitate energy-yielding
    chemical reactions
  • If absent from a diet, it will produce deficiency
    signs and symptoms

3
Function of Vitamins
  • Coenzyme
  • Antioxidant
  • Structure and formation of tissue

4
RDAS
  • Recommended Dietary Allowances
  • Established for Average, HEALTHY Populations
  • Set higher than actual needs so most could meet
    needs by only consuming only 75 of RDA
  • What about taking more than RDA?

5
Fun Facts
  • Named in order of discovery
  • Plant and animal foods provide vitamins
  • Scientists believe they have discovered all the
    vitamins

6
Classification
  • Fat Soluble
  • A, D, E, K
  • Water Soluble
  • C
  • Bs - B1, B2, B3, B6, B12

7
Fat-Soluble Vitamins Overview
  • Dissolve in organic solvents
  • Not readily excreted can cause toxicity
  • Absorbed along with fat
  • Concern for people with fat malabsorption

8
Vitamin A
  • Deficiency is most common cause of non-accidental
    blindness
  • Preformed
  • Retinoids
  • Found in animal products
  • Proformed
  • Carotenoids
  • Found in plant products

9
Functions of Vitamin A
  • Night blindness
  • Cell health
  • Growth, development, reproduction
  • Cardiovascular disease prevention
  • Cancer prevention

10
Vitamin A and Your Skin
  • Topical treatment and oral drug
  • Accutane (oral) and Retin-A (topical)
  • Can induce toxicity symptoms
  • Not recommended for pregnant women
  • Use only under supervision of a physician

11
Vitamin A from the Food Guide Pyramid
12
Deficiency of Vitamin A
  • Night blindness
  • Irreversible blindness
  • Follicular hyperkeratosis
  • Bumpy, rough, and dry, flaky skin

13
Who is at Risk For Deficiency
  • Breast fed infants
  • Those with poor vegetable intake
  • Urban poor and the Elderly
  • Alcoholics and people with liver disease
  • HIV, AIDS

14
Toxicity of Vitamin A
  • Large intake of vitamin A over a long period
  • Bone/muscle pain, loss of appetite, skin
    disorders, headache, dry skin, hair loss,
    increased liver size, vomiting
  • Spontaneous abortion, birth defects
  • May occur with as little as 3 x RDA of preformed
    vitamin A

15
Toxicity of Carotenoids
  • High amounts of carotenoids in the bloodstream
  • Excessive consumption of carrots/squash/beta-carot
    ene supplements
  • Skin turns a yellow-orange color

16
Vitamin D
  • Prohormone
  • Derived from cholesterol
  • Synthesized in skin with adequate sun exposure
    for Caucasians and other light skinned races

17
Functions of Vitamin D
  • Regulates blood calcium
  • Influences cell differentiation

18
Role in Bone Formation
  • Vitamin D causes Ca Phos to deposit in the
    bones
  • Strengthen bones
  • Rickets- children
  • Osteomalacia (soft bone) is rickets in the adult

19
Food Sources of Vitamin D
  • Fatty fish (salmon, herring)
  • Fortified milk
  • Some fortified cereal

20
The Adequate Intake (AI) for Vitamin D
  • 5 ug/d (200 IU/day) for adults under age 51
  • 10-15 ug/day (400 - 600 IU/day) for older
    Americans
  • Infant are born with enough vitamin D to last 9
    months of age.

21
Toxicity Warning
  • Vitamin D can be very toxic
  • Regular intake of 5-10x the AI can be toxic
  • Result from excess supplementation (not from sun
    exposure or milk consumption)

22
Vitamin E
  • Fat-soluble antioxidant
  • Resides mostly on cell membranes
  • Protects the cell from attack by free radicals
  • Protects PUFAs within the cell membrane and
    plasma lipoproteins
  • Prevents the alteration of cells DNA and risk
    for cancer development
  • Prevention of ischemic heart disease

23
Vitamin E, An Antioxidant
24
The More The Better?
  • Vitamin E is only one of many antioxidants
  • It is likely that the combination of antioxidants
    is more effective
  • Diversify your antioxidant intake with a balanced
    and varied diet
  • Megadose of one antioxidant may interfere with
    the action of another

25
Food Sources of Vitamin E
  • Plant oils
  • Wheat germ
  • Asparagus
  • Peanuts
  • Margarine
  • Nuts and seeds

26
RDA for Vitamin E
  • 15 mg/day for women and men
  • (22 IU of natural source or 33 IU of synthetic
    form)
  • Average intake meets RDA
  • 1 mg d-?-tocopherol 0.45 IU (synthetic source)
  • 1 mg d-?-tocopherol 0.67 IU (natural sources)

27
Deficiency of Vitamin E
  • Hemolytic anemia
  • Rare

28
Toxicity of Vitamin E
  • Inhibit vitamin K metabolism and anticoagulants
  • Possible hemorrhage

29
Vitamin K (Koagulation)
  • Synthesized by the bacteria in the colon and are
    absorbed
  • Role in the coagulation process
  • Calcium-binding potential

30
Drugs and Vitamin K
  • Anticoagulant
  • Lessens blood clotting process
  • Antibiotics
  • Destroy intestinal bacteria
  • Inhibit vitamin K synthesis and absorption
  • Potential for excessive bleeding

31
Food Sources of Vitamin K
  • Liver
  • Green leafy vegetables
  • Broccoli
  • Peas
  • Green beans
  • Resistant to cooking losses
  • Limited vitamin K stored in the body

32
Overview of Water-Soluble Vitamins
  • Dissolve in water
  • Generally readily excreted
  • Subject to cooking losses
  • Function as a coenzyme
  • Participate in energy metabolism

33
Enrichment Act of 1941 and 1998
  • Many nutrients lost through milling process of
    grains
  • Grain/cereal products are enriched
  • Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, iron
  • Enriched grains still deficient in B-6, magnesium
    and zinc

34
Thiamin B1
  • Coenzyme
  • CHO metabolism

35
Deficiency of Thiamin
  • Beriberi
  • Weakness, nerve degeneration, irritability, poor
    arm/leg coordination, loss of nerve transmission
  • Edema, enlarge heart, heart failure
  • Occurs where polished rice is the only staple

36
Food Sources of Thiamin
  • Wide variety of food
  • White bread, pork, hot dogs, luncheon meat, cold
    cereal
  • Enriched grains/ whole grains

37
RDA For Thiamin
  • 1.1 mg/day for women
  • 1.2 mg/day for men
  • Most exceed RDA in diet
  • Surplus is rapidly lost in urine non toxic

38
Riboflavin B2
  • Coenzymes
  • Participate in many energy-yielding metabolic
    pathways

39
Deficiency of Riboflavin
  • Seborrheic Dermatitis
  • Dermatitis around noses
  • Cracked lips, tongue

40
Food Sources of Riboflavin
  • Milk/products
  • Enriched grains
  • Liver
  • Oyster
  • Brewers yeast
  • Sensitive to uv radiation (sunlight)
  • Stored in paper, opaque plastic containers

41
RDA for Riboflavin
  • 1.1 mg/day for women
  • 1.3 mg/day for men
  • Average intake is above RDA
  • Toxicity not documented

42
Niacin B3
  • Coenzyme
  • Metabolize CHO, Protein, Fat
  • Tissue respiration
  • Exchange of O2 and CO2

43
Deficiency of Niacin
  • Pellagra
  • 3 Ds
  • Occurs in 50-60 days
  • Decrease appetite weight
  • Prevented with an adequate protein diet
  • Enrichment Act of 1941
  • Only dietary deficiency disease to reach epidemic
    proportions in the U.S.

44
Food Sources of Niacin
  • Enriched grains
  • Beef, chicken, turkey, fish
  • 60mg tryptophan can be converted into 1 mg niacin

45
RDA for Niacin
  • 14 (mg) NE/day for women
  • 16 (mg) NE/day for men
  • Upper Level is 35 mg
  • Toxicity S/S headache, itching, flushing, liver
    and GI damage
  • Megadose can lower LDL and TG and increase HDL

46
Pantothenic Acid
  • Essential for metabolism of CHO, fat, protein
  • Deficiency rare
  • Usually in combination with other deficiencies

47
Biotin
  • Metabolism of CHO and fat
  • Help break down certain amino acids
  • DNA synthesis

48
Vitamin B-6
  • Coenzyme
  • Activate enzymes needed for metabolism of CHO,
    fat , protein
  • Synthesize nonessential amino acid
  • Synthesize neurotransmitters
  • Synthesize hemoglobin and WBC
  • Reduces Homocysteine levels

49
Food Sources of Vitamin B-6
  • Meat, fish, poultry
  • Whole grains (not enriched back)
  • Banana
  • Spinach
  • Avocado
  • Potato
  • Heat sensitive

50
RDA for Vitamin B-6
  • 1.3 mg/day for adults
  • 1.7 mg/day for men over 50
  • 1.5 mg/day for women over 50
  • Daily Value set at 2 mg
  • Average intake is more than the RDA
  • Athletes may need more
  • Alcohol destroys vitamin B6

51
B-6 As A Medicine?
  • PMS
  • B-6 to increase the level of serotonin
  • Not a reliable treatment
  • Carpal tunnel syndrome
  • Toxicity potential
  • Can lead to irreversible nerve damage with 200
    mg/day
  • Upper Level set at 100 mg/day

52
Folate
  • Coenzyme
  • DNA synthesis
  • Homocysteine metabolism
  • Neurotransmitter formation

53
Deficiency of Folate
  • Similar signs and symptoms of vitamin B-12
    deficiency
  • Pregnant women
  • Alcoholics
  • Megaloblastic Anemia

54
Neural Tube Defects
  • Spina bifida
  • Anencephaly
  • Importance of folate before and during pregnancy

55
Food Sources of Folate
  • Liver
  • Fortified breakfast cereals
  • Grains, legumes
  • Foliage vegetables
  • Susceptible to heat, oxidation, ultraviolet light

56
RDA for Folate
  • 400 ug/day for adults
  • (600 ug/day for pregnant women)
  • Average intake below RDA
  • FDA limits nonprescription supplements to 400 ug
    per tablet for non-pregnant adults
  • OTC Prenatal supplement contains 800 ug
  • Excess can mask vitamin B-12 deficiency
  • Upper Level set at 1 mg

57
Vitamin B-12
  • Role in folate metabolism
  • Maintenance of the myelin sheaths
  • RBC formation
  • Pernicious anemia (associated with nerve
    degeneration and paralysis)

58
Deficiency of Vitamin B-12
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Never degeneration, weakness
  • Tingling/numbness in the extremities
    (parasthesia)
  • Paralysis and death
  • Looks like folate deficiency
  • Usually due to decreased absorption ability
  • Alzhiemers like symptoms in elderly
  • Injection of B-12 needed
  • Takes 20 years on a deficient diet to see nerve
    destruction

59
Food Sources of Vitamin B-12
  • Synthesized by bacteria, fungi and algae
  • (Stored primarily in the liver)
  • Animal products
  • Organ meat
  • Seafood
  • Eggs
  • Hot dogs
  • Milk

60
RDA for Vitamin B-12
  • 2.4 ug/ day for adults and elderly adults
  • Average intake exceeds RDA
  • B-12 stored in the liver
  • Non-toxic

61
Vitamin C
  • Synthesized by most animals (not by human)
  • Decrease absorption with high intakes
  • Excess excreted

62
Functions of Vitamin C
  • Reducing agent (antioxidant)
  • Iron absorption
  • Synthesis of collagen
  • Immune functions

63
Antioxidant
  • Can donate and accept hydrogen atoms readily
  • Needs are higher for smokers

64
Deficiency of Vitamin C
  • Scurvy
  • Deficient for 20-40 days
  • Fatigue, pinpoint hemorrhages
  • Bleeding gums and joints. Hemorrhages
  • Associated with poverty
  • Depressed Immune
  • Cuts dont heal quickly

65
Food Sources of Vitamin C
  • Citrus fruit
  • Potato
  • Green pepper
  • Cauliflower
  • Broccoli
  • Strawberry
  • Romaine lettuce
  • Spinach
  • Easily lost through cooking
  • Sensitive to heat
  • Sensitive to iron, copper, oxygen

66
RDA for Vitamin C
  • 90 mg/day for male adults
  • 75 mg/day for female adults
  • 35 mg/day for smokers
  • Average intake 72 mg/day
  • Fairly nontoxic (at
  • Upper Level is 2 g/day

67
Choline
  • Newest essential nutrient
  • All tissues contain choline
  • Precursor for acetylcholine (neurotransmitter)
  • Precursor for phospholipids
  • Some role in homocysteine metabolism

68
Food Sources of Choline
  • Widely distributed
  • Milk
  • Liver
  • Eggs
  • Peanuts
  • Lecithin added to food
  • Deficiency rare

69
Needs for Choline
  • Adequate Intake is 550 mg/day for adult males
  • Adequate Intake is 425 mg/day for adult females
  • Normal consumption is 700-1000 mg/day
  • High doses associated with fishy body odor,
    vomiting, salivation, sweating, hypotension, GI
    effects
  • Upper Level is set at 3.5 g/day (3500 mg/day)

70
Vitamin Supplement?
  • Myths
  • Insurance
  • What to buy
  • Overdose vs Megadose
  • Synergistic Effect
  • Phytochemicals

71
Food Guide Pyramid
  • Grains
  • Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin
  • Veggies
  • Vit A, K, C and Folate
  • Dairy
  • Vit D, B12 and Riboflavin
  • Meat, Fish, Eggs, Legumes
  • Thiamin, Riboflavin, Biotin and Vit B6, B12
  • Fats, Sweets, Oils
  • Vit E

72
Role of Diet on Cancer Risks
  • Excessive intake of calories increases the risk
    of cancer
  • Excessive body fat affect sex hormone production
  • High intake of fruits and vegetables is
    associated with lower risk
  • High intake of meats and protein is associated
    with higher risk
  • Excessive alcohol increases the risk
  • Excessive charcoal broiling increases risk
  • Nitrosamines (from nitrite) increases risk
  • Mycotoxins (from fungi) increases risk

73
Fat and Cancer
  • The National Academy of Sciences recommend 30
    of total calories from fat
  • Excessive intake is a likely cause of growth of
    cancerous cells

74
Recommendations to Reduce the Risk for Cancer
  • Remain physically active
  • Avoid obesity
  • Engage in physical training that promotes lean
    muscle mass
  • Consume abundance of fruits and vegetables
  • Consume plenty of low-fat/nonfat dairy products
  • Avoid high intakes of red meat and animal fat
  • Avoid excessive alcohol

75
Warning Signs
  • Early detection is critical
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • A change in bowel or bladder habits
  • A sore that does not heal
  • Unusual bleeding or discharge
  • A thickening or lump in the breast or elsewhere
  • Indigestion or difficulty in swallowing
  • An obvious change in a wart or a mole
  • A nagging cough or hoarseness
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