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VENOMOUS ANIMALS

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Title: VENOMOUS ANIMALS


1
VENOMOUS ANIMALS
  • OF THE SOUTHWEST

2
WHY TALK ABOUT VENOMOUS ANIMALS?
SO THAT YOURE NEITHER OVERLY WORRIED
3
NOR OVERLYWELL, YOU KNOW
Most rattlesnake bite victims are young men
(18-28 yrs old) who are bitten while handling or
provoking the snake.
4
How to avoid being bitten or stung
  • Never handle venomous animals
  • Never place your hands or feet anywhere you cant
    see (and havent checked). For example
  • Never step into or over bushes
  • Never reach up onto a rock or ledge
  • Always pick up rocks, wood, etc. carefully,
    making sure not to put fingers under the
    rock/wood, always lift it so that the rock/wood
    is between you and the potential animal, and
    always check underneath. It is best to use a tool
    to lift a rock/wood.

5
POISONOUS VS VENOMOUS?
  • Poisonous animals possess toxins.
  • For example, this Sonoran Desert Toad produces
    and secretes toxins from glands on its skin. The
    toads toxins are able to kill dogs that bite the
    toad!

e.g., Parotoid Gland
6
POISONOUS VS VENOMOUS?
  • Venomous animals inject their toxins.
  • For example, this rattlesnake produces toxins in
    modified salivary glands then injects toxins
    through hollow fangs.

7
THE CHARACTERSMILDLY VENOMOUS ANIMALS
  • Non-life-threatening except by anaphylactic shock
    in those that are allergic.
  • Wasps, bees, ants, most spiders, most scorpions,
    etc.

8
THE CHARACTERSDANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALS
  • Life-threatening. Need to seek medical attention.
  • Bark scorpion, black widow, brown spider, gila
    monster, coral snake, rattlesnakes.

9
TYPES OF VENOM
  • Hemolytic affects circulatory system (hemo
    blood) by destroying blood cells and vessels.
    Symptoms include severe pain, swelling,
    discoloration, and local tissue death. Shock can
    occur. Example most rattlesnakes.

Rattlesnake bite picture source http//www.venomou
s.com/snake/armpic.jpg
10
TYPES OF VENOM
  • Neurotoxic affects nervous system (neuro).
    Symptoms may include local pain, headache,
    lethargy, paralysis and occasionally death by
    circulatory arrest or respiratory paralysis.
    Usually no swelling, discoloration, or tissue
    death. Examples include Black Widow, Scorpions,
    and Coral Snake.

11
TYPES OF VENOM
  • Other
  • Gila Monster toxin causes pain.
  • Brown (Recluse) Spider toxin destroys proteins,
    thus tissues.

Likely brown spider bite
12
WHY BE VENOMOUS?
  • Subdue Prey allows predator to reduce chance of
    injury and to eat larger prey.
  • Defense protects animal from predators and other
    potential threats.
  • Digest Food venom is modified saliva, produced
    by modified salivary glands. Most contain
    compounds that aid in digestion (thought to be
    the original use of venom).

13
WHY NOT BE VENOMOUS?
  • Takes Special Equipment requires glands to
    produce toxins and often specialized apparatus
    for injecting venom (teeth, modified ovipositor,
    etc.).
  • Takes Energy and Materials toxins are expensive
    to produce.

14
WAYS TO AVOID WASTING TOXIN
  • Match amount of venom to prey use less for
    smaller prey, use more for prey that can get away
    easier (e.g., birds).

15
AVOID USING TOXIN
  • Hide (use cryptic coloration) camouflage.
  • Warn (use aposematic coloration) bright,
    memorable colors and/or patterns.

16
AVOID USING TOXIN
  • Retreat

17
ONE MORE WAY TO AVOID USING TOXIN
  • Dont produce toxins at all be a Fake!
  • Batesian Mimics just pretend to be dangerous or
    inedible. Thus potential predators avoid them,
    but it doesnt cost them.

18
Some useful terms
  • Nocturnal active at night (e.g., scorpions)
  • Diurnal active during daylight hours (e.g., gila
    monsters)
  • Crepuscular active during dawn and dusk (e.g.,
    deer tend to be most active around sunrise and
    sunset)

19
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALSARACHNIDS (8-legged)
  • bark scorpion of 30 AZ species of scorpion, only
    the bark scorpion sting is considered
    life-threatening. Identified by long, thin
    pincers. Climbs, is nocturnal, and is
    neurotoxic.

Bark scorpion
Stripe-tailed scorpion
Compare pincer shapes
20
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALSARACHNIDS (8-legged)
  • black widow Nocturnal, makes strong, messy
    web. Neurotoxic.

21
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALSARACHNIDS (8-legged)
  • brown spider thin, spindly spider with three
    pairs of eyes in semicircle (difficult to see).
    May have violin-shaped marking on cephalothorax
    (head). Bite causes tissue damage.

Compare to Wolf Spider which is not deadly
marking
22
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALSREPTILES
  • Gila monster only other known venomous lizard in
    the world is Mexican beaded lizard (in Mexico).
  • Diurnal, but spends 98 of time in burrow peak
    activity in spring when hunting nestlings/eggs.
    Has leaky skin. Venom for defense (pain) only.

23
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALSREPTILES
  • coral snake member of cobra family. Has highly
    toxic venom but small fangs and mouth so
    difficult to bite humans. Nocturnal. Neurotoxic.

Identified by the phrase red and yellow kill a
fellow (notice how red band touches yellow
bands) versus red and black friend of Jack
(non-dangerous snakes have red touching black).
24
DANGEROUSLY VENOMOUS ANIMALSREPTILES
  • Rattlesnakes 11 species (17 subspecies) of
    rattlesnakes in Arizona

25
TRUE OR FALSE?
  • You can tell the age of a rattlesnake by counting
    the segments of its rattle.
  • Baby rattlesnakes are more dangerous.
  • Rattlesnakes must be coiled to strike.
  • Rattlesnakes always rattle before striking
  • Rattlesnake eggs are good eating
  • Rattlesnake bites are always fatal
  • All False

Source AGFD
26
RATTLESNAKE SENSE ORGANS
Nostrils to smell
Eyes to see
Pit Organ to sense heat
Body to feel ground vibrations
Cont gtgt
27
RATTLESNAKE SENSE ORGANS
Jacobsons Organ to augment smell by analyzing
chemicals brought to it by the tongue which picks
up the chemicals from the air and ground.
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