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Australian Agriculture

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Highest point Mt Kosciusko less than 2300 meters altitude. ... the south, with overnight frosts common in inland areas south of the Tropic of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Australian Agriculture


1
Australian Agriculture
Gotta see it - to believe it
2
(No Transcript)
3
(No Transcript)
4
GEOGRAPHY
  • Originally part of Gondwanaland
  • Old, relatively flat island continent
  • Highest point Mt Kosciusko less than 2300
    meters altitude.
  • Large areas do not drain to the seas, but
    internally.
  • Bit smaller than USA, China, Brazil
  • Good comparison location Brazil and Australia via
    Tropico de Capricornio

5
CLIMATES
  • Temperate, sub-tropical, tropical, semi deserts,
    deserts
  • (South) western winds as well as tropical
    cyclones
  • Large part of continent under influence of El
    Niño, La Niña reverse naming from SAM
  • Winter dominated rain in the south, summer
    dominated rainfall in the north.
  • Rainfall very variable and very unpredictable.
    Particularly important issue in the regions
    between 400 and 700mm
  • Central and western part of the continent (semi)
    deserts.

6
Australia At A Glance Climate Rainfall
The island continent of Australia features a
wide range of climatic zones, from the tropical
regions of the north, through the arid expanses
of the interior, to the temperate regions of the
south. Australia is the worlds second-driest
continent (after Antarctica), with average (mean)
annual rainfall below 600 millimetres (mm) per
year over 80 of the continent, and below 300 mm
over 50. Summers are hot through most of the
country, with average January maximum
temperatures exceeding 30 degrees Celsius (C)
over most of the mainland except for the southern
coastal fringe between Perth and Brisbane, and
areas at high elevations. Winters are warm in
the north and cooler in the south, with overnight
frosts common in inland areas south of the Tropic
of Capricorn only at higher elevations do
wintertime temperatures approach those found in
much of northern Europe or North America.
7
AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION
  • Export is 3 to 4 x domestic consumption 70
    million people equivalent
  • Comparing with most of the world this is low on
    an area equivalent basis
  • 40 area of continent no economic use plus 40
    only extensive grazing 80. 90 production on
    10 of the landmass
  • Agricultural exports in order of value red meat
    (beef, lamb), grains (especially wheat, barley),
    wool, dairy, wine, cotton, sugar cane, rice.
  • Export of products mentioned above is at least
    65 and for some is 99
  • From east to centre Coastal, mountains,
    tablelands, slopes, plains, semi-desert, desert.

8
Australian Agricultural Commodities Crop Value
Click to open ABS Source Document (Ref Page 11)
9
Australian Agricultural Commodities Livestock
Click to open ABS Source Document (Ref Page 11)
10
Australian Agricultural Commodities Livestock
Products
Click to open ABS Source Document (Ref Page 11)
11
Farmers
  • Family enterprises 80 production
  • Owner is usually also the manager.
  • Live on farm not in town/city
  • Women often involved with the farm (accounting,
    general support as well as working/managing).
  • Average age farmers is around 57 years and rising
  • About 110.000 professional farming enterprises
    (not including hobby farmers.
  • Steady decrease in number of farming enterprises
  • Especially for smaller farmers, off farm income
    is becoming more and more important.

12
Images of Australia
NEW SOUTH WALES
NORTHERN TERRITORY
WESTERN AUSTRALIA
TASMANIA
SOUTH AUSTRALIA
QUEENSLAND
VICTORIA
13
ORGANISATION
  • Development sequence Colony - States -
    Commonwealth.
  • Power of Commonwealth has been defined by the
    States.
  • States do most of the practical services.
  • The British Crown is represented both on State as
    well as Federal Level.
  • Democracy voting on 3 government levels.

14
ECONOMY FEATURES
  • Imports services (incl. tourism), manufactured
    goods.
  • exports services (incl. tourism), minerals,
    agricultural.
  • High labour cost.
  • High add-on labour cost (super annuation,
    accident insurance, often 4 weeks annual
    holidays, holiday loading.
  • Generally employers will state that scarity of
    GOOD labour is a major business expansion
    limitation.
  • Untill 1980s the Australian economy was
    characterized by boom / bust cycles. Less so
    since the economy is more diversified now.

15
FEDERAL GOVERNMENT FOCUS
  • Quarantine AQIS
  • Customs
  • Defense (huge distances, 3 oceans transport
    communications high cost for infrastructure
  • Air / sea transport legislation
  • Collecting of personal, company taxes (partially
    on behalf of State governments)
  • GST (IVA) on nearly all goods/services.

16
STATE GOVERNMENT FOCUS
  • Health medicare contribution taxes private
    pay extra
  • Education
  • Police
  • Roads, licences (drivers, vehicles, most permits
    all type of life
  • Agriculture practical services research,
    extension services (but less and less).

17
ISSUES
  • Soils have limited fertility
  • Limiting factor is water that is why Australia
    has natural production limits
  • The ancient inland sea in combination with land
    clearing means salination issues
  • Global warming will probably have impacts
    temperature / rainfall.

18
Australia At A Glance - Population
19
POPULATION
  • Concentrated in the 5 State Capital Cities (60)
    or in S E corner of continent (also 60).
  • Nearly 90 of population lives within 50kms from
    the seaboard.
  • 2 indigenous population.
  • 27 of population born overseas
  • Religion Anglican, catholic
  • Minorities arrived in waves. No one is
    dominating
  • Indigenous population arrived during ice ages
    (low ocean levels), they had no permanent
    agriculture and no livestock (hunters and
    gatherers).

20
Australia At A Glance - Land Mass
Australia comprises a land area of almost 7.7
million square kilometres. This land area is
almost as great as that of the United States of
America (excluding Alaska), about 50 greater
than Europe (excluding the former USSR) and 32
times greater than the United Kingdom.
21
FINANCIAL SITUATION
  • Sharemarket from 7100 to 4000 points
  • High personal debts (mortgages, credit cards)
  • Not greatly exposed to sub prime loans
  • No oversupply of houses
  • Little federal government debts
  • Debts with State government qangos
  • Aus. seen as commodity producer, so dollar has
    dropped

22
GOVERNMENT MEASURES
  • Guaranteed savings at Aussie banks
  • No guarantee to non banking investment schemes
    (but is trying to soften the blow by allowing
    limited redemptions )
  • Lowered formal interest rates
  • Package to stimulate spending in the economy (via
    increased pensions for example, but not via
    increasing unemployment benefits)
  • Planning to increase spending on infra-structure
    projects
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