POST COLONIAL STATES - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – POST COLONIAL STATES PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 122699-NDBkZ



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

POST COLONIAL STATES

Description:

Transfer of power from Britain to the new dominions of ... A small country in midst of the mighty Himalayas and the only democratic theocracy in the world. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:115
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 56
Provided by: fatim1
Learn more at: http://www.utoronto.ca
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: POST COLONIAL STATES


1
POST COLONIAL STATES
  • INDIA AND PAKISTAN

2
(No Transcript)
3
POST COLONIAL STATES
  • What does it signifies?
  • Transfer of power from Britain to the new
    dominions of India and Pakistan
  • Acknowledgement of official boundaries
  • Consolidation of the new states

4
POLITICAL STRUCTURES
  • Partition of India in 1947 created two distinct
    nation states
  • The Indian national congress inherited the
    unitary central apparatus and the international
    position of British India.

5
CONTD
  • Pakistan from its inception was given the role of
    a state seceding from a continuing sovereign
    entity, and at the same time, had to be
    consolidated as an independent state with an
    independent political identity. This required
    building a strong central government, necessary
    particularly to contain regionalism and regional
    structures.

6
CONSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS
  • Both India and Pakistan borrowed heavily from
    their colonial masters to create constitutions.
    They had the constitutional sanction to poach on
    both the legislative and executive domains of the
    state. So although federal in form, the Indian
    and Pakistani state structures have been unitary
    in substance.

7
INDIA
  • India inherited the British style parliamentary
    democracy and multi-party system that was
    dominated by the Indian National congress till
    1960s.
  • General elections every five years secured the
    power of Indian voters to elect their
    representatives.

8
INDIA
  • Voting rights have been exercised oust the
    discredited governments even in the face of
    formidable party organizations with the support
    of administrative machinery.
  • Still, the political privilege remained
    entrenched within the upper castes and classes.
    In this sense, the vote has not been enough of a
    mechanism to undo persistent hierarchies of
    caste, class and gender.

9
INDIA
  • The ruling configurations at the centre have
    secured their authority from regional elites, who
    in exchange for supporting a strong center, have
    also been allowed to entrench their own political
    and economic interests.

10
INDIA
  • Indias independence was marked by the Hindu
    extremism Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated by
    Naturam Godse, a Maharashtrian Hindu and member
    of RSS(Hindu right wing paramilitary
    organization), on January 30th 1948.
  • During the communal riots in August 1946 (after
    Muslim Leagues call for Direct Action Day),
    Gandhi had gone to Bengal

11
INDIA
  • and Bihar to protest, and continued to protest
    the communal strife through to partition, to
    which he reluctantly gave assent in June 1947. He
    had began a fast not only for the sake of
    communal reprisal, but to pressure Home Minister,
    Sardar Vallabhai Patel, who was refusing to share
    the assets of the formal imperial treasury with
    Pakistan, as had been agreed.

12
INDIA
  • Gandhis insistence on a just exchange with
    Pakistan, and his repeated meetings with Muslim
    groups within India had prompted Godses
    fanatical action.

13
INDIA STATE INFRASTRUCTURE
  • Upon the transfer of power, the Congress
    leadership consolidate to appropriate the same
    Indian civil service which had been the focal
    point of nationalist criticism in the colonial
    period. The Indian Civil Service was renamed the
    Indian Administrative Service, and it as well as
    the police, and other para military forces.

14
THE CONSTITION 1950
  • The new constitution turned out to be the amended
    version of Government Act of 1935.
  • Democratic federalism was resisted by maintaining
    the provision from the 1935 act that state
    governments could be replaced by administration
    from the center. This so-called Presidents
    Rule provided that

15
THE CONSTITUTION
  • the President of India, like the British viceroy
    before him, could proclaim emergency and assume
    control of any state in the Indian republic,
    providing that parliamentary assent was obtained
    within two months, and new elections occurred
    within six months.

16
THE CONSTITUTION
  • The constitution (270 pages) included a section
    on Fundamental Rights. The rights included
    freedom of speech, religion and association
    rights to property, education and preservation of
    minority cultures. The new constitution outlawed
    untouchability.

17
THE CONSTITUTION
  • These classes were entitled to receive
    preferences to compensate for ancient
    disabilities.
  • The recognition of minority cultures also points
    out to the particular form of secularism in
    Indian state. The constitution recognizes the
    alternative communities-Muslims, Christians and
    reproduces them as

18
THE CONSTITITION
  • as minorities. Unlike the idea of a boundary
    between religion and state, Indian secularism
    sought to engage with, and to sustain, all of
    Indias various religions.
  • Other individual, economic and social rights
    mentioned included employment, a living wage,
    worker participation in the management firms,
    access to legal representation.

19
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Jawaharlal Nehrus era as Prime minister
    (1947-64) was marked particularly by vision of
    modernization and development, and a strong
    centralized nationalism which was resisted by the
    forces of regional identity.

20
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • The laying out of three five year plans 1955-65,
    created new sources of patronage and helped to
    tie together the partnership between the congress
    leadership and the non-elected officials of the
    state. The five years plans were modeled on the
    Bombay Plan woven by Indian industrial
    bourgeoisie in 1938.

21
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • Nehrus implementation of tariff barriers and
    fostering of capital goods led import
    substitution demarcated a new national economy.
    A few key firms were given virtual state
    monopolies in this period for the manufacture of
    basis as well as luxury commodities.

22
INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • While India was able to build the industrial
    base that planners had envisioned, little
    progress was made in the direction of combating
    poverty, illiteracy and disease.

23
PAKISTAN
  • Pakistan, on the other hand, could not develop
    democratic political system and usually Jinnahs
    death and organizational weakness of the Muslim
    league have been the favoured explanation.
  • The new state lacked infrastructural base, and
    the outbreak of war with India over

24
PAKISTAN
  • Kashmir within months created conditions for the
    dominance of bureaucracy and the army.
  • In dire financial strain, the Pakistan central
    government had to dig more deeply into provincial
    resources to pay for a defence procurement
    effort.

25
PAKISTAN
  • With revenue extraction as the primary objective,
    those at the centre devoted most of their
    energies to administrative consolidation and
    expansion rather than building a party based
    political system capable of reflecting Pakistans
    linguistic and cultural diversities.

26
PAKISTAN
  • The civil servants who were trained in the
    colonial tradition of authoritarianism took
    charge of administrating the state and the
    politicians were marginalized.
  • Greater centralization of the administrative
    machinery aimed at generating resources for the
    defence effort entailed poaching on provincial
    rights.

27
PAKISTAN
  • Manned by a team of civil bureaucrats, Punjabi
    and Urdu speakers from northern India in the
    main, the personalized touch given to
    administrative inventions often worked to the
    disadvantage of provincial politicians, who
    presented problems for state.

28
PAKISTAN
  • In october 1958, the Pakistan military high
    command moved in conjunction with the president
    and higher echelons of civil bureaucracy to take
    over the political control of the country. This
    coup detat was preceded by a phase of military
    bureaucratic dominance that can be traced to as
    early as 1951, when the first Prime Minister
    Liaquat A Khan, was assassinated.

29
PAKISTAN
  • Taking advantage of tensions with India and their
    carefully nurtured nexus with the centres of the
    international capitalist system in London and
    after 1954 in Washington -senior military leaders
    and the civil bureaucracy opted to consolidate
    state authority by dispensing with the political
    process altogether.

30
PAKISTAN
  • Pakistan remained under a military-cum
    bureaucratic ruler till 1971 and during this
    period the state proceeded apace with heavy
    accent on externally driven development planning.
  • Bengalis who were over 50 of Pakistan s
    population were poorly represented in the
    countrys main institutions military and

31
PAKISTAN
  • bureaucracy. Then they deeply resented the early
    attempt of the state to impose Urdu as the
    national language and 1952 language movement had
    given the Bengali cause its firs martyrs.
  • The strategies of economic development pursued by
    the military regime of Ayub Khan in the sixties
    had widened regional

32
PAKISTAN
  • Disparities. The politics of exclusion and the
    economic inequality gave impetus to the Awami
    Leagues campaign for provincial autonomy. The
    clash between the imperatives of the military
    bureaucratic state and Bengali politics proved
    irreconcilable.

33
PAKISTAN
  • By ordering a brutal military crackdown on its
    eastern province, the central leadership in
    Pakistan instead of negotiating and preventing
    further division, helped in further dismemberment
    of the country amidst hallow sounding appeal to
    Islam..

34
(No Transcript)
35
BANGLADESH
  • It is the most densely populated country in the
    world (formerly known as East Pakistan and became
    an independent nation in 1971.

36
(No Transcript)
37
BHUTAN
  • A small country in midst of the mighty Himalayas
    and the only democratic theocracy in the world.

38
(No Transcript)
39
NEPAL
  • The kingdom of Nepal was unified in 1768 by King
    Prithvi Narayan Shah.
  • A commercial treaty was signed with Britain in
    1792, and again in 1816 after more than a year of
    hostilities with the British East India Company.

40
NEPAL
  • In 1923, Britain recognized the absolute
    independence of Nepal. Between 1846 and 1951, the
    country was ruled by the Rana family, which
    always held the office of prime minister. In
    1951, however, the king took over all power and
    proclaimed a constitutional monarchy.

41
(No Transcript)
42
SRI LANKA
  • The Island country of the Indian ocean.
  • The Portuguese first arrived in 1500. By 1619
    they controlled the island. The Dutch East India
    Company displaced the Portuguese and the British
    East India Company took over in 1796. It was a
    British colony from 1802 till 1948.

43
(No Transcript)
44
MALDIVES
  • One of the most attenuated countries in the
    world, the 1,196 islands, in 26 distinct coral
    atolls, are spread over a total area of 90,000
    square kilometres (about 36,000 square miles) of
    the Indian Ocean, yet less than 0.5 percent of
    this is land. Some 200 of the islands are
    inhabited.

45
MALDIVES
  • Maldives become a protectorate first of the Dutch
    rulers of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and later of the
    British who take control of Ceylon in 1796.
  • 1887 - Status formalised as internally
    self-governing British protectorate.

46
MALDIVES
  • 1932 - First democratic constitution proclaimed.
    1953 - Becomes a republic within the British
    commonwealth. In 1965 became an independent
    nation.

47
GENERAL INFORMATION
  • ABOUT SOUTH ASIA

48
WORLD POPULATION INDEX
  • 57 of the population of the world lives in Asian
    continent.

49
SOUTH ASIA
50
DIVERSE CULTURES OF SOUTH ASIA
  • South Asians are one of the most diverse people
    of the world. There are more than 4,000 different
    communities with diverse biological traits,
    languages, forms of worship, occupation, food
    habits and kinship patterns.

51
REGIONS AND RACES
  • South Asians have migrated from different parts
    of the world and have contributed to the
    diversity of the region. Aryans, Greeks, Huns,
    Turks, Africans, Mongols and Europeans are the
    major races but all of these races have got so
    intertwined that none of them can be found in
    their pure form today.

52
LANGUAGES
  • Language is an important part of diversity and
    unity in this region. Most of the communities are
    bi-lingual and numerous mother tongues are
    important instruments of cultural expression and
    preservation of diversity. Language contact
    through bi-lingualism is a major vehicle for
    social and cultural interaction.

53
POVERTY
  • South Asia has emerged as the poorest, most
    malnourished and least gender sensitive region in
    the world. The region is home to 515 million
    people in absolute poverty, 400 million
    illiterate adults and 80 million malnourished
    children. Preventable diseases kill over 3
    million children each year.

54
LITERACY
  • As a region, South Asia has the lowest literacy
    rates in the world and the largest gap between
    rates of male and female literacy. In 1997, male
    literacy was estimated at 64 percent, and womens
    literacy at 37 percent. South Asian women make up
    21 percent of the worlds female population, but
    comprise 44 percent of the worlds illiterate
    women.

55
COMMUNAL VIOLENCE
  • Religious and ethnic violence has been a major
    factor in the backwardness of this region. The
    political parties in the countries are directly
    involved in igniting the communal and ethnic
    violence. The Hindutva politics in India,
    Sinhalese faction in Sri Lanka, Islamic
    fundamentalists in Pakistan and Bangladesh are
    the main players in recurring violence in South
    Asia.
About PowerShow.com