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Ch 4

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The differences between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells. Proks and euks are similar in ... Can present taxis. Negative. Positive. Monotrichous. Peritrichous ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ch 4


1
Ch 4
prokaryotic
  • Functional anatomy of Bacteria and other Microbes

Eukaryotic
2
OrThe differences between Eukaryotic and
Prokaryotic cells
3
QA
  • Penicillin was called a miracle drug because it
    doesnt harm human cells. Why doesnt it?

4
  • Proks and euks are similar in chemical
    composition and reaction
  • Proks lack membrane bound organelles
  • Only Proks have peptidoglycan
  • Euks have membrane bound organelles
  • Euks have paired chromosomes
  • Euks have histones

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Nick sees the difference mainly in information
and structural capacity
  • Proks lack membrane-enclosed organelles
  • Euks are like a 2mhz 100gb home computer
  • Proks are like a calculator
  • Human genome 4x109
  • E. coli 4x106

7
The prokaryote
  • Unicellular
  • Multiply by binary fission
  • Differentiated by
  • Morphology
  • Chemical composition
  • Nutritional requirements
  • Biochemical activates
  • Sources of energy
  • Other tests

8
Size
  • 0.2 to 2um in diameter
  • 2-8um in length
  • In biological systems there are always exceptions
    these are general sizes.

9
Shape
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Shape
  • Coccus
  • Diplococci
  • Streptococci
  • Staphylococci
  • Bacillus
  • Spiral
  • Other pleomorphic shapes

13
Basic components of a bacterial cell fig 4.6
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Parts not seen
  • Glycocalyx
  • Capsule
  • Slime layer
  • Extracellular polysaccharide
  • Function
  • Toxicity
  • Protect from phagocytosis
  • Allow adherence
  • Reduce water loss
  • Collect nutrients

16
Flagella long filamentous appendages with
filament, hook and basal body
  • Used in movement
  • Can present taxis
  • Negative
  • Positive
  • Monotrichous
  • Peritrichous
  • Flagellar H protein acts as an antigen E.c
    O157H7
  • Flagellin

17
Flagella Arrangement
Figure 4.7
18
Fimbriae/pili
  • Shorter and less complex than flagella
  • Helps adhere to surfaces
  • Used for sex and communication

19
Cell wall
  • Major difference between eukaryotic and prok
    orgs.
  • Surrounds plasma membrane provides protection
  • Peptidoglycan
  • Polymer of
  • NAG
  • NAM
  • Short amino acid chain
  • Production inhibited by antibiotics
  • Prevents osmotic damage
  • Damage to cw is almost always lethal except

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Gram Positives have large cell wall and Teichoic
acids
22
Gram neg have lipopolysaccharide
23
Peptidoglycan
  • Polymer of disaccharide
  • N-acetylglucosamine (NAG)
  • N-acetylmuramic acid (NAM)

Figure 4.12
24
Peptidoglycan in Gram-Positive Bacteria
Figure 4.13a
25
The Cell Wall
  • Prevents osmotic lysis
  • 4-7 Differentiate protoplast, spheroplast, and L
    form.
  • Made of peptidoglycan (in bacteria)
  • Linked by polypeptides

Figure 4.6
26
Gram-Positive Bacterial Cell Wall
Figure 4.13b
27
Gram-Negative Bacterial Cell Wall
Figure 4.13c
28
Gram-positiveCell Wall
Gram-positiveCell Wall
  • Thin peptidoglycan
  • Outer membrane
  • Periplasmic space
  • Thick peptidoglycan
  • Teichoic acids

Figure 4.13bc
29
Gram neg
  • Lipoprotein phospholipid outer membrane
    surrounding a thin peptidoglycan
  • Makes gram neg resistant to
  • Phagocytosis
  • Antibiotics
  • Chemical reactions
  • Enzymes (lysozyme)
  • Has lipid A endotoxin
  • O polysaccaride antigen O157H7 E.c.

30
Gram-Negative Outer Membrane
Figure 4.13c
31
How the gram stain works to differentiate between
G and G-
32
The Gram Stain
  • Gram-Positive

(b) Gram-Negative
Table 4.1
33
The Gram Stain Mechanism
  • Crystal violet-iodine crystals form in cell
  • Gram-positive
  • Alcohol dehydrates peptidoglycan
  • CV-I crystals do not leave
  • Gram-negative
  • Alcohol dissolves outer membrane and leaves holes
    in peptidoglycan
  • CV-I washes out

34
Gram-PositiveCell Wall
Gram-NegativeCell Wall
  • 4-ring basal body
  • Endotoxin
  • Tetracycline sensitive
  • 2-ring basal body
  • Disrupted by lysozyme
  • Penicillin sensitive

Figure 4.13bc
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Nontypical cell walls
  • Mycoplasma (acid fast) do not have ppt containing
    cell wall.
  • Archaea contain another chemical called
    pseudomurein

38
Atypical Cell Walls
  • Acid-fast cell walls
  • Like gram-positive
  • Waxy lipid (mycolic acid) bound to peptidoglycan
  • Mycobacterium
  • Nocardia

Figure 24.8
39
Atypical Cell Walls
  • Mycoplasmas
  • Lack cell walls
  • Sterols in plasma membrane
  • Archaea
  • Wall-less or
  • Walls of pseudomurein (lack NAM and D-amino acids)

40
Damage to the Cell Wall
  • Lysozyme digests disaccharide in peptidoglycan
  • Penicillin inhibits peptide bridges in
    peptidoglycan
  • Protoplast is a wall-less cell
  • Spheroplast is a wall-less gram-positive cell
  • Protoplasts and spheroplasts are susceptible to
    osmotic lysis
  • L forms are wall-less cells that swell into
    irregular shapes

41
Plasma membrane
  • Defines the living and nonliving parts of the
    cell
  • Everything on the inside is living
  • Everything on the outside is not living
  • Is selectively permeable
  • Workspace for enzymes of metabolic reactions

42
Plasma Membrane
  • Phospholipid bilayer
  • Peripheral proteins
  • Integral proteins
  • Transmembrane proteins

Figure 4.14b
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PM Workspace
  • Nutrient breakdown
  • Energy production
  • Photosynthesis
  • Afforded by mesosomes which are regular
    infoldings of the plasma membrane
  • Weaknesses destroyed by actions of alcohols,
    detergents and polymyxins

45
Fluid Mosaic Model
  • Membrane is as viscous as olive oil.
  • Proteins move to function
  • Phospholipids rotate and move laterally

Figure 4.14b
46
Plasma Membrane
  • Damage to the membrane by alcohols, quaternary
    ammonium (detergents) and polymyxin antibiotics
    causes leakage of cell contents.

47
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Simple diffusion Movement of a solute from an
    area of high concentration to an area of low
    concentration

Figure 4.17a
48
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Facilitated diffusion Solute combines with a
    transporter protein in the membrane

Figure 4.17b-c
49
Movement of Materials across Membranes
50
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Osmosis The movement of water across a
    selectively permeable membrane from an area of
    high water to an area of lower water
    concentration
  • Osmotic pressure The pressure needed to stop the
    movement of water across the membrane

Figure 4.18a
51
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Through lipid layer
  • Aquaporins (water channels)

Figure 4.17d
52
The Principle of Osmosis
Figure 4.18ab
53
The Principle of Osmosis
Figure 4.18ce
54
Movement of Materials across Membranes
  • Active transport Requires a transporter protein
    and ATP
  • Group translocation Requires a transporter
    protein and PEP

55
Cytoplasm's
  • The liquid component of the cell within the PM
  • Mostly water, dissolved ions, DNA ribosomes and
    inclusions
  • Concept of homeostasis

56
Nuclear area
  • Contains the bacterial chromosome
  • Bacteria may also have plasmids with up to 25 of
    the genetic materials

57
Ribosomes
Figure 4.6a
58
Ribosomes
Figure 4.19
59
Inclusions
  • Typically reserve deposits of excess materials
    like inorganic phosphate
  • Polysaccharide granules
  • Lipids
  • Sulfur
  • Gas
  • iron

60
The Prokaryotic Ribosome
  • Protein synthesis
  • 70S
  • 50S 30S subunits

Figure 4.19
61
Magnetosomes
Figure 4.20
62
Inclusions
  • Metachromatic granules (volutin)
  • Polysaccharide granules
  • Lipid inclusions
  • Sulfur granules
  • Carboxysomes
  • Gas vacuoles
  • Magnetosomes
  • Phosphate reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Energy reserves
  • Ribulose 1,5-diphosphate carboxylase for CO2
    fixation
  • Protein-covered cylinders
  • Iron oxide (destroys H2O2)

63
Endospores
  • Resting and waiting stage
  • Resistant to drying and other harsh conditions

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The Eukaryotic cell
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Comparison
  • Flagella and cilia tubulin (9/2) arrangement
  • Cell wall of different materials
  • Glycocalyx
  • Plasma membrane

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organelles
  • Nucleus
  • ER
  • 80s ribosomes
  • Golgi complex
  • Lysozymes
  • Vacuoles
  • Mitochondria
  • Chloroplasts
  • Peroxisomes

70
Organelles
  • 4-18 Define organelle.
  • 4-19 Describe the functions of the nucleus,
    endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, lysosomes,
    vacuoles, mitochondria, chloroplasts,
    peroxisomes, and centrosomes.

71
Organelles
  • Nucleus Contains chromosomes
  • ER Transport network
  • Golgi complex Membrane formation and secretion
  • Lysosome Digestive enzymes
  • Vacuole Brings food into cells and provides
    support

72
Organelles
  • Mitochondrion Cellular respiration
  • Chloroplast Photosynthesis
  • Peroxisome Oxidation of fatty acids destroys
    H2O2
  • Centrosome Consists of protein fibers and
    centrioles

73
The Eukaryotic Nucleus
Figure 4.24
74
The Eukaryotic Nucleus
Figure 4.24ab
75
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Figure 4.25
76
Detailed Drawing of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Figure 4.25a
77
Micrograph of Endoplasmic Reticulum
Figure 4.25b
78
Golgi Complex
Figure 4.26
79
Lysosomes and Vacuoles
Figure 4.22b
80
Mitochondria
Figure 4.27
81
Chloroplasts
Figure 4.28
82
Chloroplasts
Figure 4.28a
83
Chloroplasts
Figure 4.28b
84
Peroxisome and Centrosome
Figure 4.22b
85
Eukaryotic Cell
  • Not membrane-bound
  • Ribosome Protein synthesis
  • Centrosome Consists of protein fibers and
    centrioles
  • Centriole Mitotic spindle formation

86
Evolution of eukaryotes
  • Endosymbiotic theory

87
Membrane activity
  • Diffusion
  • Osmosis
  • Passive diffusion
  • Facilitated diffusion
  • Active transport
  • Know the relationships

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Movement Across Membranes
  • Active transport of substances requires a
    transporter protein and ATP.
  • Group translocation of substances requires a
    transporter protein and PEP.

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