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Alterations in Elimination

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Alterations in Elimination. GI Elimination. Urinary ... Laxative abuse/enema abuse. Psychological stress. Diet. Fluid intake. Age. Disease processes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Alterations in Elimination


1
Alterations in Elimination
  • GI Elimination
  • Urinary Elimination

2
Alterations in Elimination
  • Normal Position
  • Thigh Flexion

3
Factors affecting GI Elimination
  • Age
  • Young
  • Elderly
  • smooth muscle tone of colon
  • Abdominal muscle tone
  • Anal sphincter control

4
Factors affecting GI Elimination
  • Diet
  • Bulk/fiber intake
  • Digestion
  • Spicy foods
  • Eating schedules/routines

5
Factors affecting GI Elimination
  • Fluid Intake
  • 2000 3000 ml/day
  • Mobility/Immobility
  • Psychological Consideration
  • Life-style Considerations
  • Early bowel training
  • Availability of toilet facilities
  • Embarrassment
  • Privacy issues
  • Time management

6
Factors affecting GI Elimination
  • Medications
  • side effects
  • GI medications
  • Diagnostic Procedures
  • Preparing the pt
  • Barium studies

7
Factors affecting GI Elimination
  • Anesthesia and Surgery
  • Abdominal surgery
  • Paralytic ileus
  • Pathologic conditions
  • altered sensory stimulation/sensation
  • Impaired mobility/decreased physical
    strength/stamina

8
Factors affecting GI Elimination
  • Irritants
  • Pain

9
Common GI Elimination Problems
  • Constipation
  • Always identify the clients normal bowel
    elimination pattern

10
Constipation contributing factors
  • Irregular defecation habits
  • Laxative abuse/enema abuse
  • Psychological stress
  • Diet
  • Fluid intake
  • Age
  • Disease processes

11
Constipation complications of
  • Bowel obstruction
  • Vagal Response
  • Fecal impaction
  • Hemorrhoids

12
Constipation Treatment
  • Medications
  • Fluid intake
  • Diet
  • Activity
  • Prevention

13
Common GI Elimination Problems
  • Diarrhea
  • Treatment
  • Complications

14
Common GI Elimination Problems
  • Bowel incontinence
  • Flatulence
  • Treatment
  • Position
  • side lying for rectal tube
  • Prone with knees flexed under abdomen

15
Flatulence Treatment
  • Decreased amt of swallowed air
  • Carbonated beverages
  • Straws
  • Gum
  • Hard candies
  • NGT for decompression of abdomen

16
Common GI Elimination Problems
  • Hemmorrhoids (piles)

17
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18
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19
Nursing Process
20
Factors Affecting Urinary Elimination
  • Growth and Development
  • Young
  • Elderly
  • Psychosocial factors
  • privacy
  • normal position
  • sufficient time
  • running water

21
Factors Affecting Urinary Elimination
  • Fluid/food intake
  • Medications
  • Muscle tone/immobility
  • Pathologic conditions
  • Surgical/diagnostic procedures

22
Common Urinary Elimination Problems
  • Definition of normal 30 ml/hour
  • 45 ml in 5 hours
  • 200 ml in 2 hours
  • How much is normal for each voiding?
  • What would be abnormal?

23
Common Urinary Elimination Problems
  • Voiding Patterns
  • Polyuria diuresis
  • Large fluid intake, ingestion of diuretic
  • Other s/s
  • polydipsia
  • dehydration
  • wt loss
  • BP changes

24
Common Urinary Elimination Problems
  • Oliguria and anuria
  • etiology
  • low fluid intake
  • Renal, Cardiac Pathology
  • Frequency and nocturia
  • etiology
  • fluid intake
  • UTI
  • Pregnancy
  • Renal pathology
  • Diuretic therapy

25
Common Urinary Elimination Problems
  • Urgency
  • Etiology
  • UTI
  • Decreased perineal muscle tone
  • Dysuria
  • Etiology
  • UTI, urinary catherization

26
Urinary Incontinence
  • Total
  • Stress
  • Urge, Functional
  • Reflex
  • Urinary retention with overflow

27
Common Urinary Elimination Problems
  • Neurogenic Bladder
  • Urinary retention
  • tx
  • normal position, running water, etc.
  • catherize
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