Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes

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What are the structures and functions of the spinal cord? The Adult Spinal Cord ... Posterior median sulcus: Shallow groove posterior side. Anterior median fissure: ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter 13: The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and Spinal Reflexes


1
Chapter 13 The Spinal Cord, Spinal Nerves, and
Spinal Reflexes
2
What are the structures and functions of the
spinal cord?
3
The Adult Spinal Cord
  • About 18 inches (45 cm) long
  • 1/2 inch (14 mm) wide
  • Ends between vertebrae L1 and L2

4
Bilateral Symmetry
  • Grooves divide the spinal cord
  • Posterior median sulcus
  • Shallow groove posterior side
  • Anterior median fissure
  • deeper groove on anterior side

5
Enlargements of the Spinal Cord
  • Caused by
  • Large amount of gray matter in segment
  • involvement with sensory and motor nerves of
    limbs
  • Cervical enlargement
  • nerves of shoulders and upper limbs
  • Lumbar enlargement
  • nerves of pelvis and lower limbs

6
31 Spinal Cord Segments
  • Based on vertebrae where spinal nerves originate
  • Dorsal root ganglia
  • contain cell bodies of sensory neurons
  • 2 branches of spinal nerves
  • dorsal root
  • contains axons of sensory neurons
  • ventral root
  • contains axons of motor neurons

7
The Spinal Nerve
  • Each side of spine
  • dorsal and ventral roots join to form a spinal
    nerve
  • Spinal nerves are mixed nerves
  • Carry both afferent (sensory) and efferent
    (motor) fibers

8
Gross Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Figure 13-2
9
What are the structures and functions of the
three meningeal layers that surround the central
nervous system?
10
The Meninges
  • Spinal meninges
  • protect spinal cord
  • carry blood supply
  • continuous with cranial meninges

11
The 3 Meningeal Layers
  • Dura mater
  • outer layer of spinal cord
  • Epidural space
  • Arachnoid mater
  • middle meningeal layer
  • Subarachnoid space
  • Pia mater
  • inner meningeal layer

12
  • Paired denticulate ligaments
  • extend from pia mater to dura mater
  • stabilize side-to-side movement
  • Meningeal membranes are continuous with
    connective tissues surrounding nerves

13
Spinal Meninges
Figure 133
14
The Spinal Cord
Figure 134
15
What are the roles of white matter and gray
matter in processing and relaying sensory
information and motor commands?
16
Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
  • superficial white matter
  • Contains myelinated and unmyelinated axons
  • Gray Matter
  • Surrounds central canal of spinal cord
  • Contains neuron cell bodies, neuroglia,
    unmyelinated axons
  • gray horns

17
Organization of Gray Matter
  • Posterior gray horns
  • contain somatic and visceral sensory nuclei
  • Anterior gray horns
  • contain somatic motor nuclei
  • Lateral gray horns
  • are in thoracic and lumbar segments
  • contain visceral motor nuclei

18
Organization of White Matter
  • 3 columns (funiculi) on each side of spinal cord
  • posterior white columns
  • anterior white columns
  • lateral white columns
  • Each column contains tracts of axons

19
Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Figure 135a
20
Sectional Anatomy of the Spinal Cord
Figure 135b
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