Elvish. Signifying in Slave Language. Cockney Rhyming Slang - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Elvish. Signifying in Slave Language. Cockney Rhyming Slang PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 12096-Nzg3O



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Elvish. Signifying in Slave Language. Cockney Rhyming Slang

Description:

Elvish. Signifying in Slave Language. Cockney Rhyming Slang. Pig Latin. Brazilian i-insertion ... TRANSLATION: 'He was in his car about dusk when a woman armed ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:1542
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 60
Provided by: publi
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Elvish. Signifying in Slave Language. Cockney Rhyming Slang


1
PRAGMATICSSee also African American
EnglishEthnicity Indian- American
HumorJewish Humorand Spanish-American
Contrasts
  • by Don L. F. Nilsen
  • and Alleen Pace Nilsen

2
(No Transcript)
3
  • It was on this date that Donatis comet was
    visible over large parts of Southern England.
  • The comet is barely visible in the picture.
  • The people in the picture are not looking at the
    comet. They are gathering shells, talking to each
    other, or doing other unrelated things.
  • Mey says that the comet is like pragmatics,
    which happens mostly beneath peoples levels of
    awareness.
  • (Mey 329-330)

4
  • Pragmatics is the study of language in its social
    context. It assumes that words have different
    meanings in different contexts.
  • For example, what is the meaning of club,
    spade, diamond, and heart?
  • Or what is the meaning of King, Queen,
    Jack, Ace, or ten?

5
(No Transcript)
6
  • You might say that all of these words have
    different meanings in the social context of
    playing cards, but thats not the whole story.
  • In Pinochle there are expressions like 100
    Aces, 80 Kings, 60 Queens, 40 Jacks, and
    Jack of Diamonds and Queen of Spades that have
    special significance.
  • And in Pinochle there is no two, three,
    four, five, six, seven, eight, or
    nine.

7
  • Consider also the word bridge. If youre
    playing cards, this word has a different meaning
    than if youre a dentist or a road builder. In
    cards, the bridge is the partner of the person
    who wins the bid. The bid winner plays both his
    hand and the hand of the bridge.
  • And in Bridge, there are special meanings of
    to bid, to trump, to pass, and to
    finesse.
  • And seven means seven and there is no
    eleven, but in Dice, seven and eleven are
    craps, which means you win on the first throw
    but lose on all subsequent throws with these
    numbers.

8
  • And in Poker, things get really wild. The
    Joker is always wild but One-Eyed Jacks might
    be wild or not.
  • And there is a raw deal, and a big deal, and
    the New Deal, in politics.
  • And there are straights, flushes, and full
    houses and there is Stud Poker, Draw Poker,
    Texas Hold Em, and Strip Poker. And a
    person can ante up, into the kitty, be in
    or out, and can hold, fold or raise.

9
  • And in 21 Poker, an Ace can count as either
    one or eleven, and all face cards count as
    ten.
  • And in Hearts, the hearts count one point, and
    the Queen of Spades counts 27 points. And you
    want to get as few points as possible. Unless
    you think you can get all of the points.
  • Only for Alice in Wonderland could it be more
    complicated.

10
DIALECTS OF FORMALITY
  • Frozen Prissy Text Book
  • Formal Most Text Books
  • Consultative Conversations among Strangers or
    Large Groups
  • Casual Conversations among Close Friends
  • Intimate Conversations among Family Members or
    Lovers
  • Martin Joos The Five Clocks

11
DISAMBIGUATION
  • Explain how context could help to disambiguate
    the following
  • He waited by the bank.
  • Is he really that kind?
  • The proprietor of the fish store was the sole
    owner.
  • The long drill was boring.
  • When he got the clear title to the land, it was a
    good deed.

12
  • It takes a good ruler to make a straight line.
  • He saw that gasoline can explode.
  • You should see her shop.
  • Every man loves a woman.
  • Bill wants to marry a Norwegian woman.

13
OBSCENITIES
  • Obscenities are based on taboos, and taboos are
    culturally determined and change through time.
  • The religious right is offended by words relating
    to certain body parts and functions, or other
    vulgarities, obscenities, profanities, swearing,
    etc.
  • The liberal left is offended by words degrading
    to particular genders, ethnicities, disabilities,
    etc.

14
  • Something obscene in one culture is not obscene
    in a different culture. Consider the following
  • derriere
  • fag or faggot
  • Grand Tetons Mountain Range
  • solicitor
  • to knock someone up
  • NOTE Refined foreign students discussing
    American slang often dont realize the power of
    American obscenities

15
  • The name Voldemort is taboo and is not to be
    uttered by anyone at Hogwarts Academy.
  • The words corset, shirt, leg, and woman used to
    be taboo words in English.
  • In Shaws Pygmalion, Professor Higgins asked,
    Are you walking across the Park, Miss
    Doolittle? and Eliza Doolittle responded, Walk!
    Not bloody likely. I am going in a taxi.
  • This use of bloody startled London when the play
    was first produced in 1910.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 443)

16
FOUR-LETTER WORDS
  • English has many Anglo-Saxon or four letter
    words however for each of these it is possible
    to find a Latinate paraphrase that is more
    polite. Think without speaking of the
    four-letter words associated with each of the
    following

17
  • Defecate
  • Eliminate
  • Expectorate
  • Feces
  • Fornicate
  • Intercourse
  • Mammary gland
  • Penis
  • Vagina
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 244)

18
ORIENTATION
  • Charles Fillmore says that a three-dimensional
    box has six sides.
  • But if you put it on the floor, it has four sides
    and a top and a bottom.
  • And if you place it against a wall, it has two
    sides a top a bottom and a front and a back.
  • And if you put drawers in it, it has a right
    side, a left side, a top, a bottom, a front and a
    back.
  • And right and left are your right and left as
    you face it, not the dressers right and left
    which is facing you.

19
PIDGINS AND CREOLES
  • Pidgins and creoles tend to be quite metaphorical
    and poetic. Here are some examples
  • Fella belong Mrs. Queen Prince Philip, Husband
    of Queen Elizabeth II
  • muckamuck to eat, drink, or pucker the mouth
  • him brother belong me friend
  • lamp belong Jesus sun
  • gubmint catchum-fella policeman
  • grass belong face whiskers
  • him belly allatime burn thirsty man
  • him cow pig have kittens Has the Masters sow
    given birth to a litter yet?
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 434-436)

20
  • Haitian Creole is a creole based on French.
  • Jamaican Creole is a creole based on English.
  • Gullah is an English-based creole spoken by
    descendants of African slaves off the coasts of
    Georgia and South Carolina.
  • Louisiana Creole is spoken in Louisiana.
  • Tok Pisin as a Melanesian Pidgin English spoken
    in Papua, New Guinea.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 437)

21
PRECONDITIONS FOR SPEECH ACTS
  • Explain how linguistic and social context help in
    understanding the following sentences
  • You make a better door than a window.
  • Its getting late.
  • The restaurants are open until midnight.
  • If youd diet, this wouldnt hurt so badly.
  • I thought I saw a fan in the closet.

22
  • Mr. Smith dresses neatly, is well-groomed, and is
    always on time to class.
  • Most of the food is gone.
  • John or Mary made a mistake.
  • Did you make a doctors appointment?
  • Do you have the play tickets?
  • Does your grandmother have a live-in boyfriend?
  • How did you like the string quartet?
  • What are Bostons chances of winning the World
    Series?

23
  • Do you own a cat?
  • LAURA Did you mow the grass and wash the car
    like I told you to? JACK I mowed the grass.
  • LAURA Do you want dessert? JACK Is the Pope
    Catholic?
  • When did you stop paying alimony to your ex-wife?
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 219)

24
SLANG, JARGON AND ARGOT
  • Slang, Jargon and Argot are all gate-keeping
    languages used as much to identify members of a
    particular group as to communicate.
  • Slang is age relatedmainly high school and
    college students.
  • Jargon is profession relatedevery profession has
    its own jargon.
  • Argot is underworld relatedits designed to
    communicate to the group and not to the
    authorities.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 439-442)

25
  • Carl Sandburg said, Slang is language which
    takes off its coat, spits on its handsand goes
    to work.
  • SLANG EXAMPLES spaced out, right on, to barf, to
    dis someone, rave (wild party), ecstasy (drug),
    crib (home), posse (friends)
  • JARGON EXAMPLES phoneme, morpheme, case,
    lexicojn, phrase structure rule
  • ARGOT EXAMPLES He was hoopty around dimday when
    some mud duck with a tray-eight tried to take him
    out of the box. TRANSLATION He was in his
    car about dusk when a woman armed with a .38
    caliber gun tried to kill him.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 439-441)

26
THE SOCIAL CONSTRUCTION OF MEANING
  • Penelope Eckert said, the use of variation does
    not simply reflect, but constructs, social
    categories and social meaning.
  • (Eckert 4)

27
SOCIAL-VARIABILITYIN LINGUISTIC RULES
  • Minimal Pairs
  • Word Lists
  • Reading Style
  • Careful Speech
  • Casual Speech
  • (William Labovs Categories)

28
WEBSTERS THIRD NEW INTERNATIONAL DICTIONARY
  • This dictionary, published in 1961, was the first
    major dictionary that obliterated the older
    distinction between standard, substandard,
    colloquial, vulgar, and slang.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 418)
  • Is this a good thing or a bad thing? Explain.

29
NORTHERN, MIDLAND SOUTHERN EXPANSION WESTWARD
(Shuy 294)
30
PHONOLOGICAL DIFFERENCES
  • greasy grizi
  • with wIð
  • spoon (noon) spjun
  • creek krIk
  • roof rUf
  • However, wash with an intrusive r is not so
    much regional as rural.

31
PHONOLOGICAL DISTINCTIONS THAT ARE BECOMING LOST
  • cot-caught
  • witch-which
  • mourning morning
  • However, pin-pen is remaining stable.

32
BRITISH-AMERICAN PRONUNCIATION DIFFERENCES
  • calf, bath, pass, aunt
  • learn, fork, core, brother
  • carry, very
  • either, neither, potato, tomato
  • clerk, schedule
  • captain, bottle (glottals in Cockney)
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 454)

33
BRITISH-AMERICANSTRESS DIFFERENCES
  • aluminum applicable
  • cigarette dictionary
  • formidable kilometer
  • laboratory necessary
  • missionary secretary
  • stationery territory
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 413)

34
CALIFORNIA VALLEY-GIRLAND SURFER-DUDE SPEECH
  • Rising Inflections (like Australian English)
  • Animated Body Language (like sticking a finger
    down the throat)
  • Specialized Vocabulary (like dude, esp.
    relating to shopping malls, the beach, and
    personality types)

35
CANADIAN PHONOLOGY
  • out and about the house
  • schedule
  • Canadian -eh

36
NEW ENGLAND PHONOLOGY
  • lot (New England)
  • park the car Cuba-r-is
  • merry marry Mary
  • calf (pass, path, dance)
  • Brooklyn dis, dat, dese, dose, dem

37
SOUTHERN PHONOLOGY
  • Mrs. mIz
  • hog (frog, dog, Deputy Dog)
  • south gt souf
  • during gt doin, and going gt gon,
  • help gt hep
  • test gt tes
  • ring gt rang,
  • boy gt boah,
  • car gt cah
  • POlice
  • nasal twang (Texas and Oklahoma)
  • southern drawl
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 423)

38
GRAMMAR DIFFERENCES
  • Double Modals might could
  • Negative Modals hadnt ought
  • Strange Past Participles larnt
  • Strange Possessive Pronouns yourn, hisn, hern,
    ourn, theirn
  • Strange Prepositions a quarter before eight
  • Strange Conjunctions unless gt without, lessen,
    thouten
  • Strange Adverbs anywheres, nowheres
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 416-417)

39
VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES
  • What do you fry your eggs in?
  • creeper, fryer, frying pan, fry pan, skillet, or
    spider
  • What do you call a soft drink?
  • pop, soda, soda pop, or tonic?
  • What do you call a long sandwich containing
    salami etc.?
  • hero, submarine, hoagy, grinder or poorboy

40
  • What do you drink water out of?
  • drinking fountain, cooler, bubbler or geyser
  • How do you get something from one place to
    another?
  • take, carry, or tote
  • What do you carry things in?
  • a bag, a sack, or a poke
  • How do you speculate?
  • reckon, guess, figgure, figger, suspect, imagine
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 414)

41
BRITISH-AMERICAN VOCABULARY DIFFERENCES
  • bird, bobby, bonnet, boot, braces, clothes peg,
    first floor, flat, lift, lorry, nickers, peruque,
    petrol, pram, pub, public school, queue, spanner,
    tele, torch, trousers, tube, westcoat
  • girl, cop, hood (of a car), trunk (of a car),
    suspenders, clothes pin, second floor, apartment,
    elevator, truck, underwear, wig, gasoline, baby
    buggy, bar, private school, line, monkey wrench,
    television, flashlight, pants, subway, vest
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 414, 456)

42
SOUTHERN VOCABULARY
  • chitlins and grits
  • to buy a pig in a poke
  • Carry me Back to Old Virginie

43
BRITISH-AMERICANSPELLING DIFFERENCES
  • Cheque
  • centre, theatre
  • colour, honour
  • defence, offence
  • labelled, travelled
  • Pyjamas
  • tyre

44
BRITISH EXPRESSIONS TO WATCH OUT FOR
  • fag or faggot (wood for the fireplace, or
    cigarette)
  • soliciter (lawyer)
  • to knock someone up (wake them up in the morning)

45
COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG
  • apples and pears (stairs)
  • Aristotle (bottle)
  • pigs ear (beer)
  • Mother Hubbard (cupboard)
  • plates and dishes (Mrs.)

46
ETHNIC HUMORTO INVESTIGATE STEREOTYPES
47
HEAVEN AND HELL
  • In Heaven, all the cooks are French all the
    mechanics are German all the musicians are
    Italian.
  • In Hell, all the cooks are English all the
    mechanics are French all the soldiers are
    Italian.

48
BRITISH DIALECT ETHNICITY
  • A guy wakes up, finds himself in a British
    hospital, and says, Did I come here to die?
  • The Cokney nurse responds, No, I think it was
    yesterdie.

49
BRONX DIALECT ETHNICITY
  • In a New York City Park one guy turns to another
    guy and says, Look at de boids.
  • The other guy says, Those arent boids.
    Theyre birds.
  • The first guy says, Cheez, dats funny, dey
    choip like boids.

50
LIGHTBULB JOKESTO INVESTIGATE STEREOTYPES
  • How many New Yorkers?
  • Three One to do it and two to criticize.
  • How many grad students?
  • Three Two, plus a professor to take the credit
  • How many Jewish mothers?
  • None Ill just sit in the dark.
  • (Nilsen Nilsen 176)

51
!SOUTHERN ETHNICITY
  • A radio comedian once remarked that the
    Mason-Dixon line is the dividing line between
    you-all and youse-guys.
  • (Fromkin Rodman Hyams 2007 412)

52
!!COMEDY TEAMS ARE ETHNICALLY OR GENDER DETERMINED
  • 43 out of the 500 entries in Ronald L. Smiths
    Whos Who in Comedy are about comedy teams.
    There are many reasons for this high number
  • Teams are often more recognized and more
    memorable than are the individuals who make up
    the teams.

53
  • !!!Good chemistry enhances creativity and
    enjoyment.
  • Through interacting with each other, team members
    can revitalize old gags.
  • Differing appearances, personalities and voices
    provide for contrast and for the efficient
    creation of stock characters.
  • With teams, audiences can enjoy both surprise and
    anticipation because while teams do new material
    they usually have a style that carries over from
    one performance to another.
  • (Nilsen Nilsen 82)

54
PRAGMATICS WEB SITE
  • BIBLIOGRAPHY OF PRAGMATICS (JOHN BENJAMINS)
  • http//www.benjamins.com/online/bop/topbar.html

55
  • References
  • Alvarez, Lizette Alvarez. Its the Talk of Nueva
    York The Hybrid called Spanglish (Clark,
    483-488).
  • Apte, Mahadev L. Humor and Laughter An
    Anthropological Approach. Ithaca, NY Cornell
    University Press, 1985.
  • Boskin, Joseph. Rebellious Laughter Peoples
    Humor in American Culture. Syracuse, NY Syracuse
    University Press,1997.
  • Brown, Penelope, and Stephen C. Levinson.
    Politeness Some Universals in Language Usage.
    Cambridge, England Cambridge University Press,
    1987.
  • Clark, Virginia, Paul Eschholz, and Alfred Rosa.
    Language Readings in Language and Culture, 6th
    Edition. New York, NY St. Martins Press, 1998.
  • Davies, Christie. Jokes and Their Relation to
    Society. New York, NY Mouton, 1998.

56
  • Dolitsky, Marlene. Humor and the Unsaid.
    Journal of Pragmatics 7 (1983) 39-48.
  • Dundes, Alan. Cracking Jokes Studies of Sick
    Humor Cycles and Stereotypes. Berkeley, CA Ten
    Speed Press, 1987.
  • Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. Never Try to
    Teach a Pig to Sing Still More Urban Folklore
    from the Paperwork Empire. Detroit, MI Wayne
    State Univ Press, 1996.
  • Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. Sometimes the
    Dragon Wins Yet More Urban Folklore from the
    Paperwork Empire. Syracuse, NY Syracuse Univ
    Press, 1996.
  • Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. When Youre Up
    to Your Ass in Alligators More Urban Folklore
    from the Paperwork Empire. Detroit, MI Wayne
    State Univ Press, 1987.
  • Dundes, Alan, and Carl R. Pagter. Work Hard and
    You Shall be Rewarded Urban Folklore from the
    Paperwork Empire. Bloomington, IN Indiana Univ
    Press, 1975.

57
  • Eckert, Penelope. Constructing Meaning in
    Sociolinguistic Variation. Paper presented at the
    Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological
    Associatin in New Orleans, 2002.
  • Eschholz, Paul, Alfred Rosa, and Virginia Clark.
    Language Awareness Readings for College Writers.
    New York, NY Bedford/St. Martins, 2009
  • Fromkin, Victoria, Robert Rodman, and Nina Hyams.
    Language and Society. An Introduction to
    Language, 8th Edition. Boston, MA Thomson
    Wadsworth, 2007 9th Edition, 2011, 430-487.
  • Goffman, Erving. Interaction Ritual Essays on
    Face-to-Face Bahavior. Garolen City, NY
    Anchor/Doubleday, 1967.
  • Kotthoff, Helga. Pragmatics of Performance and
    the Analysis of Conversational Humor. HUMOR 19.3
    (2006) 271-304.

58
  • Labov, William. Social Stratification of English
    in New York City. Washington, DC Center for
    Applied Linguistics, 1966.
  • Mey, Jacob. Pragmatics An Introduction, 2nd
    Edition. Malden, MA Blackwell, 2001.
  • Nilsen, Alleen Pace, and Don L. F. Nilsen.
    Encyclopedia of 20th Century American Humor.
    Westport, CT Greenwood, 2000.
  • Nilsen, Don L. F. Humor in Irish Literature.
    Westport, CT Greenwood, 1996.

59
  • Raskin, Victor Introduction The Pragmatics of
    Humor. Journal of Pragmatics 35 (2003)
    1287-1294.
  • Raskin, Victor. The Primer of Humor Research. New
    York, NY Mouton de Gruyter, 2008
  • Shuy, Roger. Dialects How They Differ (Clark,
    292-312).
  • Yamaguchi, Haruhiko. How to Pull Strings with
    Words Deceptive Violations in the Garden-Path
    Joke. Journal of Pragmatics 12 (1988) 323-337.
  • Yus, Francisco. Humor and the Search for
    Relevance. Journal of Pragmatics 35 (2003)
    1295-1331.
About PowerShow.com