HARNESSING NIGERIAS BIOMASS POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. By E. C. Okoroigwe MNSE, - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – HARNESSING NIGERIAS BIOMASS POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. By E. C. Okoroigwe MNSE, PowerPoint presentation | free to view - id: 11ec47-MGM2N



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

HARNESSING NIGERIAS BIOMASS POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. By E. C. Okoroigwe MNSE,

Description:

O. U. Oparaku (MNSE). National Centre for Energy Research and ... This makes the entire biogas burn completely without much sooth noticed. 8/21/09. 11 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:135
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 25
Provided by: OKORO
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: HARNESSING NIGERIAS BIOMASS POTENTIAL FOR SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT. By E. C. Okoroigwe MNSE,


1
HARNESSING NIGERIAS BIOMASS POTENTIAL FOR
SUSTAINABLE ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT.ByE. C.
Okoroigwe (MNSE), N. F. Oparaku,O. U. Oparaku
(MNSE).National Centre for Energy Research and
Development, University of Nigeria, Nsukka.
Enugu State.
2
Outline of presentation
  • Introduction
  • Biomass conversion processes
  • - anaerobic digestion
  • - Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis
  • - Bio-fuel production
  • - Biomass briquetting
  • Nigerias Biomass
  • Energy value of some biomass materials
  • Contribution of biomass to economic development
  • Conclusion

3
Introduction
  • The world is searching for solution to
  • possible future energy crises resulting from
    total exhaustion of conventional energy
    resources.
  • increasing cost of fossil fuels
  • Increasing rate of health deterioration due to
    inhalation of carbon monoxide etc
  • global warming due to huge carbon emission

4
Intro. ctnd
  • Because of these, there is need for Nigeria to
  • join the rest of the world in this campaign
  • harness her renewable energy potentials
  • Biomass is one of such sources of solution to
    current and future energy crises.

5
Intro ctnd
  • Biomass is the accumulation of solar energy on
    earth in diverse forms which are readily
    available in form of
  • wood,
  • energy crops,
  • agricultural and forest residues,
  • animal wastes,
  • wastes from food and allied industries etc

6
Intro ctnd.
  • Biomass is the source of useful energy resources
    such as
  • biogas,
  • bio-ethanol,
  • bio-diesel,
  • bio-oil,
  • producer gas,
  • biomass briquettes,
  • bio-fertilizers etc
  • used for thermal, electrical and direct
    agricultural applications in crop production

7
Intro ctnd
  • It is abundantly available in nature (as green
    vegetation and animals) and can be generated by
    human socio-economic activities such as
    agriculture
  • The overdependence on the conventional sources
    of energy as the only major source of energy and
    power supply has left the country economically
    slow

8
Intro cntd
  • Biomass combustion is suitable for heat and power
    generation for household, industrial and
    commercial energy supply
  • For better energy supply, it is usually
    transformed before consumption rather than using
    them as they appear in nature.

9
Conversion processes
  • anaerobic digestion
  • Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis
  • Bio-fuel production
  • Biomass briquetting

10
anaerobic digestion
  • This is the transformation process by which
    biological organisms (bacteria) are used to
    breakdown the carbohydrate component in biomass
    material to release sugar that is further broken
    down to release biogas .
  • The percentage of methane (the only combustible
    part) in the biogas varies according to the type
    of feedstock, retention time, temperature of the
    fermenting medium etc involved in the digestion
    process.
  • About 60 70 volume of methane has been
    recorded most times. This makes the entire biogas
    burn completely without much sooth noticed.

11
Biomass Gasification and Pyrolysis
  • These are Thermo-chemical processes in which
    biomass materials are combusted in oxygen starved
    (gasification) and non oxygen (pyrolysis)
    environment
  • In Air gasification, biomass is burned in limited
    supply of air to yield a low energy gas
    containing mainly hydrogen, carbon monoxide,
    methane and non combustible carbon dioxide, water
    vapour, tar and ash. This gas can be used to run
    power engines or turbines.

12
  • The heat value is about 4500-5500KJ/Nm3 or 4-5
    MJ/Nm3
  • General reaction
  • CH1.4O0.6 0.4O2 (1.5N2) 0.7CO
    0.3CO2 0.6H2 0.1H2O (1.5N2)
  • Pyrolysis stage
  • Biomass Heat Charcoal, oil, gas
  • Oxidation (combustion) stage
  • CO2 CO2 2CO2 2CO 2COO2 2CO2 2H2O2
    2H2O
  • Reduction stage
  • CH2O COH2 CCO2 2CO C2H2 CH4

13
Bio-fuel production
  • Bio-fuel consists of two major types of fuels
  • Bio-ethanol and
  • Bio-diesel
  • There are two key reactions that are involved in
    the production of Bio-ethanol, one is hydrolysis
    and the other is fermentation.

14
  • Bio-ethanol can be produced by mixing sugar,
    water and yeast bacteria together then allowed to
    ferment in warm environment. Gradually the
    mixture becomes a liquid that has some percentage
    alcohol. Then the liquid mash that is created is
    distilled and purified to get approximately 99.5
    Bio-ethanol
  • It can also be produced by cellulosic biomass
    conversion to ethanol. This is based on
    concentrated acid pretreatment followed by
    hydrolysis and fermentation.

15
  • Biodiesel is a fuel that is vegetable oil based,
  • it can be used to run an unmodified engine
  • While it is usually derived from canola oil,
    jatropha, cotton seed etc, recycled fryer oil can
    also be used to make it

16
Biomass briquetting
  • Briquetting is the process of reducing the void
    ratio of loose biomass materials by compression
    in the presence of heat.
  • It improves the heat value as well as the
    combustion efficiency of the fuels

17
Nigerias biomass potential
  • The total land in a country available for
    agriculture and under vegetation is a measure of
    biomass generation in that country

18
Table 1 land use distribution in Nigeria
Source ECN, (2005) and Garba, (2004) as obtained
from Federal Ministry of Agriculture (FMA).
19
Table 2 animal population estimate _at_ 3.2
annual growth rate
20
Energy content of some biomass materials
Table 4 Energy values of some common crop
materials
21
Table 5 Energy value of wastes of some common
animals and human beings
22
Contribution of biomass to national economic
development.
  • Employment,
  • Energy and power,
  • Business opportunities to investors
  • etc

23
conclusion
  • Biomass can meet the energy needs of many
    Nigerians by 2020 if appropriate technology is
    adapted for its transformation.
  • Even though Nigeria is blessed with enough
    fossil fuel deposits, still there is need to
    harness the abundant biomass resources to augment
    the inadequate supply of these fuels

24
Thanks for listening
About PowerShow.com