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ICS 463, Intro to Human Computer Interaction Design: 9 Theory. Input and Output

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Designed for efficient and less stressful typing ... Data sonification: provide audio coding; rely on audio pattern recognition to detect changes ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: ICS 463, Intro to Human Computer Interaction Design: 9 Theory. Input and Output


1
ICS 463, Intro to Human Computer Interaction
Design 9 Theory. Input and Output
  • Dan Suthers

2
Input Devices
  • Discrete Entry Devices
  • Continuous Entry (Pointing) Devices
  • Natural Language Input

3
Discrete Entry Devices
  • Keyboards Hardware
  • Membrane
  • Spill resistant
  • No built in feedback
  • Electromechanical
  • Click feedback
  • Sensitive to spills etc.

4
Discrete Entry Devices
  • Keyboards Layout
  • QUERTY
  • Designed to slow you down!
  • Dvorak
  • Designed for efficient and less stressful typing
  • Available since 1930s yet not used due to cost of
    retraining!!!

5
Dvorak
6
Discrete Entry Devices
  • Keyboards continued
  • Chord
  • Multiple simultaneous keystrokes make a letter
  • Can type with one hand
  • Mouse buttons
  • Selection or indicating position in combination
    with mouse pointing
  • Switches
  • Useful for disabled

7
Continuous Entry (Pointing) Devices
  • These range from indirect cursor control to
    direct manipulation of display surface
  • 2D position ? motion
  • Cursor keys
  • Activation maps to motion
  • Best for horizontal and vertical movements
  • Joysticks
  • Position maps to direction and speed
  • Best for controlling direction and speed, e.g.,
    games!

8
Continuous Entry (Pointing) Devices
  • 2D position ? indirect position
  • Mouse
  • Best for moving objects and indicating position
  • Need adequate 2D surface
  • Mechanical and optical variants
  • Trackpads, trackballs
  • Best for indicating position.
  • Little space needed.
  • Graphics Tablets
  • Like writing with pen on paper, but less natural
    due to indirect display of results

9
Continuous Entry (Pointing) Devices
  • 2D position ? direct position
  • Mimeo, Smartboard
  • Like whiteboard but writing is recorded
  • More natural than graphics tablets because
    writing is displayed on same surface
  • Can be used as output device with projection
  • Touch Screens
  • Direct manipulation, easy to learn, durable
  • Lack of precision (if using finger)
  • Large targets and untrained users in public
  • Palm Pilot the exception? (uses stylus)

10
Continuous Entry (Pointing) Devices
  • 2D position ? direct position cont.
  • Stylus Screens
  • Palm Pilot etc.
  • More precise than touch screens
  • May require training (handwriting recognition)
  • Eye Tracking
  • Based on reflection of light
  • Requires stable head
  • Involuntary eye movements may be a problem
  • Potentially useful for disabled

11
Continuous Entry (Pointing) Devices
  • Three dimensional
  • 3D Trackers
  • Magnetic, ultrasound or radio
  • Track in 3D relative to fixed reference point
  • Head Trackers used for disabled
  • Flexion Sensors (Dataglove)
  • Track finger motions
  • Computer Vision
  • Sophisticated algorithms track location of
    objects in space

12
Natual Language Input
  • Handwriting Recognition
  • Natural handwriting (Newton)
  • Requires training of the computer
  • Stylized writing (Palm Pilot)
  • Requires training of the user
  • Less error prone (sort of)

13
Natual Language Input
  • Speech Recognition
  • Isolated Word versus Continuous
  • Speaker Dependent versus Independent
  • Advantages
  • Easier to train users
  • Can do other things at the same time
  • Accessible to disabled
  • Disadvantages
  • Error prone
  • Vulnerable to interference from noise
  • Natural language is not precise

14
Input Device Design Issues
  • Match the device to
  • Physiological and psychological characteristics
    of users
  • Tasks to be performed
  • Intended work environment

15
Matching Devices to Tasks
  • Identify the task requirement
  • What kind of motion and manipulation is needed?
  • What kind of feedback is needed?
  • Identify the expressiveness of the devices
  • How can one manipulate the device?
  • How natural is the mapping?
  • Does the manipulation of the device correspond
    well to the manipulation of the artifacts?
  • Does the feedback match the users mental model?

16
Output Devices
  • Visual
  • Data Visualizations
  • Visual Interaction
  • Dynamic Visualization and Animation
  • Auditory
  • Speech
  • Tactile

17
Visual Output
  • Most common
  • Large literatures on perceptual issues, e.g.,
    dark characters on light background optimize
    contrast and minimize reflections
  • Uses
  • Data visualization
  • Visual feedback of interaction
  • Dynamic visualization of models or data
  • Interactive animations

18
Data Visualization
  • Large literature on visual display of data
  • Parallel versus serial detection
  • Parallel color, value, angle, sloope, length,
    texture
  • Serial shape, area, curvature, connection,
    containment
  • No one representation is optimal for all tasks
    e.g. Lohses example of line graph, bar graph,
    and table (retrieving values, finding maximums,
    comparison of trends)
  • Match characteristics of data to those of
    representation (e.g., continuous versus
    categorical) refer back to Ch. 4 (table 4.2)

19
Visual Interaction
  • Continuous feedback on processes and state
    maintains users mental model and feeling of
    control
  • Progress through a process
  • Prompting for input
  • Confirming input
  • Indicating errors
  • Location in the artifact
  • Location of next action

20
Dynamic Visualization Animation
  • Data visualization external data is displayed
  • Model-based visualization computer model is
    displayed
  • Animation (inter)active visualization of process
  • Advantages over noncomputational media
  • Apply algorithm to new data easily
  • Interactive
  • Flexible

21
Design recommendations
  • Use paper-based prototypes
  • Consider a wide range of tasks and test with a
    large range of data
  • Carry out tests on many real users

22
Auditory
  • Uses of sound are expanding
  • Alerting to errors
  • Drawing attention in complex environment or when
    eyes may be away from screen
  • Monitoring background events
  • Subtle audio enhancements make widget
    manipulations more physical
  • Data sonification provide audio coding rely on
    audio pattern recognition to detect changes
  • Natural sounds as data

23
Speech
  • Natural language planning is complex most speech
    output is from templates
  • Concatenation piece together prerecorded words
    or phrases
  • Synthesis rules map text to stream of phonemes
  • Applications include
  • Alerting when eyes are off screen
  • Interaction over telephone systems
  • Interfaces for the blind

24
A key design principle
  • In any perceptualization
  • Find a mapping between domain and display
    elements and relationships that makes
    perceptually prominent those that should be
    conceptually prominent
  • Apply this mapping in a consistent way

25
Examples
  • Wacom tablet
  • Speech I/O on Macintosh
  • Photo visualization on PC
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