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Community Forestry in Bhutan contributes to poverty reduction while maintaining the sustainability o

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Through silviculture improvement there is an (future) potential ... Silviculture manual and posters. Four draft guidelines for NWFP management (and more in pipeline) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Community Forestry in Bhutan contributes to poverty reduction while maintaining the sustainability o


1
Community Forestry in Bhutan contributes to
poverty reduction while maintaining the
sustainability of the resources!
  • Karma Jigme Temphel (SFD)
  • Hans J.J. Beukeboom (Helvetas)

2
Map Flag of Bhutan
3
Presentation
  • Background Information
  • Community Forestry in Bhutan (history and
    institutional set-up)
  • Potential of Community Forestry Income
    generation environment
  • Bottlenecks
  • Future directions

4
Bhutan Forest Information
  • Bhutan has about 72 forest cover
  • About 35 is national park and corridors
  • 8 under Forest Management Units
  • Remaining 57 under Government Reserved Forest
  • 60 of the country has to remain under forest!
  • Currently less than 1 under Community Forest
    management

5
Community Forestry (CF) in Bhutan
  • Social Forestry started in 1979 with a Royal
    Degree
  • CF/SF reflected in the FNC Act 1995
  • CF program since 2000 in the Forest and Nature
    Conservation Rules (last revision in September
    2006)
  • All rural house holds have access to (subsidized)
    timber for house construction, maintenance and
    fuelwood (rural timber supply)
  • Now 51 CFs approved covering about 5,063 ha with
    2,480 hh involved. Many more in several stages
    of preparation

6
Institutional Set-up
  • Department of Forestry (DoF) under the Ministry
    of Agriculture
  • Social Forestry Division (under DoF) in charge of
    ALL participatory forestry activities
  • At field (regional) level
  • Territorial forestry
  • District forestry (extension services)
  • Park managers
  • Decentralization and democratization process is
    on-going

7
Community Forestry - Recent Development
  • Forest areas around villages can be allotted as
    Community Forestry
  • Capacity of the forestry staff to implement CF
    programmes is partly strengthened
  • The NWFP development in community forests
    increased
  • Documention of Community Forests development
    activities
  • Increased attention/support for the economic
    aspects of CF
  • CF is seen as a key program to reduce poverty (a
    priority!)

8
CF area with good forests
9
CF area which is partly degraded
10
Goals of Community Forestry
  • Production to maintain or improve the
    sustainable supply of forest products and
    services in order to enhance self sufficiency and
    the household economies and living standards of
    rural people
  • Protection to maintain or improve the biological
    and ecological function of forest land
  • Equity to maintain or improve communal
    institutions that can sustainably manage forest
    resources and ensure equitable decision making,
    implementation, and distribution of benefits

11
Potential of Community Forestry (1)
  • Potential Area
  • 69 of population is rural (95,178 rural hh)
  • Total forest area is about 2,904,522 ha
  • Max CF (2.5 ha per hh) 237,944
  • It can be said that max. 10 of the forest area
    can become Community Forestry
  • Management plans are for 10 years and renewable
  • In the next few years about 300 CFs with 15,000
    hh covering about 45 km2

12
Potential of Community Forestry (2)
  • Bhutan is committed to the MDGs
  • Relevant for CF are no 1 and 7
  • Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
  • Ensure environmental sustainability
  • Focus of 10th Five Year Plan is Poverty Reduction
  • Through CF program 69 of the population can be
    reached!

13
CF and Income Generation (1)
  • Easier access to Timber
  • Access to NWFP
  • Strengthening of CFMGs (Community Forest
    Management Groups)
  • Establishment of saving groups
  • Possibility of sale of timber and NWFP
  • Time saving as process to obtain permits through
    Government is lengthy process
  • Possibility of establishment of Community
    Enterprises based on Forest Resources

14
CF and Income Generation, some data
15
Some more income data
  • Incense collection from Laya 72/hh/yr
  • Chirata in Samdrup 62/hh/yr
  • Timber in Tang 84/hh/yr
  • Timber in Monggar 142/hh/yr
  • Bamboo in Wamang 139/hh/yr

16
CF and Timber
17
CF and Income Generation (2)
  • So far only a few (10) CF can harvest timber due
    to
  • Many areas are partly degraded
  • Initial reluctance of the Forest Department, but
    now process has been clarified and 2 CFs will
    start the sale of timber
  • Communities should supply their own needs before
    they can sell
  • Through silviculture improvement there is an
    (future) potential
  • Communities often prefer to keep the timber

18
Medicinal Plants
19
Bamboos have many uses Wamanang Community can
make 139/hh/year from Bamboo
20
CF and environment
  • Community rehabilitate degraded areas
  • Communities protect water sources
  • So far they harvest carefully as per Mgnt Plan
  • Reduced fire incidents
  • Patrolling against illegal activities
  • Most of the CF management plans have
    protection in their objectives

21
What was done so far to support CF
  • CF manuals (4 parts)
  • In-service training
  • CF management planning
  • Conflict Management and Facilitation
  • Silviculture
  • GPS-GIS
  • Enterprise development
  • Silviculture manual and posters
  • Four draft guidelines for NWFP management (and
    more in pipeline)
  • CF brochure and posters to create awareness

22
Extension Materials
23
Bottlenecks
  • Limited capacity at field level to address the
    opportunities and constraints related to
    economics
  • Initial some hesitation of DoF to allow
    communities to sell timber
  • Limited documentation, especially on economic
    aspects of CF
  • Limited materials on NFWP

24
Future
  • Increase capacity building related to all aspects
    of CF (e.g. marketing, product development etc.)
  • Formation of Regional Associations to improve the
    access to markets
  • Strengthen Local Institutions (CF contributes to
    empowerment)
  • Increase economic activities (both for timber and
    NWFP)
  • More CFs will be established with focus on
    economic benefit (especially NWFP)
  • Explore markets, especially for NWFP

25
TASHI DELEK
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