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Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright

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Public and private lands in the United States. What We Need to Know about Ecosystems ... Silviculture: Forest Management with Harvest Goals. Even-aged management ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Environmental Science: Toward a Sustainable Future Richard T. Wright


1
Environmental Science Toward a Sustainable
Future Richard T. Wright
Chapter 11
  • Ecosystem Capital Use and Restoration
  • PPT by Clark E. Adams

2
National Park System
  • Conflicting goals
  • Protecting habitat
  • Protecting species
  • Protecting aesthetically valued areas
  • Providing public access

3
Ecosystem Capital Use and Restoration
  • Global perspective on biological systems
  • Conservation, preservation, restoration
  • Biomes and ecosystems under pressure
  • Public and private lands in the United States

4
What We Need to Know about Ecosystems
  • How they sustain human life and economies
  • Positive and negative effects of ecosystem
    conversions
  • Sustainable approaches to ecosystem management

5
(No Transcript)
6
Natural Ecosystems on Earths Surface Table 11-1
  • Total land area 57.6 million square miles
  • Total ocean area 172.6 million square miles
    mostly open ocean

7
Services of Natural Ecosystems (see Table 3-2)
  • Modification of climate
  • Maintenance of hydrological cycle
  • Erosion control and soil building

8
Services of Natural Ecosystems (see Table 3-2)
  • Maintenance of oxygen and nitrogen cycles
  • Waste treatment
  • Pest management
  • Carbon storage and maintenance of carbon cycle

9
Wetland Services
  • Valued at 100,000 per acre per year
  • Water purification and fish propagation

10
Conservation, Preservation, Restoration
  • Conservation versus preservation
  • Patterns of use of natural ecosystems
  • Restoration

11
Conservation versus Preservation
  • Conservation managing or regulating use so that
    it does not exceed the capacity of the species or
    system to renew itself
  • Preservation ensure species or ecosystem
    continuity regardless of their potential utility

12
Patterns of Use of Natural Ecosystems
13
Patterns of Human Use of Natural Resources (True
or False)
  • Greed
  • Ignorance
  • Desperation
  • Sustainability
  • Mining the resource
  • Managing the resource
  • Unregulated access to resource

14
Tragedy of the Commons
  • Begins with unregulated access to a resource
    owned by no one. Examples?
  • Harvest based on largest amount over the shortest
    period of time.
  • No thought given to sustainable harvests.
  • Usually ends with no resource for anyone.

15
Preventing a Tragedy of the Commons
  • Private ownership
  • Regulated access
  • Sustained benefits
  • Fairness in access rights
  • Common consent of the regulated

16
Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to
Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)
  • Natural resources cannot be treated as an open
    commons.
  • Sound science needed to assess health and level
    of resource use.
  • Precautionary principle should be used in setting
    limits for exploitation.

17
Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to
Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)
  • Regulations should be enforced.
  • Economic incentives that encourage the violation
    of regulations should be eliminated.
  • Subsidies that support exploitation should be
    removed.

18
Principles Incorporated into Public Policies to
Protect Natural Resources (Table 11-2)
  • Suitable habitats for the resource should be
    preserved and protected from pollution.
  • The sustenance needs of people living close to
    the resource should be met.

19
Restoration
  • The intent of ecosystem restoration is to repair
    the damage to specific land and waters so that
    normal ecosystem integrity, resilience, and
    productivity returns.

20
Biomes and Ecosystems under Pressure
  • Forest biomes
  • Ocean ecosystems
  • Coral reefs and mangroves

21
Forest Biomes
  • Conserve biodiversity
  • Moderate regional climates
  • Prevent erosion
  • Store carbon and nutrients
  • Provide recreational opportunities
  • Provide a number of vital goods

22
World Forest Biomes
23
Causes of Deforestation
  • Conversion into pastures and agricultural lands
  • Consequences? (next slide)

24
Consequences of Deforestation
Productivity Nutrient recycling Biodiversity Soil
erosion Transpiration Air pollution
More
Deforestation
or
Less
25
Silviculture Forest Management with Harvest Goals
  • Even-aged management
  • Clear-cutting no tree left behind
  • Uneven-aged management
  • Selective cutting

26
Causes of the Loss of Tropical Rain Forests
  • Colonization consolidation of agricultural lands
  • Huge national debts
  • Fast food chains and cheap hamburger

27
Conserving Tropical Rain Forests
  • Ecotourism
  • Extractive reserves
  • Management by indigenous people
  • Rubber plantations
  • Sustainable logging

28
Sustainable Forest Management
  • Manage for sustainable outcomes
  • Teach others
  • Protect the health of the forest
  • Recognize and protect unique forest ecosystems
  • Strive to be better forest managers

29
Ocean Ecosystems
75 of the Earths surface
An international commons?
30
Global Fish Harvests
139 million metric tons by 2001
31
Fisheries in Distress Cod Landings from Georges
Bank, 19822000
32
Fisheries Problems Bottom Trawling
Too many boats High technology Too few fish
33
The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976
  • Gave federal government authority to manage
    fisheries
  • Claimed the area between 3 and 200 miles offshore
    as the Exclusive Economic Zone

34
The Magnuson Conservation Act of 1976
  • Designed to eliminate foreign fishing
  • Designed to restore and conserve fish

http//images.fws.gov/
35
Sustainable Fisheries Act
  • The 1996 reauthorization of the Magnuson Act
  • Mandates that fish stocks be rebuilt
  • Management plans and yields be based on
    scientific data
  • Steps be taken to minimize bycatch
  • Maximum sustainable yield
  • Number of organisms which can be taken from an
    ecosystem while allowing the population to renew
    itself
  • Carrying capacity
  • Maximum number of any species that the ecosystem
    can support

36
(No Transcript)
37
Factors That Restored Whale Populations
  • International Whaling Commission
  • The Red Data Book
  • Whale watching
  • Stellwagen Bank
  • National Marine Sanctuary
  • 1993
  • Japan disagrees
  • Maintaining cultural tradition
  • Meat a delicacy

38
Mangroves
  • Protects coasts from storm damage and erosion
  • Forms rich refuge and nursery for marine fish
  • Cleared to create ponds for raising shrimp

39
Coral Reefs
  • Important food sources for local people
  • Wave erosion control
  • Great diversity of marine vertebrates and
    invertebrates
  • Destroyed by cyanide used in coral reefs to stun
    the fish before they are caught

40
Sources of Damage to Coral Reefs
  • Warm water
  • Eutrophication
  • Islander poverty
  • Logging
  • Shrimp aquaculture
  • Coastal development

41
Public and Private Lands in the United States
  • National parks and national wildlife refuges
  • National forests
  • Protecting nonfederal lands
  • Conclusion

42
Federal Lands (40) in the U.S.
43
The Greater Yellowstone Coalition
44
Wilderness Act of 1964
  • Provides for permanent protection of undeveloped
    and unexploited areas so that natural ecological
    processes can operate freely
  • 5 of land area in U.S.
  • Preservation, not conservation

45
National Forests
  • Only 5 of the original U.S. forests are left
  • Most U.S. forests are second growth

http//www.fs.fed.us/r5/lassen/fire/gallery/
46
Environmental Concerns
Reagan
Clinton
Post WW II Housing Boom
47
New Forestry Ecosystem Management
  • Cut trees less frequently
  • Leave wider buffer zones along waterways
  • Leave dead logs and debris
  • Protect broader landscapes
  • Build no new roads until damage to old ones is
    addressed

48
Protecting Nonfederal Lands
  • Land Trust Alliance
  • Nature Conservancy
  • Trustees of Reservations in Massachusetts

49
How Private Land Trusts Protect Natural Areas
From Development
  • Accept land as outright gifts
  • Purchase land

Taking pictures only, leaving no footprints
50
Conclusions?
  • We are plundering our childrens heritage to pay
    for our present unsustainable practices.
  • We need a new ethic of stewardship.
  • U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan

51
End of Chapter 11
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