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Treaty of Versailles

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... mind: Upper Silesia, East Prussia, ... Poland got parts of Silesia were given to Poland. The newly created Czechoslovakia got other parts of Silesia. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Treaty of Versailles


1
Treaty of Versailles
2
  • Countries at the Treaty
  • France
  • Uruguay
  • Siam
  • Rumania
  • Poland
  • Panama
  • Liberia
  • China
  • Bolivia
  • Japan
  • India
  • Czechoslovakia
  • US
  • Italy
  • Belgium
  • Brazil
  • Cuba
  • Greece
  • Hedjaz
  • Ecuador
  • Haiti
  • Peru
  • Portugal
  • Serbia
  • New Zealand
  • South Africa
  • Australia
  • Canada
  • Great Britain

In 1919, the Big 4 met in Paris to negotiate the
Treaty. Lloyd George of Britain, Orlando of
Italy, Clemenceau of France, and Woodrow Wilson
of the U.S.
The biggest problem was who was not there.
3
  • German Losses in the
    West
  • France got back from Germany Alsace-Lorraine was
    returned.
  • Belgium got from Germany Moresnet, Eupen, and
    Malmedynot a lot of land, but it was something.
  • France got the Saar, also known as Saarland (part
    of Germany, with an important coalfield) for 15
    years. After 15 years a referendum (plebiscite)
    would be held to decide which country the Saar
    would join.
  • The left bank of the Rhine (the Rhineland) was to
    be occupied by an international administration,
    led by the Allies, for fifteen years. The right
    bank of the Rhine (50 km wide) was to be
    demilitarized. No forts, army bases, weapons or
    soldiers were to be allowed into the region.

4
  • German Losses in the East
  • You make up your mind Upper Silesia, East
    Prussia, Schlieswigall German territories were
    given the opportunity to decide which nation they
    wanted to be part of via a plebiscite.
  • Poland got parts of Silesia were given to Poland
  • The newly created Czechoslovakia got other parts
    of Silesia.
  • Poland, broken up as a nation since the late 18th
    century, was made independent and given a
    corridor to the Baltic Sea. This Polish
    corridor cut off East Prussia from the rest of
    Germany. Germany gave most of Posen and West
    Prussia to Poland.

5
  • Germany Loses its Colonies
  • Germany was to lose all of its colonies,
    which were to be divided among the victors.
  • Tanganyika was given to Britain
  • the Cameroon to France
  • South-West Africa to South Africa
  • the Pacific Islands controlled by Germany were
    given to Japan
  • South Pacific islands were given to New Zealand
    and Australia.

6
  • Europe has more Independent Nations
  • Finland, Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia--formerly
    part of Russia--were made independent countries.
  • Czechoslovakia, formerly part of Austria-Hungary,
    was made an independent country.
  • Romania was enlarged, taking the province of
    Transylvania, formerly part of Hungary.
  • Greece, Belgium and Denmark all received small
    pieces of land from the defeated countries.

7
  • More Independent Places
  • Austria and Hungary were made into two separate
    countries.
  • Yugoslavia was created as an independent country
    out of a much enlarged Serbia.
  • Danzig, a city with both Polish and German
    citizens was placed under international rule
    (under the control of the League of Nations) as a
    'free city,' largely for Polish use.

8
  • The German army was to be a maximum of 100,000
    men. There could be no draft and no reserve army.
  • All wartime guns and weapons were to be melted
    down to scrap metal. Germany is forbidden to
    manufacture heavy artillery, tanks, military
    airplanes, poison gas, vessels over 100,000 tons,
    submarines, etc.
  • The German Navy (once second only to Britain) was
    to be reduced to 36 ships. No U-boats are
    permitted. Germanys Air Force is to be
    destroyed.

9
  • How do we make sure that Germany doesnt try this
    again?
  • Germany was forbidden to have an alliance or
    unite with Austria ever again (Anschluss)
  • All German rivers were to be internationalized
  • German Military to be strictly controlled

10
  • Economic Concessions
  • Germany is to pay 5 billion in reparations
    within two years and unspecified sums later. A
    bill for all civilian damages would be presented
    by the Allies to Germany in 1921. The majority
    of the funds would go to France and Belgium. In
    the end, Germany was asked for 33 billion.
  • Germany is to bear the entire cost of Allied
    occupation.
  • Germany is to build 200,000 tons of shipping for
    victors annually for five years. It is to give
    to the Allies all merchant ships over 1600 tons
    and a quarter of her fishing fleet.
  • Germany was forced to supply livestock to the
    French and Belgian governments.

11
  • Responsibility?
  • Under Article 231 (the war guilt clause),
    Germany had to accept full and total blame for
    starting and continuing the war.
  • The Allied and Associated Governments affirm,
    and Germany accepts, the responsibility of
    Germany and her allies for causing all the loss
    and damage to which the Allied and Associated
    Governments and their nationals have been
    subjected as a consequence of the war imposed
    upon them by the aggression of Germany and her
    allies.''
  • The former German emperor (Kaiser Wilhelm II) and
    other offenders were to be tried. (However, the
    Kaiser had escaped to The Netherlands in 1918 and
    the Dutch would not release him. He dies in
    1941, during the Nazi occupation of The
    Netherlands.)

12
  • Consequence of Treaty
  • The League of Nations was
  • founded.
  • 3 Aims of the League
  • To Maintain Peace
  • To Promote Social Welfare
  • To Promote Disarmament

13
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