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WBDC Research Program 2008

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Evaluate yield, quality and utilization of new perennial forages under grazed conditions ... using an agricultural waste material (silage/hay) as a nutrient source for ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: WBDC Research Program 2008


1
WBDC Research Program 2008
  • Applied research focusing on forage and
  • grazing management and beef cow nutrition
  • programs with respect to nutrient
  • management, cow performance and
  • reproductive efficiency

2
Areas of research
  • Forage management
  • Feed system management
  • Water and nutrient management
  • Feeding co-products
  • Economic research and analysis

3
Forage-based production systems
  • Objectives
  • Evaluate yield, quality and utilization of new
    perennial forages under grazed conditions
  • Evaluate steer performance under grazing
    conditions
  • Calculate pasture costs and return per acre

4
Forage Species
  • 48 acre pasture site (Black soil zone)
  • Species evaluated
  • Meadow bromegrass (Paddock)
  • Smooth bromegrass (Carlton)
  • Hybrid bromegrass (AC Knowles)
  • Crested wheatgrass (Goliath)
  • Hybrid bromegrass (AC Knowles)
  • Tall fescue (Courtney)
  • Crested wheatgrass (control)

5
  • Pasture Animal
  • - Pasture productivity - Steer gain
  • - Forage quality - Daily intake
  • - Plant energy reserves - Beef gain per acre
  • - Grazing days
  • Economics
  • - Return per acre

6
Beef Cow Feeding Systems
  • Feeding systems evaluating warm and cool season
    forages
  • Evaluation of feeding systems to reduce winter
    feed costs with minimal impact on performance of
    beef cows
  • Evaluate impact of winter feed sites on soil and
    forage nutrients, nutrient efficiencies, crop
    removal and uptake

7
Winter feeding systems for beef cows
  • 3-year study (2005 2008)
  • 180 beef cows (1380 lb) allocated to 1 of 4
    replicated (n3) wintering systems
  • Feeding systems include
  • (1) Field bale grazing (BG), round barley
    greenfeed bales
  • (2) Field barley swath grazing (SG), windrow fed
  • (3) Field chaff/straw grazing (CH/ST), pile
    grazed
  • (4) Drylot feeding (DF), barley greenfeed bales
    feeder fed

8
Swath Graze
Bale Graze
Chaff/Straw
Drylot
Traditional system?
Distribution of nutrients in field
Cost?
Sufficient nutrients?
9
Objectives
  • Measure effect of feeding system on
  • Cow performance
  • Soil nutrient cycling and soil compaction
  • Economics

10
Cost variables
  • Drylot
  • field prep, pre and post-seed weed control, seed,
    seeding, fertilizer, swathing, baling, land rent,
    feed, labor, feed hauling, yardage, manure
    hauling
  • Swath Graze Bale Graze
  • field prep, pre and post-seed weed control, seed,
    seeding, fertilizer, swathing, baling, land rent,
    feed, labor
  • Straw/Chaff
  • field prep, pre and post-seed weed control, seed,
    seeding, fertilizer, swathing, combining, land
    rent, feed, supplement, labor

11
Biological treatment system for sulfate reduction
in cattle drinking water
  • Collaborators UBC PFRA
  • Project results (2006-07 2007-08)

12
  • High sulphate (gt 1000 ppm SO4) can be
    antagonistic to
  • thiamin and trace mineral absorption
  • Field testing (2006-07 2007-08)
  • Lined trench with nutrient source
  • Series of continuous plug flow bioreactors for
    SO4 reducing bacteria
  • Anaerobic biological sulfate reduction occurs
    using an agricultural waste material (silage/hay)
    as a nutrient source for the sulfate-reducing
    bacteria
  • NEXT STEP….Need to determine application to
    industry

13
Backgrounding calves on annual forages
  • Increased forage used due to high grain
  • Backgrounding sector provides value by
  • Grow calves prior to finish phase
  • Develop small biological type calves
  • Key is COP or COG must be lt than drylot

14
Past study - 2003 Backgrounding calves on millet
swaths
  • 185 calves fence lined weaned September
  • 15 acre Golden German millet
  • Controlled access to millet swaths
  • No observed morbidity
  • Study period - 36 days
  • Calves gained 2.3 lb/day
  • Beef production was 750 pounds/acre
  • Economics
  • Cost per pound gained was 0.26
  • Average cost in backgrounding lot was 0.65

Source WBDC Fact Sheet 2004-01
15
Study Objectives - 2007
  • Measure growth of calves consuming either (i)
    swathed millet supp (ii) swathed barley supp
    (iii) processed hay supp
  • Determine forage intake between systems
  • Determine costs of field grazing vs drylot
    feeding

16
  • PHASE 1 (130 d)
  • 120 weaned calves allocated to 1 of 3 replicated
    (n2) backgrounding system
  • Millet swath grazed supp
  • Barley swath grazed supp
  • Dry based ration (ground hay supp)
  • Calves allocated feed to gain 2 lb/d
  • PHASE 2 (180 d)
  • Calves enter feedlot (Mar 08)
  • Determine growth and carcass characteristics to
    slaughter (200 d)

17
Spring vs Summer calving in western
Canada 3-Year Study Locations Ag Canada
Swift Current Swift Current SK (Brown soil
zone) Western Beef Development Centre Lanigan
SK (Dark brown soil) Ag Canada Brandon
Brandon MB (Black soil zone)
18
Objectives
  • Evaluate the effects of Early (March) vs. Late
    (June) calving on
  • Cow calf performance to weaning
  • Does pasture provide late calving cows nutrient
    requirements?

19
Objectives
  • Evaluate growth of early and late born calves
    post-weaning under 2 systems
  • Wean _at_ 180 d background 3 m feedlot 200 d
  • Wean _at_ 180 d, background 5 m grass 5 m feedlot
    60 d

20
Objectives
  • Determine if feeds and labor can be reduced by
    delaying calving, thus matching the cows
    nutrient requirements with nutrients provided by
    grazed forages
  • Evaluate system costs and benefits to cow/calf
    producers and strategies for marketing

21
Supplementation of Beef Cow Diets with Wheat Dry
Distillers Grains Solids
22
Objectives
  • Fall grazing and wintering systems for beef cows
    supplemented with dry distillers grain with
    solubles (DDGS)
  • Evaluate impact on cow performance compared to a
    conventional supplement

23
  • Phase 1 - DDGS Stockpile pasture
  • 48 cows allocated to 1 of 4 crested wheatgrass
    pastures
  • Pastures (n2) supplemented to equalize both
    protein and energy intakes
  • Control
  • COMM SUPP (Canola meal barley)
  • DDGS
  • Cows rotated through padddocks every 7 to 8 days
  • The following measures will be taken
  • (i) Body weights
  • (ii) Body condition score
  • (iii) Ultrasound to estimate body reserves
  • (iv) Estimated daily intake

24
  • Phase 1 - DDGS Straff (chaffstraw) residue
  • 48 cows allocated to 1 of 6 chaff/straw paddocks
    for winter grazing
  • Each group (n2) supplemented to equalize protein
    and energy intakes
  • Control (barley)
  • DDGS
  • ½ DDGS ½ barley
  • Feed allocated 3 days
  • The following measures will be taken
  • (i) Body weights
  • (ii) Body condition scores
  • (iii) Ultrasound to estimate body reserves
  • (iv) Estimated daily intake
  • Economic analysis to determine cost per cow in
    each system

25
Oat Backgrounding Trial
  • To determine the effect of high fat-low lignin
    oats (processed or whole) in a backgrounding
    ration on weaned calf growth

26
Future Studies
  • Evaluate inclusion levels of wheat DDGS in beef
    cow diets
  • Evaluate effects of supplement DDGS every 2 or 3
    day on rumen function
  • Pasture performance of steers supplemented with
    DDGS

27
Future Studies (2008-2010)
  • Comparison of potential nutrient export in
    run-off from in-field vs traditional
    overwintering systems

28
Future Studies (2008-2013)
  • WBDC Herd DNA Based Breeding Program
  • To investigate the application of marker assisted
    selection (MAS) on beef animals

29
WBDC Economic Program Dr Karen Taylor WBDC
Beef Economist
  • Cost of Production for Cow-Calf Producers
  • Gathered data from cattle operations for COP
    study
  • Conduct cost-benefit analysis of research
    projects at WBDC
  • Calculate production benchmark indicators for
    cow-calf producers

30
Thank you!
Working to develop a more competitive and
prosperous Canadian beef industry
www.wbdc.sk.ca
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