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UNU Regional Workshop on the Integrated Capacity Development for MEAs in South Asia

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Title: UNU Regional Workshop on the Integrated Capacity Development for MEAs in South Asia


1
UNU Regional Workshop on the Integrated Capacity
Development for MEAs in South Asia
  • 14-16 February 2005
  • Colombo, Sri Lanka

2
Sustainable Development Initiatives in the Arab
Region
KARIM MAKDISI Political Studies Public
Administration Dept. The American University of
Beirut (AUB) Beirut, Lebanon Email
karim.makdisi_at_aub.edu.lb
3
Presentation Outline
  • Overview of regional approaches to sustainable
    development in Arab region
  • Capacity-Building Initiative 1 Governance for
    Sustainable Development in Arab Region
  • Capacity-Building Initiative 2 Regional Trade
    and Environment Program

4
I. Regional SD Approach in Arab Region
5
Millennium Development Goals
  • The United Nations Millennium Declaration
    (September 2000) is a commitment by United
    Nations Member States to move towards shared
    development objectives.
  • MDG Plan of Implementation (September 2001)
    offered a road map to help focalize realization
    of the principles espoused in 2000.
  • This was complemented by the articulation 8 major
    Millennium Development Goals Number 7 of which
    seeks to Ensure environmental sustainability.

6
World Summit on Sustainable Development
  • One of main objectives in MDG 7 calls on United
    Nations Member States and international
    organization to
  • Integrate the principles of sustainable
    development into country policies and programs
  • The is the same objective articulated during
    national, regional and global preparations and
    outcomes of the World Summit for Sustainable
    Development (September 2002), and the resulting
    WSSD Plan of Implementation.

7
Regional Approaches towards Sustainable
Development
  • League of Arab States (LAS) established a Joint
    Secretariat consisting of
  • Technical Secretariat of Council of Arab
    Ministers Responsible for the Environment (CAMRE)
  • UNEP-Regional Office for West Asia (ROWA)
  • UN Economic and Social Commission for Western
    Asia (ESCWA)

8
Regional Approaches towards Sustainable
Development (contd)
  • The following commitments made by Arab Member
    States
  • Arab Declaration to the World Summit on
    Sustainable Development (2001)
  • Sustainable Development Initiative in the Arab
    Region (2002)
  • Joint AMCEN/CAMRE Declaration on Sustainable
    Development (2002)
  • Other regional and sub-regional strategies
    advancing through Mediterranean Commission for
    Sustainable Development (MCSD), Abu Dhabi
    Declaration, etc.

9
Priority Issues Outlined for Implementation in
the Arab Region
  • In the Sustainable Development Initiative in the
    Arab Region, Member States focus on the
    following priorities to address within the
    framework of achieving SD
  • Peace and security
  • Support for an institutional framework and
    regional mechanism
  • Poverty alleviation
  • Population and health
  • Education, awareness, scientific research
    technology transfer
  • Resource management
  • Sustainable production and consumption
  • Globalization, trade and investment, including
    strengthening the competitiveness of Arab
    commodities and their access to international
    markets.

10
Sustainable Development under Frequent Disruption
due to Peace and Security in the Region
  • Region has been characterized by regional
    instability over several decades
  • 1948 Arab-Israeli war, (Establishment of Israel
    in the Region)
  • 1956 Suez Canal war, (French, British and
    Israeli aggression)
  • 1962-1967 Yemen conflict, (following
    revolution)
  • 1967 Arab-Israeli war,
  • 1967-1973 (Arab-Israeli War of Attrition),
  • 1973 Arab-Israeli war,
  • 1981-1988 Iraq-Iran war,
  • 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon and siege of
    Beirut,
  • 1989 Palestinian uprising,
  • 1990-1991 Gulf War, (Kuwait occupation
    liberation)
  • 2001 Al-Aqsa uprising,
  • 2003 Iraq War, (USA GB intervention)
  • Localized conflicts and civil unrest such those
    as faced in Algeria, Lebanon and Yemen.

11
Impact on the Region
  • Distorted national priorities causing failure of
    strategic development plans.
  • Cause pretext for governments to reduce
    political space curtail human civil rights.
  • Increased military spending around three times
    the world average leading to reduction in
    resources for human development.
  • Caused severe damage to economic, social
    ecological infrastructure.
  • Caused fragmentation loss of efficient economic
    space.
  • Raised the cost of economic transactions
    (insurance re-insurance, transport, trade,
    etc.).
  • Resulted in low investment particularly FDI.

12
Impact on the Region (cont.)
  • Caused brain drain loss of valuable human
    resources
  • Caused loss of social economic investment in
    human resources development
  • Resulted into social breakdown increase of
    violence
  • Decreased return from tourism.
  • Contributed to higher rates of unemployment
    poverty.
  • Caused the spreading of religious fundamentalism
    out of despair
  • Contributed to the loss of productivity
    competitiveness compromising economic prospects.
  • Increased number of disabilities massive
    displacement of civilians.

13
INITIATIVE 1Governance for Sustainable
Development in the Arab Region Institutions
and Instruments for Moving Beyond an
Environmental Management CultureSource ESCWA
14
EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS (1)
  • Shift from Municipalities to National Government
    (1) During British French occupation management
    of env. was done at local levels. (2) Management
    of natural resources was kept centralized due to
    their economic contributions resulting
    revenues. (3) After 1972 Env. Management moved
    from local to national agencies. (4) National
    Env. Agencies were born with strong line
    ministries created to manage mostly consumption
    not conservation of natural resources.
  • Emergence of NEC, Committees Ministries
    (1970-1980). (1) Most governments initially chose
    to establish NEC Committees instead of
    Ministries. They often time cross-sectoral but
    operated at the academic and technical levels but
    rarely at the political levels.

15
EVOLUTION OF INSTITUTIONS (2)
  • Strengthening of Env. Agencies (1990s).
    Following Rio 1992, significant restructuring
    took place in the region to accommodate for
    environmental effects of development. Despite
    these efforts, the new env. framework remained
    inadequate to address the expended scope of env.
    issues from multisectoral perspective.
  • Establishment of NCSDs (1990s). Again in response
    to Rio, to cover for multidisciplinary aspects of
    SD. However, the ad hoc nature of NCSD made them
    unable to serve as permanent institutional
    inter-ministerial organ able to support public
    consultation or inter-sectoral policy
    co-ordination.
  • Rethinking Institutional Arrangement (2000s)
    Preparation for WSSD stimulated the thinking
    about institutional frame works for SD to move
    beyond a deeply rooted environmental management
    culture.

16
Commitment Mandate for Improving SD Governance
  • Arab Countries have identified governance for SD
    as a priority concern.
  • Arab Declaration to the WSSD addresses governance
    by calling for
  • Strengthening the role of the League of Arab
    States
  • Developing institutions to improve planning and
  • implementation of SD programs (national and
    regional)
  • Strengthening partnerships to support wider base
    for
  • decision-making (civil society/private
    sector)
  • Enhancing the supportive role of UN
    organizations
  • Abu Dhabi Declaration, Regional PrepCom,
    Stakeholders Roundtable, Thematic Roundtable also
    identified need to improve governance for
    sustainable development as a priority concern.

17
CHALLENGES CONSTRAINTS
  • Need to Define SD While many definitions exist,
    the question of which definition to use how to
    adapt it to regional, national local concepts
    remains a significant challenge.
  • Priority Setting National goals priorities
    often emerge from traditional paradigms premised
    on national security, political climate, economic
    growth cultural preservations.
  • Reservations About Policy Integration at the
    Operational Level Governments in the region
    still consider SD the domain of Env. institutions
    tend to send env. representatives to regional
    and international forums. This is partially due
    to financial and modus operandi limitations.

18
Progress Achieved in improving Environmental
managementNow we need to move towards SD
  • The Challenge
  • Existing institutional arrangements
  • policy instruments are designed to support
  • sector-based environmental management, NOT
  • integrated participatory sustainable development

Environmental Management Policy
Sustainable Development Policy
Agric
Industry
Water
Econ
Agric
Industry
Environ
Water
Econ
Environ
Public Participation
Public Participation
19
Conceptual Framework
  • Scope of issues addressed within the context of
    SD has expanded over past decade.
  • Economic social linkages much more pronounced
    today.

20
RECOMMENDATIONS FOR STRENGTHENING SD IN THE ARAB
REGION
  • Effort made in study to make recommendations
  • A - Innovative B - Culturally Sensitive
  • C - Appropriate D - Gradual and
    Effective
  • Recommendations in study focus on
  • Institutions institutional arrangements
  • Operational mechanisms
  • Regional approaches

21
Institutions Institutional Arrangements
Prime Minister
National Council for Sustainable Development
Higher Council for Sustainable Development
SD Advisor
National Environmental Authority
22
Proposed Institutional Framework for SD
Governance in Arab Countries
23
Institutions Institutional Arrangements
  • High Council for Sustainable Development
  • Chaired by Prime Minister
  • Inter-ministerial at level of Minister/Director
    General (including NEA)
  • Forum for policy co-ordination on SD platform,
    NSDS NSDAP
  • Forum for reporting and oversight of
    institutional activities
  • Takes into consideration input provided by NCSD
  • Sustainable Development Focal Points would
    facilitate institutional communication
    coordination between meetings.
  • National Council for Sustainable Development
  • Non-governmental organization linked to
    policy-making process
  • Allows public consultation participation to be
    institutionalised
  • Forum reviews submits opinions/comments/input
    to HCSD
  • Managed by Board of Directors of NGOs (private
    associations, media, CBOs)
  • Identifies areas where policy co-ordination/implem
    entation could improve submits to HCSD for
    consideration

24
Institutions Institutional Arrangements
  • Sustainable Development Advisor
  • Appointed by Prime Minister with Secretariat in
    Prime Ministry
  • Sits as non-voting member of HCSD NCSD
  • Advises Prime Minister HCSD on SD issues (e.g.,
    MEAs)
  • Facilitates policy coordination between HCSD
    members
  • Ensures consultation with NCSD and transfer of
    input to HCSD
  • Prepares meeting agendas, annual report and
    facilitates reporting submissions to
    international organisations
  • National Environmental Authority (ministry,
    authority or council)
  • Would remain leading player on environmental
    dimension of SD, but not lead entire
    SD process
  • Proposed management by Board of Directors with
    HCSD NCSD nominees as members
  • Ad hoc Technical Committees could be formed to
    facilitate policy coordination on specific topics
    (e.g,, standards, regulations, MEAs)

25
Regional SD Governance
  • Technically, there is no institution in the Arab
    Region that can adequately address SD from a
    inter-sectoral perspective.
  • Proposal for a new regional framework that make
    effective use of existing regional forums in LAS.
  • This proposal assumes that some form of national
    SD focal point has been developed before
    proposing the regional forum.

26
Regional SD Governance
  • Each Arab country will be represented in the
    proposed forum by the appropriate Minister who
    will be designated as the national SD
    Coordinator. This function is a separate
    different from his function as environmental
    representative.
  • The national coordinator will meet back-to-back
    through the existing regional forum for the
    following dual purposes
  • To address environmental issues as a component of
    SD.
  • To coordinate regional SD activities by
    appropriately balancing social, economic and
    environmental dimensions.
  • The option for renaming the forum and/or addition
    of new functions will be left to current regional
    forums to decide.

27
  • INITIATIVE 2Regional Program for Trade and
    Environment Capacity Building
  • in the Arab Region (Note Draft)
  • Source Joint Secretariat

28
Arab Initiative for Sustainable Development
  • Calls upon the international community to support
    the efforts of Arab countries to avoid the
    negative effects resulting from globalization on
    the economic, technical, environmental and social
    level
  • Seeks to strengthen the competitiveness of Arab
    commodities and to endeavor to abolish all forms
    of subsidies, assistance, and barriers imposed

29
Global Mandate
  • Plan of Implementation for the WSSD (2002)
  • Millennium Development Goals (2000)
  • Highlights
  • Coordinated technical assistance and capacity
    building to support market access
  • Mutual supportiveness of trade, environment,
    development
  • WTO negotions
  • Mutual supportiveness of multilateral trading
    system MEAs

30
Regional Mandate
  • CAMRE adopted a resolution on 24 October 2002
  • CAMRE requests the Joint Secretariat to
    develop a regional program for Arab capacity
    building on trade and environment issues,
    especially to address measures that hinder Arab
    export competitiveness in international markets
    and that relate to trade negotiations and
    adjusting to the rules and regulations of the
    World Trade Organization related to the
    environment

31
Purpose
  • The regional program seeks to strengthen the
    capacity of Arab countries to face the challenges
    and take advantage of the opportunities presented
    by trade and environment linkages in an
    increasingly open and global trading system

32
Program Beneficiaries
  • Government officials ministries of economy,
    trade, environment, health, planning
  • Non-governmental officials private sector
    associations, NGOs, think tanks concerned with
    trade and environment issues
  • Geographic representation Members of the League
    of Arab States (LAS)

33
Scope
  • Trade and environment issues related to
  • Trade liberalization
  • Environmental quality
  • Natural resource management
  • Human health

34
Need Assessment
  • Previous capacity building activities
  • Increased awareness, various institutions
    involved
  • Need for greater coordination
  • Existing capacity at national/regional levels
  • Need for stronger institutional structures,
    mechanisms and expertise to identify, prioritize,
    analyze and address issues at national and
    regional levels

35
Priority Areas for Action
  • Thematic Areas
  • Competitiveness
  • Market Access
  • Dispute Resolution
  • Skills Development and Training Areas
  • Governance
  • Enabling institutions
  • Negotiations
  • Information dissemination
  • Private sector development
  • Policy analysis

36
Types of Activities/Services
  • Policy advisory services
  • Technical assistance
  • National Roundtables
  • Regional seminars
  • Regional expert group meetings

37
Outputs
  • Policy papers (including recommendations)
  • Mission reports
  • Minutes and recommendations
  • Training manuals and materials
  • Proceedings

38
Mechanisms for Implementation
  • Consultation
  • With member States of League of Arab States
  • Partnerships
  • Working groups on Trade and Environment Capacity
    building in the Arab Region
  • Institutional Arrangements
  • Secretariat CAMRE secretariat ESCWA, UNEP/ROWA
  • Monitoring and Oversight
  • Ministers of CAMRE Annual Meetings

39
Duration
  • Full Program
  • 3 to 5 years
  • Specific Activities
  • 1 month to 1 year
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