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## HYDRAULICS

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### Appliances used ( Wyes and Siamese ) Master Stream devices. Standardized Hydraulic Practices ... Wyes and Siamese: Add 10 PSI. Master Streams : Add 20 PSI ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HYDRAULICS

1
HYDRAULICS
2
OBJECTIVES
• CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
• TYPES OF PRESSURES
• WFRD PUMPERS
• DIFFERENT TYPES OF PUMPS
• DIFFERENT TYPES OF RELIEF VALVES
• DRAFTING
• FOAM
• WFRD HYDRAULIC SOG
• HYDRAULIC CALUCATION PROBLEMS

3
CHARACTERISTICS OF WATER
• Water is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. (2
parts Hydrogen 1 part oxygen)
• One gallon of water weighs 8.35 pounds
• Cubic foot of water weighs 62.5 pounds

4
• Greater heat absorption than other common
extinguishing agents.
• A relatively large amount of heat is required to
change extinguishing agents.
• Greater the surface area of water exposed, the
more rapidly heat is absorbed.

5
• Water converted into steam occupies 1,700 times
its original volume.
• Water is plentiful and readily available.

6
• Water has a high surface tension and does not
• Water may be reactive with certain fuels, such as
combustible metals.
• Water freezes at 32o F.

7
• Head pressure refers to the height of water
supply above the discharge orifice.
• If the water supply is 100 feet above the
discharge opening, this is referred to as 100
pressure, multiply by .434 per foot.

8
STATIC PRESSURE
• Static Pressure exists when no water is moving
(potential energy).
• Static pressure normally is never found in a
municipal system, because water is flowing
somewhere in the system.
• The pressure found in a hydrant prior to the
hydrant flowing is considered to be static
pressure.

9
Normal Operation Pressure
• The pressure found on a water distribution system
during normal consumption demands.

10
RESIDUAL PRESSURE
• Residual pressure is that part of the total
available pressure not used to overcome friction
loss or gravity while forcing water through pipe,
• WATER LEFT OVER

11
FLOW PRESSURE
• Flow Pressure is the forward velocity pressure at
a discharge opening where water is flowing.
• GPM can be calculated from the flow pressure if
the size of the opening is known.
• Flow pressure can be measured with a pitot gauge.

12
FRICTION LOSS
• Friction loss the loss of pressure created by
the turbulence of water moving against the
interior walls of hose or pipe.

13
WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS3 Types
• Gravity System Water source is located at a
higher elevation than the distribution system.
• Direct Pumping System Water is mechanically
pumped.
• Combination System Water is pumped to elevated
storage tanks and gravity provides distribution
pressure.

14
FREINDSHIP FIRE RESCUE
• RESCUE ENGINE
• 2002 Spartan/Marion
• 1500 gal pump
• Single Stage Pump
• 500 Gal Booster Tank
• 40 Gal Foam Tank
• WAGON
• 1997 Seagrave
• 1500 gal Pump
• Single Stage Pump
• 750 Gal Booster Tank

15
SOUTH END FIRE RESCUE
• WAGON 5
• 1987 Seagrave
• 1500 GPM Pump
• Two Stage Pump
• 500 Gal Tank
• ENGINE 5
• 2002 Pierce Dash
• 1500 GPM Pump
• Two Stage Pump
• 750 Gal Tank
• 40 Gal Foam Tank

16
SHAWNEE FIRE RESCUE
• WAGON 4
• 1996 Seagrave
• 1500 GPM Pump
• Two Stage Pump
• Tank 500 gal
• ENGINE 4
• 2006 Pierce Lance
• 1500 GPM Pump
• Two Stage Pump
• 500 Gal Tank
• 40 Gal Foam Tank

17
CLASS A PUMPER
• A NFPA rating test for pumpers that indicates the
pumper can pump
• 100 rated capacity _at_ 150 PSI
• 70 capacity _at_ 200PSI
• 50 capacity _at_ 250 PSI

18
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
• Nearly all fire apparatus today utilize the
centrifugal pump.
• Centrifugal pumps are classified as a nonpositive
displacement pump because it does not pump a
definite amount of water with each revolution.

19
CENTRIFUGAL PUMP
• Centrifugal force pushes water from the center to
the outer edge of the pump.
• Water is thrown further as rotation speed
increases.

20
CENTRIFUGAL FIRE PUMPS
• Single Stage Pump A pump with one shaft and one
impeller
• Two Stage Pump A pump with one shaft and two
impellers in separate chambers.

21
Positive Displacement Pumps
• Positive Displacement Pump Mainly used as primer
pumps to displace air from Centrifugal pumps.
Positive displacement pumps are either piston,
rotary gear or rotary vane pumps.

22
Transfer Valve
• Parallel Position or Volume Each of the
impellers takes water from the source and
delivers it to the discharge. Each impeller flows
50 of the total flow.
• Pressure Position or Series All the water from
the intake manifold is directed into the eye of
the first impeller and then into the eye of the
second impeller.

23
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24
Transfer Valve
• Transfer valve needs to be in the Parallel or
Volume position when it is necessary to supply
more than one half the rated capacity of the
pump.
• In most cases the transfer valve should not be
operated with a discharge pressure exceeding 75
PSI.

25
Transfer Valve
• If there is any question as to the proper
operation of the transfer valve, it is better to
be in parallel or volume than in series or
pressure.
• To raise your RPM place the transfer valve in
Parallel or volume.

26
Pressure Control Devices
• Purpose of a pressure control device is to
protect the Firefighters hand line against undue
pressure rise. It helps prevent a burst line and
mechanical damage to the pump from a water
hammer.
• There are two types of pressure control
devices Relief Valve and Engine Governor.

27
Pressure Governor
• Pressure governor controls the pressure of the
pump by varying the speed of the engine rather
than controlling the flow of water.
• Pressure control devices should be used when more
than one discharge line is being used and during
relay operations.

28
RELIEF VALVE
• Relief valve is installed in a line which
connects from the suction side of the pump to the
discharge side. When pressure on the discharge
side of the pump exceeds the preset value
pressure, the relief valve opens and permits the
water to flow directly from the discharge
manifold back into the intake manifold.

29
Relief Valve
• When setting the relief valve, the pressure on
the pump should be adjusted with all the desired
lines open and flowing the full amount of water.
The relief valve controls the pressure of the
pump by changing the amount of water flowing
through the pump.

30
RELIEF VALVE
31
PUMP GAUGESMASTER INTAKE
• The master intake gauge ( Vacuum or Compound
gauge) is capable of measuring either positive or
negative pressure.
• This gauge is calibrated from 0 to 600 PSI
positive pressure and from 0 to 30 inches of
vacuum on the negative side.

32
PUMP GAUGESDischarge Gauge
• The pump discharge pressure gauge registers the
pressure as it leaves the pump, but before it
reaches the gauges for each individual discharge
line.
• It must be calibrated to measure 600 PSI, unless
the pumper is equipped to supply high pressure
fog streams, in which case the gauge may be
calibrated up to 1000 PSI

33
Pump Drains
• Most connections to the pump are equipped with
drain valve on the line side of the control
valve. On the discharge fitting, these drain
provide a way for the driver operator to relieve
the pressure from the hose line after the
discharge valve and nozzle have both been closed.

34
SAFETY REMINDER
35
DRAFTING
• To draft you need to create a pressure
differential which allows atmospheric pressure
acting on the surface of the water to force water
into the fire pump.
• When enough air has been evacuated to reduce the
atmospheric pressure inside the fire pump and
intake hose a negative vacuum is created causing
the water to rise into the intake hose and pump.

36
DRAFTING
• The most important factor in choosing a draft
site is the amount of water available at that
site.
• Always use a strainer when drafting
• There should be minimum of 24 of water over the
strainer and around the strainer
• In most circumstance, the maximum lift is no more
than 25 feet.
• Maximum theoretical lift 33.8 feet

37
DRAFTING
• Lift is the distance between the fire pump and
source of the water. ( from center of the pump to
the top of the water)
• AS the lift or length of intake hose increases,
the capacity of the pump decreases.

38
DRAFTING
• If operating a two stage pump, the transfer valve
should be in the volume or parallel position
during priming.
• Most priming pumps are intended to work best when
engine RPM are set between 1000 and 1200
• Priming time is typically 10 to 15 seconds, but
should not prime more than 30 seconds for pumps
of 1000 GPM and no more than 45 seconds for pumps
over 1250 GPM

39
DRAFTING
• After the pump has been successfully primed,
increase the throttle before attempting to open
any discharges.
• Open discharge valve slowly while watching the
discharge pressure.
• If the discharge pressure continues to drop,
momentarily operating the primer may eliminate
the air still trapped in the pump.

40
DRAFTING
noted with no change in the flow rate. This is an
indication that a blockage is developing

41
STRAINERS
42
LOW LIFT STRAINER
43
DRY HYDRANT
44
Priming problems
• Air leaks
• Loose hard sleeve/flex sleeve connection
• Loose discharge caps
• Open drains or open bleeders valves

45
Priming Problems
• Clogged Strainers
• No oil in Primer Reservoir
• Primer not activated in required time
• End of suction hose not submerged
• High Suction Lift (20)
• High point in suction line
• Improper Engine Speed

46
Cavitations
• Is when water is being discharged from the pump
faster than it is coming into the pump.
• Indications that a pump is cavitating
• The hose stream will fluctuate
• Pressure gauge will fluctuate
• The pump will be noisy, sounding like gravel is
passing through the pump

47
FOAM
• Most foam concentrates are intended to be mixed
with 94 to 99 water. ( when using 3 foam
concentration, 97 parts water mixed with 3 parts
foam concentrate equals 100 parts foam solution)

48
HYDROCARBON FUELS
• Hydrocarbon fuels are petroleum based and have a
specific gravity that is less than one, therefore
they float on Water.
• Hydrocarbon fuels are immiscible, that is they
will not mix with water.

49
POLAR SOLVENT FUELS
• Polar Solvents are flammable/combustible liquids
that have an attraction for water.
• Polar Solvents are miscible, that is they
dissolve in water.
• Polar Solvents are alcohol, acetone, ketones,
ethers, and acid.

50
FOAM INDUCTION
• Induction Uses the pressure energy in the stream
of water to induct foam concentration into the
stream.
• This is companioned by using a In-Line educator.
The In-Line educator has a hose that goes down
into the foam and when the water passes through
the orifice of the hose it creates a suction that
draws the foam out of the pail.

51
WFRD APPARATUS FOAM TANKS
• Rescue Engine 1 and Engine 5 use Universal Gold
AFFF 1/3
• Hydrocarbon and Polar Solvent fire in depth use
3
• Hydrocarbon spill fire use 1
• Engine 4 uses Class A foam only

52
WFRD FOAM
• Light Water AFFF Foam
• Hydrocarbon Fuels 3 concentrate 97 water
• Polar Fuel 6 concentrate 94 water.
• WFRD foam is stored at the Sludge building in 5
gal pails and 55 gal drums.

53
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54
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55
SOG-06-06Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• Factors That Influence Friction Loss
• Diameter of the hose
• Length of the hose line
• Quantity of GPM of water flow
• Type of nozzle
• Elevation
• Appliances used ( Wyes and Siamese )
• Master Stream devices

56
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• Other Less Significant Factors
• Snaked hose lines
• Poor inner lining of hose

57
Standardized Hydraulic PracticesFORMULA FOR
FRICTION LOSS
• FLCQ2L
• FL Friction loss in the entire hose line.
• C Coefficient determined by the size of the
• hose.
• Q GPM flow divided by 100
• L Length of hose divided by 100

58
Standardized Hydraulic PracticesCoefficient of
Friction
• Size of Hose Coefficient
• 3/4 Booster Line 1000
• 1 Booster Line 150
• 1 ½ Hose 24
• 1 ¾ Hose 15.5
• 2 ½ Hose 2
• Single 3 Hose .8
• Dual 3 Hose .2
• Single 4 Hose .2
• (1) 4 (1) 3 Hose .1

59
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• Nozzle Nozzle Pressure GPM
• 1 ¾ Fog 100 PSI 200
• 2 ½ Fog 100 PSI 250
• 2 Master Stream 100 PSI 500-1000
• 1 tip Hand line 50 PSI 200
• 1 1/8 Hand line 50 PSI 250
• 1 ¼ Hand line 50 PSI 300

60
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• Nozzle Nozzle Pressure GPM
• 1 ¼ Master Tip 80 PSI 400
• 1 3/8 Master Tip 80 PSI 500
• 1 ½ Master Tip 80 PSI 600
• 1 5/8 Master Tip 8o PSI 700
• 1 ¾ Master Tip 80 PSI 800
• 1 7/8 Master Tip 80 PSI 900
• 2 Master Tip 80 PSI 1000

61
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• NOZZLE PRESSURES
• Handheld smooth bore nozzle 50 PSI
• Maser Stream (smooth bore) 80 PSI
• All Fog Nozzles 100 PSI
• Except Chief nozzles are 75 PSI
( for test purpose all Fog nozzles are calculated
at 100 PSI )

62
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• Calculating Friction Loss
• Wyes and Siamese Add 10 PSI
• Master Streams Add 20 PSI
• Elevation add 5 PSI per floor or ½ PSI per
foot. Descending elevation subtract 5 PSI or ½
PSI per foot.
• Pre-Piped Waterways 20 PSI

63
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• To Calculate Friction Loss
• FORMULA FOR ATTACK PUMPER
• FLCQ2L Nozzle Pressure
• FORMULA FOR SUPPLY PUMPER
• FLCQ2L and add 40 PSI for residual Pressure

64
Standardized Hydraulic Practices
• Supplying protective sprinkler and standpipe
system shall be at 150 PSI at the Siamese.
• If a high rise pack is employed charge the system
at 175 PSI
• Start out pressure for Truck 2 and Ladder 2 will
be 150 PSI

65
Standardized Hydraulic PracticesSupply Operations
• Supply hose load shall be finished off so that
the lead coupling is visible and secured when
line is pulled.
• A minimum of 25 of hose is to accompany the
coupling when the line is pulled.
• 3 or 4 supply lines are to be filled with
water before the throttle is advanced.

66
Standardized Hydraulic PracticesSupply Operations
• Starting pressure for 3 hose is 100 PSI and Max
targeted Pressure is 200 PSI
• Starting Pressure for 4 hose is 75 PSI and Max
targeted pressure is 175 PSI
• Supply pumper can make a one time 25 PSI
adjustment to either lower or raise the water
flow ( if requested by the attack pumper). If the
flow needs adjusted again the supply pumper will
need to calculate the flow.

67
HYDRANT RESIDUAL
• To calculate how much water is left in a hydrant.
• Percent Drop Static minus Residual X100
• Static
• 0-10 Drop 3 times amount being used
• 11-15 Drop 2 times
• 16-25 Drop Same amount being used
• 25 Drop More water might be available, but
not as much as is being used

68
Hydraulic Problems
• C (X) Q2 (X) L () NP () E () SA
• C Coefficient
• Q GPM flow divided by 100
• L Length of hose
• NP Nozzle Pressure
• E Elevation
• SA Special Appliances

69
TEST QUESTIONS
• ARE IN BOLD PRINT AND GOLD WRITING