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Human Reproduction

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To understand the hormonal controls in sperm production ... Cross-section of the Seminiferous Tubule. Anatomy of the Seminiferous Tubule ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Reproduction


1
Human Reproduction
2
Objectives
  • To identify the anatomy of the Male Reproductive
    System
  • To understand the hormonal controls in sperm
    production
  • To identify the anatomy of the Female
    Reproductive System
  • To understand the hormonal controls involved in
    the 4 stages of the Menstrual Cycle

3
Battle of the sexes!!!
Are males and females all that different? Well..
Yes And No!
4
Lets Compare
  • Male System simple!
  • Female System complicated !!
  • Lets look at the Male System first.
  • All it does is produce 2-4 million sperm cells
    per day starting at puberty and continuing until
    the day you die!

5
Male Anatomy
6
Cross-section of the Seminiferous Tubule
7
Anatomy of the Seminiferous Tubule
  • Spermatagonia 2n reproductive cells that
    undergo meiosis to produce haploid sperm cells
  • Interstitial Cells Produce testosterone
  • Sertoli Cells provide nourishment for the
    developing sperm cells

8
Endocrine System
9
Hormonal Control of Sperm Production
  • It all starts in your..BRAIN!!
  • The Hypothalamus secretes many hormones into your
    blood including GnRH which stimulates the
    Pituitary to secrete 2 hormones called FSH
    Follicle Stimulating Hormone LH
    Lutenizing Hormone
  • FSH stimulates sperm production
  • LH stimulates testosterone production

10
Testosterone
  • Promotes more sperm production AND the
    development of secondary sex characteristics
  • Negative Feedback
  • As levels of testosterone rise the hypothalamus
    detects the levels and
  • stops the production of GnRH which
  • stops the production of LH which..
  • reduces the production of testosterone
  • This is called Negative Feedback

11
Hormonal Feedback
Hypothalamus
Releasinghormone
Anteriorpituitary
Negative feedback
LH
FSH
Spermproduction
Testosterone production
12
Positive feedback
  • As dropping testosterone levels are detected, the
    _____________ starts to release ___________,
    which causes the __________gland to release
    ____________, which increases the production of
    ______________.
  • This is called Positive Feedback

13
Sperm Cells
14
Semen
  • Semen, not to be confused with seaman, is the
    fluid that sperm cells swim in.
  • There are three glands that secrete the fluids
  • Prostate gland secretes an alkaline buffer that
    neutralizes the acidic environment of the vagina.
  • Seminal vesicles secrete a fructose solution
    that provides energy for the sperm cells
  • Cowpers gland secretes a mucous that lines the
    urethra to prevent the sperm from contacting any
    urine residue

15
Female Anatomy
16
It all starts in the Brain (again)!
17
Menstrual Cycle
  • 28 day cycle that begins at puberty and continues
    until menopause
  • Consists of 4 stages
  • Menstruation (your period)
  • Follicle Stage
  • Ovulation
  • Corpus Luteum Stage

18
Menstrual Cycle
19
1 Menstruation
  • 4-6 days
  • Endometrium and unfertilized egg are removed from
    the uterus.
  • Pituitary gland releases FSH which stimulates the
    follicles in the ovaries.

20
Ovary and Follicles
21
2 Follicle Stage
  • One follicle usually becomes the chosen one and
    continues to enlarge.
  • The ovaries release Estrogen
  • Rising levels of Estrogen send negative feedback
    to the Pituitary stopping the production of FSH
    and positive feedback initiating the release of
    LH.
  • Estrogen causes the endometrium to thicken

22
3 Ovulation
  • Around day 14, LH levels are at their highest and
    cause the stimulated follicle to rupture and
    release its egg.
  • The egg is swept by the fimbria into the oviduct
  • You are most vulnerable to becoming pregnant!

23
4 Corpus Luteum Stage
  • The ruptured follicle changes into a yellowish
    structure called the Corpus Luteum.
  • It releases estrogen and progesterone (pregnancy
    hormone)
  • If pregnancy results
  • Estrogen and progesterone levels stay high,
    preventing the release of FSH by the pituitary
    (NF)

24
4 Corpus Luteum Stage
  • If pregnancy does not occur
  • Estrogen and progesterone levels drop, causing
    the endometrium to deteriorate and menstruation
    begins again.
  • Dropping levels of estrogen and progesterone
    cause the pituitary to begin releasing FSH (PF)

25
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28
Review of the Menstrual Cycle
29
Birth Control Pills
  • Trick your body into thinking it is pregnant.
  • If your body thinks it is pregnant, you wont
    ovulate.
  • Without an egg being released, you cannot become
    pregnant.
  • Each pill has different amounts of progesterone.
  • The pill can be prescribed to regulate your
    period because of the specific levels of hormones
    found in each pill

30
Pregnancy Tests
  • Check for the presence of hCG (Human Chorionic
    Gonadotrophin) in the mothers urine
  • The fertilized egg releases hCG

31
Terms to remember
  • Fertilization union of egg and sperm inside the
    oviduct. Fertilization and Implantation
  • Implantation attachment of fertilized egg into
    the endometrium 6 to 8 days after fertilization.
  • Gastrulation 16 to 18 days after fertilization
  • Embryo term used to refer to the developing
    ball of cells after gastrulation up to 8 weeks.
  • Fetus after 8-10 weeks

32
8 months
4 weeks
5 months
33
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