Mental Models and Network Pedagogy - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – Mental Models and Network Pedagogy PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 11d106-OTc5Z



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

Mental Models and Network Pedagogy

Description:

a representation of previous experience of a domain. reflects what we ... Seel's opinion (1995) Final Questions. HCI Laboratory. University of Teesside ... Seel ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:58
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 54
Provided by: professorp2
Learn more at: http://www.scm.tees.ac.uk
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Mental Models and Network Pedagogy


1
Mental Models and Network Pedagogy
Philip Barker ENABLE99 Presentation Espoo,
Finland 2nd June, 1999 Human-Computer
Interaction Laboratory University of
Teesside Cleveland, UK
2
Overview
  • Introduction
  • What are Mental Models?
  • Why are they Important?
  • How are the Studied?
  • Network Pedagogy
  • Concluding Remarks

3
1. Introduction
  • knowledge and skills
  • innate limitations
  • augmented performance
  • performance support
  • skilled behaviour

4
The Importance of Knowledge and Skills
Task Domain Goal fulfilment via Task Execution
5
Knowledge Defined
  • a representation of previous experience of a
    domain
  • reflects what we know about a topic
  • usually developed through observation,
    exploration, experiment and inference
  • collectively referred to as learning processes

6
Skills Defined
  • skills are affective processes that we use in
    order to solve problems and achieve goals
  • they may be innate or acquired
  • usually improve with practice
  • there is a limit to improvement

7
Innate Limitations
  • We are all subject to the limitations of our
    natural abilities.
  • Many skills are subject to the Power Law of
    Practice

How can we improve performance beyond our natural
abilities?
8
Augmented Performance
  • We must consider tools and techniques (called
    performance aids) that will enable us to augment
    our own individual abilities.

Group
9
Using Technological Support
10
Performance Support
  • EPSS
  • DPSS
  • MPSS

11
Performance Support
  • EPSS
  • DPSS
  • MPSS

Further details http//www-scm.tees.ac.uk/users/p
hilip.barker/edmedia99 presentation.ppt and
paper.htm
12
Skilled Behaviour
  • Can we build learning systems that will enable
    users to develop skilled behaviour in a minimal
    time span at minimal cost?
  • We need to study the relationship between
    knowledge and expert/skilled behaviour.
  • An important steping stone in achieving this is
    an understanding of mental models.

13
2. What are Mental Models?
  • What is Knowledge?
  • How do we Know Things?
  • The Role of Memory
  • Types of Knowledge
  • Cognitive Structures
  • Mental Models Defined

14
What is Knowledge?
put
stimuli
Memory
fetch
behaviour
Knowledge is what we have in our heads and
which controls higher order behaviour.
15
Knowing Things
  • Verbatim Knowledge
  • poem
  • song
  • speech
  • multiplication tables
  • Procedures
  • generic (eg long multiplication)
  • specific (eg key recognition - largest off small
    ring)
  • Mental Images
  • house
  • car
  • person
  • Mental Models
  • rich structures based on a variety of
    representational techniques

16
The Role of Memory
Transient Memory
Stimuli
Stimuli
Working Memory (Short Term Memory
Long Term Memory
17
Types of Knowledge
  • tacit and explicit
  • private and public
  • local and global
  • declarative and procedural

18
Some Definitions
  • Declarative Knowledge
  • - facts and figures
  • - relationships

Procedural Knowledge - how to do things
NB The recall versus the rule debate (eg
multiplication)
19
Cognitive Structures
  • simple associations
  • lists
  • plans
  • schemata
  • scripts
  • simple models
  • complex models

20
Mental Models Defined
  • According to Rogers et al
  • mental models are representations in the head
    of experiences gained through the process of
    living

21
Models and Model Building
rules
properties
Associated Object
Generic Class
referent
e.g. Jim
MENTAL MODELS
Associated Object
Generic Class
referent
e.g. house
Generic Class
specific properties
specific rules
22
3. Why are they Important?
  • general points
  • dialogue and knowledge transfer
  • human-computer interaction
  • teaching and learning
  • the mental model hypothesis

23
General Points
  • reduce memory overheads
  • reduce complexity
  • allow derivation of information
  • support cognitive processing
  • dynamic character

24
Dialogue and Knowledge Transfer
experiments
experiments
knowledge transfer
books
books
dialogue
environments and experiences
environments and experiences
Computer Mediation
dialogue
dialogue
25
Mental Models in HCI
26
The Role of Interfaces
  • communicate system image to user
  • teach user about system
  • help user to develop skills
  • help user to achieve goals
  • map intent onto results
  • enable tasks to be performed
  • provide handles onto system functionality

27
Interface Agents
28
Designing Learning Environments
29
A Research Problem
Task Domain
Skilled Behaviour
Performance
Skills
Knowledge
30
Mental Model Hypothesis
  • The quality of a persons mental models
    determines the quality of task performance in a
    given problem domain.

31
4. How are they Studied?
  • Representational Spaces
  • Basic Techniques
  • Experimental Design
  • Case Study
  • Findings

32
Study Spaces
33
Basic Techniques
  • diagramming
  • concept maps
  • hierarchy diagrams
  • rating
  • sorting
  • laddering
  • teach-back
  • think aloud
  • acton sequences

34
Applicability of Methods
  • Different techniques can capture
  • (a) different aspects of mental models, and
  • (b) the same aspects in different ways

35
Experimental Design
  • identify domain to be studied (eg Web browsing)
  • select participants (eg 1st Year Students)
  • identify measurement techniques to be used (eg
    concept mapping, laddering, teachback)
  • design scenario involving these techniques
  • rate solutions against an experts answer
  • additionally, rate task performance (using
    metrics such as time on task, error counts,
    quality of solution. and so on)

36
Case Study - Word for Windows
  • applied these techniques to measuring mental
    models students had of Word for Windows
  • Experiment 1 (richness of mental models)
  • (1) concept elicitation
  • (2) sorting
  • (3) laddering
  • (4) teachback
  • Experiment 2 (performance on task)
  • (1) Task using Word (Prepare an Invoice)
  • (2) Solutions compared with an Experts
  • Statistical Analysis

37
Findings
  • strong correlations found between those who
    performed well in Experiment 1 and the quality of
    solution observed in Experiment 2
  • results confirm mental model hypothesis
  • two basic types of model
  • (1) generic - applicable across all systems
  • (2) specific - relevant to a particular system
  • represented as hierarchical tree structures
  • object hierarchies
  • command hierarchies
  • states of system
  • transitions and transformations between states

38
4. Network Pedagogy
  • definition
  • principle
  • techniques
  • examples
  • results
  • mental models

39
Definition
  • Network pedagogy refers to the use of computer
    network systems for the support of and/or
    delivery of teaching and learning

40
Definition
  • Network pedagogy refers to the use of computer
    network systems for the support of and/or
    delivery of teaching and learning

What are the implications of this for the
development of mental models?
41
Principle
Time
Network interactions provide a powerful mechanism
for stimulating the growth and adaptation of
mental models.
42
Techniques
  • delivery
  • browsing
  • monitoring
  • email
  • chat
  • conferencing

43
Examples
  • using networks to provide access to teaching
    material
  • development of new teaching strategies
  • using networks to support self-study
  • lifelong learning applications

44
Results
Gain
http//www.nn.com/results.htm
45
Implications for Studying Mental Models
  • results suggest richer mental models are being
    performed
  • however, this needs to be confirmed
  • how can mental models in network environments be
    studied?
  • appropriate techniques need to be developed

46
5. Concluding Remarks
  • Our Own Position on Mental Models
  • van Merriënboers view (1997)
  • Seels opinion (1995)
  • Final Questions

47
Our Own View
  • Research into the development of mental models is
    a fundamental requirement if we are to gain a
    complete understanding of teaching and learning
    activities

48
van Merriënboers view
  • from an instructional point of view, it may be
    worthwhile to think in terms of mental models
    because they provide a higher level of reasoning
    about the knowledge underlying skilled
    performance

49
Seel suggests that
  • learning a complex cognitive skill can be
    regarded as the development of increasingly
    complex mental models that describe both the
    procedural and the declarative knowledge that is
    required for effectively solving problems at each
    stage of acquiring the skill

50
Final Questions
  • For any given skill, what mental models are
    needed?
  • How do we design learning experiences to
    facilitate the development of these models?
  • How do we create effective learning environments
    to generate the necessary learning experiences?

51
Contact Details
  • WWW Address
  • http//www-scm.tees.ac.uk/users/philip.barker
  • Email Address
  • Philip.Barker_at_tees.ac.uk

52
(No Transcript)
53
(No Transcript)
About PowerShow.com