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The Road to Revolution

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The American Revolution began when the first colonists ... Because of salutary neglect the Navigation Acts were rarely enforced. ... ( end of salutary neglect) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Road to Revolution


1
Chapter 7
  • The Road to Revolution

2
Roots of the Revolution
  • The American Revolution began when the first
    colonists set foot on America.
  • Distance Weakens authority great distance
    weakens authority greatly.
  • Sailing across the Atlantic in took 6 to 8 weeks
  • Colonists felt physically and spiritually
    separated from Europe.

.
1607 First Voyage to Jamestown
3
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4
The Mercantile Theory
  • A countrys economic wealth could be measured by
    the amount of gold or silver in its treasury.
  • To amass gold and silver, a country had to export
    more than it imported.
  • If the mother country lacked natural resources,
    she must colonize in order to get them.
  • Colonies could supply natural resources and
    provide a guaranteed market for exports

5
Navigation Acts
  • Passed to help enforce mercantilism
  • The Navigation Laws restricted commerce to and
    from the colonies to English vessels.
  • European goods consigned to America had to land
    first in England, where custom duties could be
    collected.
  • Gold and silver was constantly draining out of
    America because they had no currency

6
The Merits of Mercantilism
  • London Paid liberal bounties to those colonials
    who produced ships parts and ships stores.
  • Tobacco planters could only ship to Britain but
    they maintained a strong monopoly.
  • Enjoyed rights of an Englishman and unusual
    opportunities of self-government.
  • They were protected by the strongest army and
    navy in the world
  • Because of salutary neglect the Navigation Acts
    were rarely enforced.

7
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8
The Menace of Mercantilism
  • Britain began to enforce its mercantilist
    policies vigorously after 1763. (end of salutary
    neglect)
  • Americans couldnt buy, sell, ship, or
    manufacture under the favorable conditions to
    them.
  • Colonist felt their economic initiative was
    stifled.

9
Sugar Act
  • First law ever passed by Parliament for raising
    tax revenue in the colonies.
  • 1764 Act that put a three-cent tax on foreign
    refined sugar and increased taxes on coffee,
    indigo, and certain kinds of wine. It banned
    importation of rum and French wines.

10
Stamp Act
  • After the French and Indian War Great Britain had
    a huge debt.
  • Planned to ask the colonist to defray one-third
    the cost of maintaining a garrison of 10,000
    redcoats in America.
  • The Stamp Act mandated the use of stamped paper
    of the affixing of stamps, certifying payment of
    tax.
  • Stamps were required on bills of sale for about
    50 trade items as well as on certain types of
    commercial and legal documents.

11
George Grenville
  • He became notorious as First Lord of the Treasury
    when he established colonial trade regulations
    and taxation policies which alienated the
    colonists. He set up these policies through two
    sets of legislation, the Revenue Act of 1764 and
    the Stamp Act of 1765, as well as supplementary
    reinforcement of regulations to increase the
    effectiveness of revenue collection. His view of
    colonial taxation was in line with government
    discussions from 1762, which indicated Britain's
    belief that the colonists should bear part of the
    expense for the defense forces that would need to
    be maintained in the Americas after the French
    and Indian War.

12
This engraving, Resistance to the Stamp Act,
depicts an angry Boston crowd burning a pile of
stamps in resistance of the Stamp Act of 1765. It
is noteworthy that the artist included women and
an African-American among the protesters.
13
Uproar Created from Stamp Act
  • Anger because it was an internal tax tax on
    goods made within America
  • No taxation without representation.
  • Creation of the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
  • Stamp Act Congress

14
No Taxation without Representation
  • Americans held to the view of actual
    representation, meaning that in order to be taxed
    by Parliament, the Americans rightly should have
    actual legislators seated and voting in London.
  • The British, on the other hand, supported the
    concept of virtual representation, which was
    based on the belief that a Member of Parliament
    virtually represented every person in the empire.

15
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
  • Samuel Adams and Paul Revere headed the Sons of
    Liberty in Massachusetts. The Sons there also
    organized demonstrations, enforced boycotts and
    occasionally resorted to violence to advance
    their agenda. Similar groups were later formed in
    the Carolinas, Virginia and Georgia.
  • Membership in the Sons was largely middle class
    with more upper-class representation than lower.

16
Stamp Act Congress
  • 27 delegates from 9 different colonies attended a
    meeting in New York.
  • First official colonial unity
  • The delegates approved a 14-point Declaration of
    Rights and Grievances, formulated largely by John
    Dickinson of Pennsylvania.
  • Organized boycotts and non-importation agreements
    and hurt the British so much that they repealed
    the Stamp Act.
  • Passed the Declaratory Act in its place

17
Declaratory Act
  • an act passed by the British Parliament after
    repeal of the Stamp Act. The act stated that the
    king and Parliament had the right and power to
    make laws that were binding on the colonies "in
    all cases whatsoever," even though American
    colonists were unrepresented in Parliament.

18
Quartering Act
  • In March 1765, Parliament passed the Quartering
    Act to address the practical concerns of such a
    troop deployment. Under the terms of this
    legislation, each colonial assembly was directed
    to provide for the basic needs of soldiers
    stationed within its borders. Specified items
    included bedding, cooking utensils, firewood,
    beer or cider and candles. This law was expanded
    in 1766 and required the assemblies to billet
    soldiers in taverns and unoccupied houses.
  • New York refused and Great Britain suspended
    their colonial assembly

19
The Townshend Acts
  • Parliament passed a tax law that was clearly
    external in nature, on paint, paper, glass, lead
    and tea imported into the colonies.

Charles Townshend, Chancellor of the Exchequer
20
Currency Act
  • The Currency Act of 1764 was one of the many ways
    in which the British Parliament tried to control
    the American colonies. This act prohibited the
    colonies from printing their own currency bills,
    and required them to use the system of the pound
    sterling instead.

21
Boston Massacre
  • On the evening of March 5, 1770, a crowd of about
    60 townspeople in Boston were harassing some ten
    Redcoats
  • Without orders but heavily provoked, they opened
    fire, wounding or killing eleven innocent
    citizens, including Crispus Attucks, the leader
    of the mob.

22
Paul Reveres Engraving
  • Paul Revere's famous engraving of the Boston
    Massacre. Interestingly, Crispus Atticus, the
    black man who provoked the riot, is not
    portrayed.

23
Crispus Attucks
24
Tea Act
  • The Tea Act, passed by Parliament in May of 1773,
    would launch the final spark to the revolutionary
    movement in Boston.
  • The act was not intended to raise revenue in the
    American colonies, and in fact imposed no new
    taxes
  • It was designed to prop up the East India Company
    which was floundering financially and burdened
  • This tea was to be shipped directly to the
    colonies, and sold at a bargain price.
  • The direct sale of tea, via British agents, would
    also have undercut the business of local
    merchants.

25
Boston Tea Party
  • On the evening of December 16th,1773 thousands of
    Bostonians and farmers from the surrounding
    countryside packed into the Old South Meeting
    house to hear Samuel Adams. Adams denounced the
    Governor for denying clearance for vessels
    wishing to leave with tea still on board. After
    his speech the crowd headed for the waterfront.
    From the crowd, 50 individuals emerged dressed as
    Indians. They boarded three vessels docked in the
    harbor and threw 90,000 pounds of tea overboard.

26
Boston Tea Party
The Boston Tea Party by Nathaniel Currier
27
Committees of Correspondence
  • The colonies, in order to spread propaganda and
    keep the rebellious moods, set up committees of
    correspondence the first was started by Samuel
    Adams.

Samuel Adams
28
Intolerable Acts
  • Punishment for the Boston Tea Party
  • Known as the Coercive Acts in Great Britain
  • The Boston Port Act
  • The charter of Massachusetts was revoked
  • Restrictions put on town meetings
  • British officials accused of crimes would be
    charged in Great Britain

29
The Quebec Act
  • The administrative boundaries of Quebec were
    extended south to the Ohio and west to the
    Mississippi river.
  • Recognition was also given to the Roman Catholic
    Church in Quebec
  • The Quebec Act was not part of Lord Norths
    punitive program, but many Americans missed the
    distinction and regarded the law as simply
    another "Intolerable Act."

30
1st Continental Congress
  • Most memorable response to the Intolerable Acts
  • 55 delegates from 12 colonies (all except
    Georgia) attended a meeting in Philadelphia to
    consider ways of redressing colonial grievances.
  • Deliberated for seven weeks, from September to
    October of 1774

31
Accomplishments of 1st Continental Congress
  • Drew up a Declaration of Rights and Grievances to
    King George III
  • Created The Association, a complete boycott of
    British goods
  • Non importation
  • Non exportation
  • Non consumption

32
Carpenters Hall, Philadelphia
Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia
33
Lexington and Concord
  • In April 1775, the British commander in Boston
    sent a detachment of troops 16 miles to nearby
    Lexington and Concord to seize supplies and to
    capture Sam Adams and John Hancock.
  • Word of the British departure from Boston was
    quickly spread by Paul Revere in his famous ride,
    and by the time the British reached the village
    green at Lexington

34
The Shot Heard Round the World
  • At Lexington, the British found 70 Minutemen
    waiting for them under the command of Capt. John
    Parker .
  • A Shot was fired and the American Revolution was
    begun. The British then fired upon the Minutemen,
    killing 8 and wounding 10. The British suffered 1
    wounded.
  • The British continued on to Concord and were
    defeated by the Minutemen.

35
Ready in a Minutes NoticeMinutemen
36
British Advantages
  • Britain had a population advantage 7.5 million
    people to Americas 2 million,
  • Superior naval power
  • Great wealth.
  • 30,000 German mercenary soldiers (Hessians)
  • Americas lack of unity

37
American Advantages
  • Need only hold off the British to win war
  • Home field advantage
  • Britain had to control a vast amount of territory
    to win
  • Americans had great leaders like George
    Washington and Ben Franklin.
  • French aid
  • The Americans enjoyed the moral advantage in
    fighting for a just cause.
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