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Flatbed trucks, dump trucks and pickups shall not be used t


Flatbed trucks, dump trucks and pickups shall not be used to transport workers, ... (g) Pickup and dump truck tailgates shall be closed and secured and workers shall ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Flatbed trucks, dump trucks and pickups shall not be used t

  • The following summarized statement from John
    Howard, M.D., Director of the National Institute
    for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) truly
    supports the importance of developing and
    maintaining an effective vehicle safety
    management program
  • Work-related roadway crashes are the leading
    cause of death from traumatic injuries in the
    U.S. workplace. They continue to exact a
    substantial toll on American workers, accounting
    for nearly 12,000 deaths between 1992 and 2000.
    Deaths and injuries from these roadway crashes
    result in increased costs to employers and lost
    productivity. They bring needless pain and
    suffering to family, friends, and coworkers.
  • Prevention of work-related roadway crashes poses
    one of the greatest challenges in occupational
    safety. The roadway is a unique work
    environment. Compared with other work settings,
    employers ability to control working conditions
    and to exert direct supervisory controls is
    limited. Traffic volumes and road construction
    continue to increase. Workers may be pressured
    to drive faster and for longer periods and to use
    technologies that may lead to inattention to the
    driving task. The problem of work-related
    roadway crashes affects those who occasionally
    drive personal vehicles on the job as well as
    those who routinely drive commercial motor
    vehicles over long distances.
  • Despite these challenges, progress can be made in
    reducing the toll of work-related roadway crashes
    on American workers and their families.
    Employers, government agencies, policy makers,
    industry, and the research community must all
    work actively toward this goal.
  • This workshop is designed to not only provide
    insight into the contributors to work-related
    roadway crashes but also prevention strategies
    through a managed approach.
  • Objectives
  • Review the main elements of managing both
    vehicle and driver safety
  • Review OR-OSHA Div 2/Sub N OAR 437-002-0223
    Oregon Rules for Commercial and Industrial
  • This workshop does not specifically address
    traffic control and the safety of workers in work
    zones. For more information on traffic control
    and work zone safety, consult the Oregon
    Department of Transportations Traffic Control on
    State Highways for Short Term Work Zones and/or
    the Federal Highway Administrations Manual on
    Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD) Part 6.
    Also, NIOSH has an excellent resource titled
    Building Safer Highway Work Zones - Measures to
    Prevent Worker Injuries from Vehicles and
    Equipment NIOSH Publication No. 2001-128.
    OR-OSHA Public Education also offers a workshop
    (on-site only) on traffic control in work zones
    (Course 305).
  • The complete Foreword from Mr. Howard is
    published in the NIOSH Hazard Review
    Work-Related Roadway Crashes - Challenges and
    Opportunities for Prevention (NIOSH Publication
    No. 2003-119 Sept. 2003) available at

Please Note This material or any other material
used to inform employers of safety and health
issues or compliance requirements of Oregon OSHA
standards through simplification of the
regulations should not be considered a substitute
for any provisions of the Oregon Safe Employment
Act or for any standards issued by Oregon OSHA.
Why Manage Vehicle Safety?
  • Moral Aspect
  • Company Image
  • Employee Morale
  • Because you want to!
  • Financial Aspect
  • Direct Costs (workers comp premiums, medical
  • Indirect Costs (lost time, productive down
    time, property damage)
  • Higher workers comp premiums
  • Litigation
  • Customer relationships and loss of sales
  • Legal Aspect
  • Compliance with OSHA, DMV, DOT, Police, PUC,
  • The total cost of a vehicle accident usually
    exceeds the amount recovered from the insurance
    company. Accident control in a large motor
    vehicle fleet is critical because increased
    insurance premiums (among many other factors)
    reduce profits. This impact can be as
    devastating, if not more, to smaller fleets!
  • Safe vehicle operation is the result of training,
    skill, planning, and action, not chance.
    Unfortunately, many companies fail to pay enough
    attention to the safe operation of motor
    vehicles. The reason for this lapse may include
    the difficulties of organizing an adequate safety
    program and providing good driver and fleet
    supervision, and/or complacency.

  • Vehicle Safety Program
  • Vehicle Safety Program A written safety policy,
    developed, supported, and enforced by management.
  • Vehicle Safety Administrator A person
    designated to create and administer the safety
    program and to advise management. This person
    should be responsible for advising management on
    accident prevention and safety matters
    developing and promoting safety activities and
    work-injury prevention measures throughout the
    fleet studying and recommending fleet safety
    programs regarding equipment and facilities,
    personnel selection and training, and other
    phases of fleet operation evaluating driver
    performance and skill requirements conducting or
    arranging for effective safety training and
    prepare and disseminate safety educational
    material reviewing incidences/accidents to
    determine their causes and recommending
    corrective actions to management compiling and
    distributing statistics on accident-cause
    analyses and experience identifying problem
    persons, operations, and locations and
    maintaining individual driver-safety records and
    administering a safe-driver award incentive
  • A Vehicle Safety Program should include
  • A Driver Safety Program including driver
    selection procedures.
  • Continuous safety instruction and reminders
  • newsletters
  • bulletins and/or posters
  • booklets
  • meetings
  • media
  • direct conversations

  • A Driver Safety Program
  • Ensures competency
  • Initiates a driver training program
  • Ensures proper and effective supervision
  • Establishes performance goals, competency and
    skills levels by setting objectives
  • Requires periodic evaluations/reviews of
    performance and establishes appropriate
  • Sets requirements for initial and random drug
    screening (required for CDL)
  • Develops standards to determine ways accidents
    can be prevented
  • Requires and provides effective training on
    pre-trip inspections
  • Requires immediate reporting of every accident

total miles driven
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (1) Scope and Application (a) This
rule shall apply to all motor vehicles used in
employment. (b) All earth moving equipment such
as scrapers, loaders, agricultural and industrial
tractors, bulldozers, graders, and similar
equipment not covered by this rule shall be
covered by OAR 437, Division 3/O, 1926.602,
Material Handling Equipment. (2)
Definitions Commercial-Type Vehicles Motor
vehicles designed, used or maintained primarily
for the transportation of persons or material
over private or public roads. Commercial type
vehicles used to transport workers shall be
defined as (a) Class A vehicle A vehicle of
the bus type designed to carry 12 or more
workers or of the work crew type especially
built or accommodated for carrying
passengers. (b) Class B vehicle A vehicle
especially built or accommodated for transporting
work crews in compartments separate from space
used to transport supplies, tools and equipment
such as vehicles commonly used by public
utilities. (c) Class C vehicle A vehicle of the
flatbed, pickup body or dump truck body type, or
of similar open body construction. (d) Class D
vehicle A vehicle of the passenger car or
station wagon type. Industrial-Type Vehicles
Vehicles designed for nonhighway usage, primarily
for pulling trailers or other mobile loads,
straddle trucks such as lumber carriers, powered
industrial trucks, and other types of vehicles
especially designed for handling materials.
NOTE When the term vehicle is used in this
rule by itself, it is meant to include all
definitions found in OAR 437-002-0223(2). General
Requirements (3) Operation of Vehicles (a) No
employee under 18 years of age shall be permitted
to operate a commercial or industrial type
vehicle, tractor, power industrial truck or other
vehicles of like character. (b) No operator shall
operate any vehicle which is not in safe
condition. Any unsafe condition found on any
vehicle shall be corrected before the vehicle is
placed in service. (c) Only trained and
authorized operators shall be permitted to
operate a vehicle. Methods shall be devised to
train operators in the safe operation of
industrial-type vehicles. (d) No one but the
operator shall be permitted to ride on vehicles
unless safe riding facilities are provided for
each additional person authorized to ride. (e)
Vehicles shall not be driven up to anyone
standing in front of a stationary object. (f)
Vehicles shall not be routed across principal
plant thoroughfares and plant exits while work
shifts are changing unless pedestrian lanes are
provided and suitably guarded. (g) The
right-of-way shall be yielded to all emergency
vehicles. (h) Drivers of vehicles shall be
required to stop at blind crossings and corners
where necessary for safe operation.
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (i) Drivers of vehicles shall not
overtake and pass other vehicles at
intersections, blind spots, curves, and other
dangerous locations. (j) The operator shall be
required to look in the direction of travel, and
to have a clear view of the path of travel,
unless guided by a signal person who has a clear
view of the route. (k) Vehicles shall be
controlled manually while being pushed or towed
except when a tow bar is used. Special
precautions shall be taken when pushing vehicles
where view is obstructed. (l) No person shall be
allowed to stand or pass under the elevated
portion of a vehicle whether loaded or empty. (m)
Workers shall not remain under or work under
loads or units of materials being moved. (n)
Workers riding in motor vehicles having adequate
seating facilities or in vehicles not equipped
with sides and end gates at least 48 inches high
shall not stand while the vehicle is in motion,
except as permitted in OAR 437-002-0223(11)(e).
Passengers must wait for the vehicle to come to a
complete stop before boarding or leaving. (o) No
vehicle shall be loaded beyond its safe operating
capacity, and all loads shall be stable and
well-balanced. (p) Employees shall not occupy
cargo space in a loaded or partially loaded
vehicle while vehicle is in motion unless the
load is adequately shored, braced, or otherwise
secured. (q) No vehicle shall be driven if so
loaded as to be unstable or insecure. (r) Wheels
of vehicles being loaded shall be properly
blocked, in addition to having brakes set, where
this additional precaution is necessary to
prevent movement of vehicles. (s) When vehicles
are parked, the parking brake shall be set. The
wheels of vehicles parked on an incline shall be
blocked or chocked. (t) All equipment left
unattended at night, adjacent to a highway in
normal use, or adjacent to construction areas
where work is in progress, shall have appropriate
lights or reflectors, or barricades equipped with
appropriate lights or reflectors, to identify the
location of the equipment. (4) Hauling of
Explosives Prohibited No explosives shall be
hauled on any vehicle while it is engaged in
transporting workers. This rule shall not
prohibit the driver and one qualified person from
riding in a vehicle in which explosives are being
hauled. (5) Railroad Cars (a) Spotted railroad
cars shall have their brakes set, or wheels
blocked, to prevent cars from moving while being
loaded. (b) Derail or bumper blocks shall be
provided on spur railroad tracks where a rolling
car could contact cars being worked, or could
enter a building or a work area or traffic
area. (c) Workers shall not crawl under or pass
between railroad cars to cross tracks.
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (6) Overhead Wires Operating Near
Power Lines. For requirements when working
and/or operating vehicles around high voltage
power lines, see OAR 437, Division 2/S,
Electrical, Rules 437-002-0322, 437-002-0323,
437-002-0324, 437-002-0325, and 1910.333(b). (7)
Vehicle Components (a) A positive engine shut-off
shall be provided within reach of the operator
when in normal operating position. (b) Necessary
steps, ladders, handholds, or grab bars shall be
provided on vehicles in order to furnish safe
access to all accessible areas. Steps shall be
constructed or treated to be as slip-proof as
possible. (c) All vehicles whose pay load is
loaded by means of cranes, power shovels, loaders
or similar equipment shall have a cab shield or
canopy adequate to protect the operator from
shifting or falling materials. (d) The backs of
vehicle cabs which are exposed to shifting loads
shall be provided with a substantial bulkhead or
similar device. (e) Conventional steel vehicle
cabs and passenger areas must be capable of
withstanding potential impact to which they are
exposed. (f) Vehicles equipped with cabs shall
be provided with a door or doors. Doors provided
shall open easily. (g) All vehicles which are
equipped with roll-over protective structures,
and all commercial vehicles built after 1971
shall be equipped with safety belts for the
driver and for any passengers for whom space is
provided. (h) Materials being transported shall
not be carried in a manner which would prevent
doors of vehicle cabs from being opened. When
the load blocks the cab door on the one side of
the vehicle, means for easy escape shall be
provided, such as a knock-out windshield or an
opening in rear of drivers compartment leading
to rear of vehicle which is open or equipped with
a door which can be opened from the inside, or
similar means of emergency escape. (i) When
materials, equipment and tools of any type are
transported at the same time with workers, the
workers and driver shall be protected from the
hazards of such materials, equipment or tools by
substantial partitions or the securing of the
load. (8) Flashing Warning Lights Buses having a
seating capacity of 12 passengers or more which
are used to pick up and discharge worker
passengers on the roadway shall be equipped with
either a red flashing 4-light system or an amber
and red flashing 8-light system. (9)
Construction of Vehicles (a) Class A and B
vehicles shall be constructed or accommodated for
transporting passengers, and shall be equipped
with adequate seats and back rests firmly secured
in place, and with such sides and ends as
necessary to prevent persons from falling off the
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (b) Bus type vehicles having an
enclosed seating compartment capacity of 12 or
more workers, unless loaded from the rear, shall
be provided with an emergency exit not less than
24 inches wide by not less than 48 inches high
situated at the left side or rear of the vehicle.
Doors shall be provided on bus type vehicles and
shall be kept closed during transit and must
operate freely at all times. They must be
constructed as to be easily opened from either
inside or outside the vehicle. (10) Overhead
Protection Required Class A and B vehicles shall
be provided with bodies and tops of sufficient
strength to support the entire weight of the
fully loaded vehicle on its top or side if
overturned. Adequate means of escape and proper
ventilation shall be provided. (11) Class C
Vehicles Flatbed trucks, dump trucks and pickups
shall not be used to transport workers, except
when the following conditions are complied
with (a) Truck beds shall be adequately secured
to the truck frame. (b) Vehicles with tilting,
sliding or otherwise movable decks or bodies
shall have decks or bodies secured in a manner to
prevent accidental movement. Dump truck bodies
shall be secured or the hoist lever locked. (c)
Flatbed vehicles, when provided with seats for
the workers, shall be equipped with substantial
sides not less than 42 inches high, secured to an
end gate or the vehicle cab at the front end, and
either with a 42-inch high end gate across the
rear, secured to the vehicle sides, or with not
less than three chains or ropes securely fastened
across the back of the vehicle deck at the
following approximate heights the top rope or
chain 42 inches high, the intermediate 28 inches
high, and the bottom 14 inches high. Seats shall
be firmly secured and no openings larger than 6
inches vertical shall be permitted in sides or in
end gates. (d) Flatbed vehicles not provided with
seats shall be equipped with substantial sides
and end gates not less than 24 inches high and
workers shall be required to sit on the
floor. (e) If sides and end gates are not
provided on flatbed vehicles, not more than four
persons shall be permitted to ride behind the
truck cab, and then only if substantial handholds
are provided for their safety and they are
required to use the handholds. Handholds may
consist of (A) A 3/4-inch or larger pipe
secured to cab or cab guard (B) The top of the
cab guard (C) Slotted holes in cab guard
and (D) A wooden 2-inch by 4-inch bar secured to
cab or cab guard. All handholds shall be of a
convenient height. Workers under 16 years of age
shall not be permitted to ride in this
manner. (f) Flatbed trucks on which more than
four workers are required to stand shall have
substantial sides and end gates not less than 48
inches high with no openings larger than 6 inches
vertical. Sides and ends shall be secured as
required in paragraph (11)(c) above.
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (g) Pickup and dump truck tailgates
shall be closed and secured and workers shall sit
on the floor unless seats firmly secured in place
and substantial sides not less than 42 inches
high are provided. A chain or rope shall be
secured across the rear of such vehicles equipped
with seats. (h) When workers are permitted to sit
on low boxes or similar equipment, side rails
which will increase height of pickup and dump
truck bodies to not less than 36 inches shall be
added with no openings larger than 6 inches.
When heavy canvas is used as a top and sides and
secured to the vehicle sides, the addition of
side rails will not be required. (12) Number of
Passengers - Standees - Passenger Compartment All
Class A and B type vehicles equipped with seats
of any kind shall be provided with an aisle (or
passageway between seats) at least 12 inches in
width leading to the emergency exit. Workers
shall not sit on the floor in such aisles or
passageways while the vehicle is in motion. Not
more than one worker per row of seats shall be
permitted to stand. No workers shall be
permitted to stand or sit in the drivers
compartment ahead of the front row of seats.
Under no circumstances shall boards be placed
across an aisle to provide additional seating
space. Neither shall seats of any type be placed
in an aisle. Substantial handholds shall be
provided for standees. (13) Maximum Time or
Distance Permissible for Standees When workers
being transported, in any class of vehicle, are
required to stand during transit those persons
not provided with seats shall not be permitted to
stand for more than 1-hour, or for a greater
distance than 45 miles of vehicle travel,
whichever is the lesser. A rest period of not
less than 15 minutes shall be required before
continuing trip unless those standing are given
seats. (14) Passenger Compartments (a) Floors
and decks shall be suitable for safe footing. (b)
All openings between enclosed passenger
compartments and engine or exhaust at which fumes
or gases may enter shall be effectively
sealed. (c) Construction of enclosed passenger
compartments shall provide a reasonably
dust-proof and watertight unit. (d) Floors and
interior of sides and ends and tops of
compartments used for transporting workers shall
be free of inwardly protruding nails, screws,
splinters or other protruding objects which might
cause injury. (e) Whenever necessary to protect
workers from inclement weather conditions, a top
and facilities for closing the sides and ends
shall be provided. Tarpaulins or other such
removable protective devices shall be secured in
place during transit. (15) Windshields -
Windows (a) All vehicles with windshields shall
be equipped with powered wipers. Vehicles
operating in areas or under conditions that cause
fogging or frosting, shall be equipped with
operable windshield defogging or defrosting
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (b) Windshield and windows
installed on vehicles shall be of a safety glass
which will meet the requirements for safety
glazing material for use anywhere in a motor
vehicle as defined in the American National
Standards Institute, Safety Glazing Materials for
Glazing Motor Vehicles Operating on Land
Highways, No. Z26.1-1950 with addenda No.
Z26.1a-1964, or a material which will furnish
equivalent safety. (c) Defective or broken glass
in a vehicle which impairs the vision of the
operator shall be replaced. Broken or shattered
glass which could cause injury to occupants of
the vehicle shall be removed and replaced. (d)
Deposits on glass which impair the vision of the
operator shall be removed. (16) Brakes (a) All
vehicles shall be provided with brakes which are
capable of controlling the vehicle while fully
loaded on any grade over which they are to be
operated. (b) Parking brakes shall be able to
hold the loaded vehicle on any grade on which it
is operated, on any surface free of ice or
snow. (c) Brakes on all vehicles must be in safe
working condition at all times and shall be
tested as often as operating conditions warrant
during the time said vehicle is in use. (17)
Steering Steering or spinner knobs shall not be
attached to the steering wheel unless the
steering mechanism is of a type that prevents
road reactions from causing the steering
handwheel to spin. The steering knob shall be
mounted within the periphery of the wheel. (18)
Lights (a) Controlled lighting of adequate
intensity shall be provided in loading areas. (b)
Where general lighting in vehicle operating areas
is less than 2 foot candles per square foot,
vehicles shall be provided with lights which are
adequate to safely illuminate the path of
travel. (c) Vehicles which are operated at night
shall have sufficient light at the operators
station to enable the operator to perform his
work safely. (d) Whenever visibility conditions
warrant additional light, all vehicles in use
shall be equipped with at least two headlights
and two taillights in operable condition. (e) All
vehicles, except track and site-clearing
machines, shall be equipped with brake lights in
operable condition regardless of light
conditions. (19) Inspection, Testing,
Maintenance, and Repair (a) All vehicles shall be
checked at the beginning of each shift to assure
that they are in safe operating condition and
free of apparent damage that could cause failure
while in use. (b) Any defects which are found
during inspection, which materially affect the
safe operation of the vehicle will be corrected
before the vehicle is placed in service.
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (c) Any vehicle which develops
defects in parts vital to safe operation during a
work shift shall be removed from service until
necessary repairs are made. (d) A safety tire
rack, cage, or equivalent protection shall be
provided and used when inflating or mounting
tires on split rims, or rims equipped with
locking rings or similar devices. (e) Heavy
machinery, equipment, or parts which are
supported by slings, hoists, jacks, or other
devices, shall be blocked or cribbed to prevent
falling or shifting before employees are
permitted to work under or between them. (A)
Bulldozer and scraper blades, end-loader,
end-loader buckets, dump bodies, and similar
equipment, shall be either fully lowered or
blocked when being repaired or when not in
use. (B) All controls shall be in neutral with
motors stopped and brakes set, unless work being
performed requires otherwise. (f) Vehicles with
dump bodies shall be equipped with positive means
of support, permanently attached, and capable of
being locked in position to prevent accidental
lowering of the body. This device shall be used
to support the body when it is raised and left
unattended, or while maintenance or inspection
work is being done. (g) The battery shall be
disconnected prior to making repairs to a vehicle
electrical system where accidental closing of the
circuit could cause injury to workers. (h) All
vehicle replacement parts shall meet current
safety standards. (i) Any vehicle that emits
hazardous sparks or flames from the exhaust
system shall immediately be removed from service
and not returned to service until the hazardous
emission has been eliminated. (j) Compartments
for workers shall be kept in a clean and sanitary
condition, and workers shall assist in
maintaining such conditions. (20) Guards (a)
Wherever front or rear wheels on all types of
vehicles except pneumatic-tired earthmoving
equipment, are not guarded by the vehicle body
and present a hazard to workers, they shall be
guarded with wheel fenders, bumpers, or skirt
guards. These guards shall be designed to
prevent the operator, or other workers from being
struck by the wheels. (b) Vehicles with maximum
speed exceeding 20 mph shall be equipped so that
the operator is not exposed to material thrown
from the wheels. (21) Fueling (a) Smoking within
35 feet of vehicles being fueled is
prohibited. (b) Vehicle engines, except diesel
engines, shall be stopped while being fueled. (c)
Refueling of Class A and B vehicles shall be done
when vehicles are not occupied. (d) Fueling of
vehicles within 35 feet of any open fires, flame,
lights, or other sources of ignition is
prohibited. (e) Refilling vehicle tanks using
liquefied petroleum gases shall be done only
out-of-doors. Maximum quantity of fuel placed in
tanks shall not exceed that recommended by the
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (f) Any spillage of oil or fuel
shall be carefully washed away or completely
evaporated and the fuel tank filler cap replaced
before restarting engine. (22) Hauling of
Gasoline, etc. (a) Gasoline and other low flash
point liquids shall not be hauled on Class A, B
and D vehicles transporting workers except when
in U.L. approved, closed safety containers of not
more than 5 gallons capacity and provided such
containers are carried in a safe, suitable
location outside the passenger compartment. Such
containers shall be carried as far away from the
passenger compartment as possible and where they
will not block exit from the vehicle and shall be
firmly secured to prevent shifting or placed in
well-ventilated compartments or racks. (b)
Gasoline in containers larger than 5 gallons may
be transported in Class C vehicles provided all
workers ride in the cab of the vehicle or in a
separate compartment. (23) Warning Devices (a)
All vehicles shall be equipped with an audible
warning device which can be clearly heard above
the surrounding noise in the vicinity of the
vehicle. (b) Vehicles with an obstructed view to
the rear must have a backup alarm that can be
heard over the surrounding noise. If surrounding
noise prevents this or if there are so many
vehicles using backup alarms that they cannot be
distinguished from each other, flashing or strobe
lights are acceptable. The above does not apply
when (A) the vehicle backs up only when an
observer signals the driver that it is safe to
do so or (B) the operator verifies that there
is nobody behind the vehicle or that nobody
may enter the danger area without the operator.s
knowledge. (c) Adequate and appropriate traffic
controls must be provided for all operations on
or adjacent to a highway, street, or roadway.
The controls must conform to the Millennium
Edition of the (FHWA) Manual of Uniform Traffic
Control Devices (MUTCD), December 2000. You may
obtain a copy of the Millennium Edition from the
following organizations American Traffic Safety
Services Association, 15 Riverside Parkway, Suite
100, Fredericksburg, VA 22406-1022 Telephone
1-800-231-3475 Fax (540) 368-1722
www.atssa.com Institute of Transportation
Engineers, 1099 14th Street, NW., Suite 300 West,
Washington, DC 20005-3438 Fax (202) 289-7722
www.ite.org and American Association of State
Highway and Transportation Officials
www.aashto.org Telephone 1-800-525-5562. NOTE
Electronic copies of the MUTCD 2000 are available
for downloading at http//mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno-m
illennium. NOTE A copy of the MUTCD 2000 is
available for inspection at the Oregon OSHA
Resource Center, 350 Winter Street NE, Basement -
Room 26, Salem, Oregon 97301-3882 Telephone
(503) 378-3272, or toll free in Oregon
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 NOTE Employers who are following
the most current edition of the Oregon Department
of Transportations Short Term Traffic Control
Handbook will be considered to be in compliance
with this requirement. (d) When traffic control
devices are required to be used by
437-002-0223(23)(c), they shall be installed at
the inception of the project or operations, and
shall be properly maintained and operated during
the time such special conditions exist. (24)
Control of Exhaust Gases (a) Vehicles shall be
equipped with a muffler, in good working order,
of the type recommended by the vehicle
manufacturer. (b) Exhaust pipes shall be so
located as to direct the exhaust gases away from
the operator and any passengers. (c) Any exhaust
pipe which is exposed to contact shall be
insulated or isolated to protect workers from
contact burns. (25) Sun Shields All class
vehicles shall be equipped with an adjustable sun
visor. (26) Heating of Vehicles Heating units
shall be guarded or covered to prevent workers
from being burned by accidental contact. Safety
Equipment (27) First Aid Kits Class A and B
Commercial type vehicles used for the
transportation of workers shall carry a first aid
kit suitable for the number of passengers
customarily transported. First aid kits shall be
located where they are readily available to the
driver or crew and shall be maintained in good
order. (28) Fire Extinguishers Class A and B
Commercial type vehicles used to transport
workers shall be equipped with a minimum 2-pound
type B/C fire extinguisher. Commercial-Type
Vehicles (29) Rear-View Mirrors All commercial
vehicles shall be equipped with outside-mounted
rearview mirrors on each side when the load or
passengers obstruct the use of the rear-view
mirror located in the cab. (30) Safety Chains on
Commercial Vehicles (a) Safety chains or cables
shall be so connected to the towed and towing
vehicles and to the tow bar as to prevent the tow
bar from dropping to the ground in the event the
tow bar or coupling device fails.
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (b) Safety chains or cables shall
have a tensile strength equivalent to the gross
weight of the towed vehicle and their means of
attachment to the towed and towing vehicles shall
be of sufficient strength to control the towed
vehicle in event the tow bar or coupling device
fails. (c) No more slack shall be left in safety
chains or cables than shall be necessary to
permit proper turning. (d) Towed vehicles having
a gross weight of 5,000 pounds or less shall be
equipped with one or more safety chains or
cables. Towed vehicles having a gross weight in
excess of 5,000 pounds shall be equipped with two
or more safety chains or cables. (e) Any coupling
device on any towing vehicle used as a connection
for the tow bar on any towed vehicle having a
gross weight in excess of 5,000 pounds shall be
firmly attached to the frame or to a solid
connection to the frame. This section on safety
chains does not apply to a temporarily disabled
vehicle being towed by another vehicle, to
saddle-mount towing, or to a semitrailer coupled
to a towing vehicle with a fifth wheel and
kingpin assembly so designed that the upper and
lower halves may not be separated without being
manually released onto a dolly without a tow
bar. (31) Coupling Device on Commercial
Vehicles Drawbar, coupling device, and other
connections provided for towing of trailers shall
be of sufficient strength to hold the weight of
the towed vehicle upon any grade over which it
may be operated. Such connections shall be
properly mounted without excessive slack but with
sufficient play to allow for universal action of
the connections, and shall be provided with a
suitable locking means to prevent accidental
separation of the towed and towing
vehicles. (32) Signals (a) Where the vehicle
operators hand signal cannot be clearly seen,
turn signal lights or other means to signal shall
be provided. (b) A red flag shall be placed on
the extreme end of materials that project 4 feet
or more beyond the vehicle body when transported
during daylight hours. A red light shall be
displayed at night. (33) Controls (a) Operating
levers controlling hoisting or dumping devices on
haulage bodies shall be equipped with a latch or
other device which will prevent accidental
starting or tripping of the mechanism. (b) Trip
handles for tailgates of dump trucks shall be so
arranged that, in dumping, the operator will be
in the clear. Industrial Vehicles (34)
Reserved. (35) Reserved. (36) Reserved.
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 Roll-Over Protective Structures
Overhead Protection (37) Application Roll-over
protective structures (ROPS) shall be provided,
installed and maintained on industrial vehicles
which were manufactured after July 1, 1969. ROPS
requirements apply to the following types of
industrial vehicles and equipment Rubber-tired
self-propelled scrapers front-end loaders and
dozers skid-steer equipment wheel-type
industrial tractors crawler tractors
crawler-type loaders and motor graders, with or
without attachments, that are used in industrial
work. This requirement does not apply to
sideboom pipe laying tractors, or other vehicles
whose structure prevents overturn, or to tractors
used only in farming operations. (38)
ROPS General Requirements (a) Roll-over
protective structures and their supporting
attachments to industrial vehicles shall be
capable of supporting twice the weight of the
vehicle, applied at the point of impact. (b) The
design objective for roll-over protective
structures on industrial vehicles shall be to
minimize the likelihood of a complete vehicle
overturn, and to minimize the possibility of the
operator being crushed. (c) A vertical clearance
of at least 52 inches between the work deck and
the ROPS canopy is required for ingress and
egress. (d) ROPS which have been removed for any
reason, shall be remounted with equal quality, or
better, bolts or welding as required for the
original mounting. (39) Defects (a) Defects in
ROPS shall be repaired by equal quality or better
materials and welding as required for the
original structure. (b) Minimum performance
criteria for roll-over protective structures for
designated vehicles are contained in the
following Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE)
standards (A) Prime movers, for scrapers, water
wagons, bottom dump wagons, side dump wagons,
rear dump wagons, towed fifth wheel attachments.
(SAE J320, September 1972) (B) Wheeled
front-end loaders and wheeled dozers. (SAE J394a,
September 1972) (C) Track-type tractors and
front-end loaders. (SAE J395a, September
1972) (D) Motor graders. (SAE J396a, September
1972) (E) Wheel-type agricultural and industrial
tractors. (SAE J167, 1971) (F) Falling object
protective structures (FOPS). (SAE J231, May
1971) (40) Identification of ROPS Each ROPS
shall have the following information permanently
affixed to the structure (a) Manufacturer or
fabricator.s name and address (b) ROPS model
number, if any and (c) Machine make, model, or
series number that the structure is designed to
Oregon OSHA Rules for Commercial and
Industrial Vehicles Div 2/Sub N OAR
437-002-0223 (41) Approved Structures Any
machine in use, equipped with roll-over
protective structures, shall be deemed in
compliance with OAR 437-002-0223(37) through (41)
if it meets the roll-over protective structure
requirements of the U. S. Army Corps of
Engineers, or the Bureau of Reclamation of the U.
S. Department of the Interior, in effect on April
5, 1972. The requirements in effect are (a) U.
S. Army Corps of Engineers General Safety
Requirements, EM-385-1-1 (March 1967). (b) Bureau
of Reclamation, U. S. Department of the Interior
Safety and Health Regulations for Construction,
Part II (September 1971). Bridges, Roadways, and
Ramps (42) Roadways (a) Roadways shall be of
sufficient width and evenness to ensure the safe
operation of equipment. (b) Sufficient turnouts
shall be provided and a safe side clearance shall
be maintained along roads and runways. (c) Low
clearance areas under conveyors which could
present a hazard to mobile equipment operations
shall be identified by a suitable means, such as
signs, contrasting colors, or flags. (d) Broken
planking, deep holes, large rocks, logs or other
dangerous surface defects shall be corrected
before any equipment is used thereon. (e)
Obstructions to clear view at intersections or on
sharp curves shall be removed or all reasonable
precautions taken to relieve the hazards of these
conditions. (f) An ample supply of nonskid
materials, such as coarse sand or finely crushed
rock, shall be available and used on slippery
surfaces. (g) Road grades shall not be too steep
for safe operation of vehicles which operate over
them and shall not exceed 20 percent in any case
unless an auxiliary means of lowering vehicles is
provided or unless vehicles are specifically
designed and approved for operation on grades in
excess of 20 percent. (43) Access Roadways,
Grades (a) No employer shall move, or cause to be
moved, vehicles upon any access roadway or grade
unless the access roadway or grade is constructed
and maintained to accommodate safely the movement
of the equipment and vehicles involved. (b) Every
emergency access ramp and berm used by an
employer shall be constructed to restrain and
control runaway vehicles. (c) Elevated bridges,
runways or ramps and loading docks shall be
constructed to safely support at least four times
the weight of any load to which it may be
subjected. Ramps shall be covered with a
material which will minimize the danger of
skidding. (d) The maximum inclination of a ramp
used for wheeled equipment shall not exceed 20
percent from horizontal. (e) Elevated bridges,
ramps or runways used for the travel of wheeled
equipment shall have exposed sides guarded with a
substantial bull rail or sheer rail of sufficient
height to prevent wheeled equipment from going
over the rail.
Other Vehicle Safety Management Considerations
HAZMAT transporters must abide by other
regulations including OSHA, DOT, PUC,
RCRA, etc. Training is much more
involved! Continually communicate with the
drivers. Involve the safety committee to
establish and monitor the communication
channel. Ensure drivers are immediately
reporting problems/concerns. Delayed or
unreported maintenance issues eventually cause
more expense and can increase the possibility of
accident or injury to the driver. Develop a
user-friendly reporting system. Continually
monitor and evaluate the preventative maintenance
program. Include accident packs in fleet
vehicles (insurance proof, contact call list,
camera, forms, etc.). Maintain and carry fire
extinguishers, first aid kits, flares, triangles,
fuses, etc. Ensure vehicle safety devices are
provided and maintained (i.e. signals, wipers,
markings, placards, flares, blankets, radios,
phones, etc.) Dont forget maintenance shop
safety. Service and maintain equipment, jacks,
chemicals (HAZCOM), PPE, tire/rim servicing, fire
protection, lubrication and washing operations,
battery charging, flammables, traffic control in
the area, etc. Injuries also occur during
loading, unloading, and handling
materials. Consider stability and weight
capacities shifting loads fall protection
setting brakes and choking wheels
avoiding exposure from falling
loads prohibiting unapproved riders
avoiding pinch points, crush areas, etc.
Provide effective training in safe work
practices when using material
handling equipment such as slings,
forklifts, tiedowns, chain, etc.
Maybe some loads are better handled using other
(No Transcript)
Page 21 Summary of Oregon OSHA Powered Industrial
Truck Operator Training Requirements Page 23
NIOSH Publication No. 2004-136 (March 2004)
Work-Related Roadway Crashes - Prevention
Strategies for Employers Page 27 NIOSH April
2004 Update NIOSH Recommends Ways to
Prevent Fatalities From Work-Related Roadway
Crashes Page 30 NIOSH September 2004 Update
Requiring Safety Belt Use is Key Employer
Policy for Preventing Job Vehicle Deaths Page
31 SAMPLE Fleet Safety Program
  • www.orosha.org (Oregon OSHA)
  • Div 2/Sub N General Industry
  • Div 3/Sub O Construction
  • Div 4/Sub U Agriculture
  • Div 7/Sub F Forest Activities
  • www.osha.gov (Federal OSHA)
  • www.oregon.gov/odot (Oregon Dept. of
  • www.dot.gov (Federal Dept. of Transportation)
  • www.fhwa.dot.gov (Federal Highway
  • www.nhtsa.dot.gov (National Highway Traffic
    Safety Administration)
  • www.fmcsa.dot.gov (Federal Motor Carrier Safety
  • www.cdc.gov/niosh (National Institute of
    Occupational Safety Health)
  • www.cdc.gov/elcosh (Electronic Library of
    Construction Occupational Safety Health)
  • www.trafficsafety.org (Network of Employers for
    Traffic Safety)
  • www.hwysafety.org (Insurance Institute for
    Highway Safety)
  • www.aaafoundation.org/home/ (AAA Foundation for
    Traffic Safety)
  • www.bts.gov (Bureau of Transportation

(No Transcript)
  • Summary of Oregon OSHA Powered Industrial Truck
    Operator Training Requirements
  • Div 2/Sub N 29 CFR 1910.178(l)
  • Safe operation
  • The employer shall ensure that each powered
    industrial truck operator is competent to operate
    a powered industrial truck safely, as
    demonstrated by the successful completion of the
    training and evaluation specified in this
    paragraph (l).
  • Training program implementation
  • Training shall consist of a combination of formal
    instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion,
    interactive computer learning, video tape,
    written material), practical training
    (demonstrations performed by the trainer and
    practical exercises performed by the trainee),
    and evaluation of the operators performance in
    the workplace.
  • All operator training and evaluation shall be
    conducted by persons who have the knowledge,
    training, and experience to train powered
    industrial truck operators and evaluate their
  • Training program content
  • Powered industrial truck operators shall receive
    initial training in the following topics, except
    in topics which the employer can demonstrate are
    not applicable to safe operation of the truck in
    the employers workplace
  • Truck-related topics
  • operating instructions, warnings, and
    precautions for the types of truck the operator
    will be authorized to operate
  • differences between the truck and the
  • truck controls and instrumentation where they
    are located, what they do, and how they work
  • engine or motor operation

  • Summary of Oregon OSHA Powered Industrial Truck
    Operator Training Requirements
  • Div 2/Sub N 29 CFR 1910.178(l)
  • Workplace-related topics
  • surface conditions where the vehicle will be
  • composition of loads to be carried and load
  • load manipulation, stacking, and unstacking
  • pedestrian traffic in areas where the vehicle
    will be operated
  • narrow aisles and other restricted places where
    the vehicle will be operated
  • hazardous (classified) locations where the
    vehicle will be operated
  • ramps and other sloped surfaces that could
    affect the vehicles stability
  • closed environments and other areas where
    insufficient ventilation or poor vehicle
    maintenance could cause a buildup of carbon
    monoxide or diesel exhaust
  • other unique or potentially hazardous
    environmental conditions in the workplace that
    could affect safe operation
  • Refresher training and evaluation
  • Refresher training, including an evaluation of
    the effectiveness of that training, shall be
    conducted to ensure that the operator has the
    knowledge and skills needed to operate the
    powered industrial truck safely. Refresher
    training in relevant topics shall be provided to
    the operator when
  • (A) The operator has been observed to
    operate the vehicle in an unsafe manner
  • (B) The operator has been involved in an
    accident or near-miss incident

Work-Related Roadway Crashes Prevention
Strategies for Employers NIOSH Publication No.
2004-136 (March 2004)
Roadway crashes are the leading cause of
occupational fatalities in the U.S. Between
1992 and 2001, 13,337 civilian workers died in
roadway crashes, an average of 4 deaths each day.
Roadway crashes led all other causes, making up
22 of workplace deaths, compared with 13 from
homicide and 10 from falls (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Census of Fatal Occupational
Injuries). In 2000, lost wages and benefits for
crash victims (occupational and non-occupational)
were 61 billion. Costs to employers due to the
loss or absence of an employee from work
accounted for 4.6 billion more (National Highway
Traffic Safety Administration). For employers and
victims, a workplace crash can have far-reaching
financial, medical, and legal consequences.
Who is at risk? Anyone who operates a motor
vehicle as part of his or her job is at risk of
being involved in a roadway crash. In 2001,
nearly 4.2 million U.S. workers were motor
vehicle operators 73 were truck drivers.
Roadway crashes are by far the leading cause of
death for transport workers. Millions of other
workers who are not full-time professional
drivers operate company or personal vehicles for
deliveries, sales and repair calls, client
visits, and many other tasks. Roadway crashes are
also the leading cause of death for workers in
clerical and professional specialty jobs, and the
second leading cause for executives, sales
workers, and technicians. (Bureau of Labor
Statistics, Current Population Survey and Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries)
Actions of other motorists may cause work-related
crashes During a non-emergency medical transport,
a 26-year-old emergency medical technician (EMT)
died when the ambulance she was in was struck
head-on by a pickup truck traveling in excess of
70 miles per hour in the wrong lane of a two-lane
roadway. Attending a patient, the EMT was
unrestrained when the incident occurred. The EMT
struck the front bulkhead and died of head and
chest injuries en route to the hospital.
NIOSH FACE Report 2001-11
Work-Related Roadway Crashes Prevention
Strategies for Employers NIOSH Publication No.
2004-136 (March 2004)
  • What can employers do?
  • Unlike other workplaces, the roadway is not a
    closed environment. Preventing work-related
    roadway crashes requires strategies that combine
    traffic safety principles and sound safety
    management practices. Although employers cannot
    control roadway conditions, they can promote safe
    driving behavior by providing safety information
    to workers and by setting and enforcing driver
    safety policies. Crashes are not an unavoidable
    part of doing business. Employers can take steps
    to protect their employees and their companies
  • Policies
  • Assign a key member of the management team
    responsibility and authority to set and enforce
    comprehensive driver safety policy
  • Enforce mandatory seat belt use
  • Do not require workers to drive irregular hours
    or far beyond their normal working hours
  • Do not require workers to conduct business on a
    cell phone while driving
  • Develop work schedules that allow employees to
    obey speed limits and to follow applicable
    hours-of- service regulations
  • Fleet Management
  • Adopt a structured vehicle maintenance program
  • Provide company vehicles that offer the highest
    possible levels of occupant protection
  • Safety Programs
  • Teach workers strategies for recognizing and
    managing driver fatigue and in-vehicle
  • Provide training to workers operating
    specialized motor vehicles or equipment
  • Emphasize to workers the need to follow safe
    driving practices on and off the job

Work-Related Roadway Crashes Prevention
Strategies for Employers NIOSH Publication No.
2004-136 (March 2004)
  • Driver Performance
  • Ensure that workers assigned to drive on the
    job have a valid drivers license and one that is
    appropriate for the type of vehicle to be
  • Check driving records of prospective employees,
    and perform periodic rechecks after hiring
  • Maintain complete and accurate records of
    workers driving performance
  • Work-related roadway crashes, 1992-2001
  • Types of vehicles occupied by victims
  • Semi-trucks (28)
  • Automobiles (24)
  • Pickup trucks (12)
  • Event and worker characteristics
  • 49 were collisions between vehicles
  • 53 occurred between 7 a.m. and 4 p.m.
  • 38 occurred on U.S. or State-designated
  • 89 of fatally injured workers were male
  • Risk of fatality increased at age 55 and older

Unsafe driving and lack of employer enforcement
of safety policies may contribute to fatal
work-related crashes A 45-year-old salesperson
was killed in a motor-vehicle incident while
traveling to meet with clients. The victim had
worked for the company for six years and was
reimbursed for mileage and other costs associated
with the use of his personal vehicle for
work-related driving. Traveling in excess of 90
miles per hour along an interstate highway, he
lost control of his car and was ejected when the
vehicle became airborne and rolled two and a half
times. The victim, who was not wearing a
seatbelt, died at the scene. In the previous 14
months, he had been involved in another
motor-vehicle incident and had committed three
other speeding violations.
NIOSH FACE Report 93WY006
NIOSH Recommends Ways to Prevent Fatalities From
Work-Related Roadway Crashes (April 2004)
At work, more people die in motor vehicle crashes
than from any other cause. The U.S. Centers for
Disease Control and Preventions (CDC) National
Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) today described leading risk factors for
fatal, work-related roadway crashes, and made
recommendations for preventing such work-related
deaths. NIOSH presented the findings and
recommendations in two companion fact sheets,
"Work-Related Roadway Crashes Whos at Risk?"
and "Work-Related Roadway Crashes Prevention
Strategies for Employers." NIOSH issued the fact
sheets in conjunction with World Health Day 2004,
the theme of which is road safety. "The fact
sheets provide new information that employers and
others can use for assessing risks for motor
vehicle injuries and deaths in their work
settings, and for taking effective steps to
reduce those risks," said NIOSH Director John
Howard, M.D. As a key step in preventing
job-related fatalities in motor vehicle crashes,
employers should establish and enforce workplace
driver safety policies, NIOSH recommended.
Occupational safety and health professionals also
can help by promoting safe driving practices
among employees, supporting collection and
analysis of data needed to identify risk factors
and interventions, fostering partnerships, and
assessing interventions, NIOSH added. Effective
strategies for reducing motor-vehicle related
crash injuries in the general public can also
reduce work-related crash injuries. Risk Factors
and Populations at Risk NIOSH used two
complementary sets of data for determining risk
factors in work-related roadway crashes, and for
identifying worker populations at highest risk.
Data were analyzed for 1992-2001 from the Census
of Fatal Occupational Injuries (CFOI), a
multiple-source system for tracking occupational
fatalities. Data from the Fatality Analysis
Reporting System (FARS) covered 1997-2002. FARS
is a census of all traffic crashes reported to
the police in which a person who was injured in
the crash died within the next 30 days. Between
1992 and 2001, job-related motor vehicle crashes
accounted for 13,337 deaths among the civilian
work force, CFOI data show. Males accounted for
11,931 deaths, or 89 percent of the total, with a
fatality rate 6 times higher than that for
females. Fatality rates increased sharply
beginning with age 55, with the highest rate (6.4
deaths per 100,000 employees) among employees 75
and older.
NIOSH Recommends Ways to Prevent Fatalities From
Work-Related Roadway Crashes (April 2004)
  • Worker fatalities due to crashes most often
    involved collisions between vehicles (49
    percent), followed by single-vehicle incidents
    such as vehicle rollovers that did not involve a
    collision with another vehicle or with a
    pedestrian (26 percent), and collisions between a
    vehicle and a stationary object on the roadside
    (18 percent). Vehicles occupied by fatally
    injured employees most often were semi-trucks (28
    percent of all fatalities), followed by cars (24
    percent), other and unspecified trucks (18
    percent) and pickup trucks (12 percent).The
    highest number and rate of fatal work-related
    crashes occurred in the transportation,
    communications, and public utilities industry,
    which includes commercial trucking (4,358
    fatalities, 4.64 per 100,000 full-time
  • In 1997-2002, 5,798 worker fatalities occurred in
    5,626 vehicles, data from FARS show. These data
    indicate that 56 percent of fatally injured
    workers were not wearing a seat belt or had no
    seat belt available, and 28 percent were wearing
    a seat belt. Factors associated with the workers
    vehicle that were judged to have contributed to
    the fatal crash were running off the road or
    failing to stay in the proper lane (2,599 46),
    driving over the speed limit or too fast for
    conditions (1,284 23), driver inattention (609
    11), and driver drowsiness (373 7).
  • Practical Steps to Preventing Fatalities
  • As part of a driver safety program, NIOSH
    recommended, employers should
  • Provide a key member of the management team with
    responsibility and authority to set and enforce
    a comprehensive driver safety policy
  • Require use of seat belts by all persons in a
    vehicle used on the job
  • Select vehicles that provide high levels of
    occupant protection
  • Maintain complete and accurate records of
    driving performance
  • Stipulate that driving is a task that requires
    full attention, including instructions to avoid
    placing or taking cell phone calls while the
    vehicle is in operation
  • Set schedules that allow adequate time for
    employees to make deliveries or visit clients
    without violating traffic laws or safety
  • Ensure that employees are properly licensed and
    trained to operate the vehicle they are assigned

NIOSH Recommends Ways to Prevent Fatalities From
Work-Related Roadway Crashes (April 2004)
  • Implement a vehicle maintenance program that
    includes pre-trip inspections, immediate
    withdrawal from service of any vehicle with
    mechanical defects, and regularly scheduled
    withdrawal of vehicles for comprehensive
    inspection and maintenance

NIOSH is working extensively with the World
Health Organization, CDCs National Center for
Injury Prevention and Control, the U.S.
Department of Transportation, the Occupational
Safety and Health Administration, the
Pan-American Health Organization, and other
partners to disseminate information and
recommendations for preventing motor vehicle
injuries. Further information about NIOSH
research and recommendations for preventing
work-related motor vehicle injuries and
fatalities is available on the NIOSH web page at
www.cdc.gov/niosh/injury/traumamv.html "Work-Relat
ed Roadway Crashes Prevention Strategies for
Employers," DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No.
2004-136, is available on the web in English and
Spanish language versions at www.cdc.gov/niosh/doc
s/2004-136/. "Work-Related Roadway Crashes Whos
at Risk?", DHHS Publication No. 2004-137, is
available on the web in English and Spanish
language versions at www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/2004-1
Work-related Roadway Crashes provides detailed
statistics on workplace crashes a review of
safety regulations that affect workplace driving
information on special topics such as driver
fatigue, cell phone use, and age factors and
recommendations for prevention of work-related
crashes. To receive copies of the NIOSH Hazard
Review, copies of this Fact Sheet, or additional
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