EFFECTS OF FREEZE DRYING ON PAPER - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Title:

EFFECTS OF FREEZE DRYING ON PAPER

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to investigate how freeze drying effects paper characteristics critical to ... drying of groundwood paper and alum-rosin sized paper with a high amount of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: EFFECTS OF FREEZE DRYING ON PAPER


1
EFFECTS OF FREEZE DRYINGON PAPER
2
INTRODUCTION
  • OBJECTIVES
  • MATERIALS USED
  • EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
  • TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
  • TEST METHODS
  • RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
  • CONCLUSION

2
3
INTRODUCTION
3
4
INTRODUCTION
  • to investigate how freeze drying effects paper
    characteristics critical to preservation of
    archive and library materials
  • to determine how freeze drying might effect the
    mechanical strength and ageing stability of paper

4
5
INTRODUCTION
5
6
MATERIALS USED
6
7
MATERIALS USED
Groundwood paper / Paper 1
7
8
MATERIALS USED
Cotton paper / Paper 2
8
9
MATERIALS USED
Coated paper / Paper 3
9
10
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
10
11
EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
11
12
TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
Soaking in demineralized water
12
13
TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
Freeze drying by cold chamber wall
13
14
TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
Freeze drying by warm chamber wall
14
15
TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
15
16
TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
  • Accelerated ageing

16
17
TREATMENT OF SAMPLES
  • Accelerated ageing
  • 12 days (288 hours)
  • 90 ºC
  • 50 RH

17
18
TEST METHODS
  • Moisture content SCAN P 463
  • Alkali reserve ISO 10716
  • Folding endurance SCAN P 1777
  • Tearing resistance SCAN P 1173
  • Zero span tensile Cowan/TAPPI 231 (dry and wet
    determination)

18
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RESULTS DISCUSSION
  • freeze drying particulary influences moisture
    content, folding endurance and tearing resistance
  • freeze drying and accelerated ageing influence
    moisture content, folding endurance and tearing
    resistance in the samples, but differently from
    one paperquality to another
  • the effect on alkali reserve and zero span
    tensile strength is relatively small

19
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RESULTS DISCUSSION
Folding enduranceGroundwood paper / Paper 1
Log 10 / GM
Reference
20
21
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Zero span dryGroundwood paper / Paper 1
Nm/g / GM
Reference
21
22
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Tearing resistanceGroundwood paper / Paper 1
mNm2/g / GM
Reference
22
23
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Moisture contentGroundwood paper / Paper 1
Moisture content
Reference
23
24
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Folding enduranceCotton paper / Paper 2
Log 10 / GM
Reference
24
25
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Tearing resistanceCotton paper / Paper 2
mNm2/g / GM
Reference
25
26
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Folding enduranceCoated paper / Paper 3
Log 10 / GM
Reference
26
27
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Tearing resistanceCoated paper / Paper 3
mNm2/g / GM
Reference
27
28
RESULTS DISCUSSION
28
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RESULTS DISCUSSION
Retention of folding endurance andtearing
resistance after accelerated ageing
Retention
29
30
RESULTS DISCUSSION
Retention of zero span tensilestrength after
accelerated ageing
Retention
30
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CONCLUSION
31
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CONCLUSION
  • freeze drying particularly influences moisture
    content, folding endurance and tearing resistance
  • freeze drying and accelerated ageing effect
    moisture content, folding endurance and tearing
    resistance differently in various paperqualities
  • freeze drying of groundwood paper and alum-rosin
    sized paper with a high amount of fillers reduces
    the mechanical strength

32
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CONCLUSION
  • freeze drying of cotton paper with a high content
    of calcium carbonate has a relatively limited
    effect on mechanical strength and ageing
    stability
  • freeze drying of coated paper particularly
    reduces folding endurance

33
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CONCLUSION
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  • Jonas Palm, The Royal Library
  • Grethe Jørgensen, The School of Conservation
  • Jørn Bredal-Jørgensen, The School of Conservation
  • Anette Linde, Swedish Pulp and Paper Research
    Inst.
  • Poul Jensen, The National Museum
  • Julie Fryd Johansen, The Royal Library
  • Stora Papyrus, Grycksbo

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Thank you for yourattention
36
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