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Agricultural Production Management

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Title: Agricultural Production Management


1
Agricultural Production Management
2
Production Management Categories
  • Classified into four types of Production
    Management
  • Soil and Crop management
  • Pest management
  • Nutrient management
  • Water management

3
Types of Farming Systems
  • Combination of production management practices
    employed to achieve production, profit, and
    increasingly, environmental and sustainability
    objectives
  • Conventional, high-synthetic-input systems
  • Reduced synthetic-input systems
  • Cultural practices
  • Biological practices
  • Organic farming systems

4
Types of Farming Systems
  • Other ways of Grouping Systems
  • Cropping systems
  • Tillage systems
  • Irrigation systems

5
Factors Affecting Farmers Decisions
  • Management skills
  • Economic factors
  • Environmental pressures
  • Availability of technology and technical support

6
Soil Management and Conservation
7
Importance of Soil
  • As the key resource in crop production
  • It supports the physical, chemical, and
    biological processes
  • Regulates water flow such as
  • Infiltration
  • Root-zone storage
  • Deep percolation
  • Run-off

8
Importance of Soil
  • Acts as a buffer between inputs and environment
  • Functions as degrader or immobilizer of
    agricultural chemicals, wastes, or other
    pollutants
  • Soil also sequesters carbon from the atmosphere

9
Important Soil attributes
  • Texture
  • Structure
  • Bulk density and rooting depth
  • Permeability and water storage capacity
  • Carbon content
  • Organic matter and biological activity
  • pH
  • Electrical conductivity

10
Three functions of soil (from NRC)
  • Provides the physical, chemical, and biological
    processes for the growth of plants
  • To store, regulate, and partition water flow
    through the environment
  • To buffer environmental change by decomposing
    organic wastes, nitrates, pesticides, and other
    substances that could become pollutants

11
Soil Quality
  • Defined The capacity of soil to function or the
    fitness for use
  • Can be maintained through use of appropriate crop
    production technologies and resource management
    systems
  • Two concepts of measuring soil quality
  • More traditional focuses on inherent soil
    properties
  • More recent focuses on dynamic properties of soil

12
Land capability and suitability
  • Two types of measurements
  • Land Capability Classes (LCCs)
  • Prime farmland designation
  • Used to measure land capabilities for a
    particular purpose
  • Growing crops and trees
  • Grazing animals
  • Nonagricultural uses

13
Land Capability Classes (LCCs)
  • Range from I to VIII
  • Class I no significant limitations for raising
    crops About 7 of US cropland
  • Classes II and III have some limitations such as
    poor drainage, limited root zones, climatic
    restrictions, or erosion potential make up over
    ¾ of US cropland

14
Land Capability Classes (LCCs)
  • Class IV suitable only under selected cropping
    practices
  • Classes V, VI, and VII best suited for pasture
    and range
  • Class VIII is only suited for wildlife habitat,
    recreation, and other non-agricultural uses
  • LCCs I through III total 337 million acres, or
    82 of US cropland excluding Alaska

15
Prime Farmland
  • Based on physical and morphological soil
    characteristics
  • Depth of water table to the root zone
  • Moisture-holding capacity
  • Degree of salinity
  • Permeability
  • Frequency of flooding
  • Soil temperature
  • Erodibility
  • Soil acidity

16
Prime Farmland
  • Factors needed to sustain high yields when
    treated and managed
  • Growing season
  • Moisture supply
  • Soil quality
  • Totals 222 million acres, or 54 of US cropland
    excluding Alaska

17
Productivity
  • Measures output per unit input
  • Often measured as crop yield per acre
  • Can reflect soil degradation if yields decline as
    soils become degraded and more inputs are used to
    compensate for decline in soil quality

18
Erodibility
  • Highly erodible lands (HEL) is a soil quality
    measure that is important to USDA conservation
    policy
  • USDA uses the erodibility index (EI) to classify
    erosion potential

19
Erosion Productivity Loss
  • Measure of productivity loss that converts total
    erosion from tons per acre per year to inches per
    year
  • 3 factors reflected in this measure
  • Erosion rates
  • Soil depth
  • Rental values of land

20
Five major concentrations of vulnerable soils
  • Largest Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri in the corn
    belt
  • Second eastern North Dakota and western and
    south central Minnesota
  • Third eastern bluffs of Mississippi River in
    western Kentucky, Tennessee, and along eastern
    edge of Mississippi Delta
  • Fourth eastern edge of Colorado
  • Fifth band of land in eastern Washington and
    Oregon around Palouse and Central Plateau

21
Effects of erosion
  • Two types
  • Onsite effects
  • Offsite effects
  • Major onsite effect is impact on soil
    productivity
  • Offsite damages occur when
  • Sediment enter the streams, rivers, lakes, and
    other water bodies and damages municipal water
    systems
  • Fills reservoirs and streams interfering with
    navigation, and contributes to flooding

22
Inappropriate farming practices
  • Lead to
  • Soil degradation
  • Soil erosion
  • Loss of organic matter
  • Soil compaction
  • Acidification
  • Loss of nitrates, phosphates, and pesticides
  • Accumulation of salts and trace elements
  • Increased run-off of fertilizers and pesticides
    to water systems

23
Soil Degradation
  • 3 Processes
  • Physical
  • Wind erosion
  • Water erosion
  • Compaction
  • Chemical
  • Toxification
  • Salinization
  • Acidification
  • Biological
  • Declines in organic matter
  • Declines in carbon
  • Declines in the activity and diversity of soil
    fauna

24
Rotational Cropping
  • Can play significant role in conserving soil,
    maintaining soil fertility, controlling pests,
    and also helps break up insect and disease cycles

25
Cover Crops
  • Cover crop of small grains, meadow, or hay
    planted in the fall after harvest of a row crop
    provides vegetative cover to reduce soil loss,
    hold nutrients, add organic matter to the soil,
    and sequester carbon

26
Crop Residue Management (CRM)
  • CRM leaves crop residues on soil surface through
    less intensive tillage practices.
  • Usually cost effective
  • Protects soil surface
  • Leads to higher farm economic returns

27
Conservation buffers and Structures
  • Structures and buffers reduce water erosion
    caused by rainfall
  • Very important component of farm soil management
    systems

28
Pest Management Practices
29
About pesticide
  • One of the first growing agricultural production
    inputs since the post WW2
  • 8.8 billions spent in the U.S. in 1997
  • Herbicides, Insecticides, Fungicides, and Other
    pesticides
  • Herbicides and insecticides account for most

30
Herbicides
  • Largest pesticide class (62 of total quality of
    pesticide active ingredients)
  • Weeds compete with crops for water, nutrients,
    and sunlight, and cause reduced yields.
  • Atrazine,2,4-D, dicamba, and trifluralin are
    widely used for more than 30 years

31
Insecticides
  • Account for 10 percent of the total quantity of
    pesticides applied in 1997
  • Damaging insect populations can vary annually
    depending on weather, pest cycles, cultural
    practices such as rotation and destruction of
    host crop residues
  • Preventive treatments and intervention treatments

32
Insecticides, cont.
  • Corn and cotton account for the largest shares of
    insecticide use
  • Chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion are the two
    most widely used insecticides

33
Fungicides
  • Applied to fewer acres than are herbicides and
    insecticides and account for the smallest shares
    of total pesticide use
  • Mostly used on fruits and vegetables to control
    diseases

34
Other pesticides
  • Including soil fumigants, growth regulators,
    desiccants, and harvest aids
  • Use of these pesticides increases about 8 percent
    each year since 1990
  • About one-fifth of the total pounds of all active
    ingredients applied to the surveyed crops

35
Pesticide Treatment Trends
  • Corn
  • Corn is the largest crop in the U.S. in terms of
    acreage
  • About 30 of the corn acreage in the 10 States
    received insecticides in 1997
  • Corn rootworm was the most frequently treated
    insect

36
Trends, cont.
  • Soybeans
  • Herbicides account for virtually all the
    pesticides used on soybeans
  • The number of acres treated and number of
    treatments per acre have increased, partly due to
    the growth in no-till soybean systems
  • 48 treated both before and after planting

37
Trends, cont.
  • Wheat
  • Wheat , which is one of the largest field crops
    in the U.S. is the least pesticide-intensive
  • Account for 27 of the surveyed crop acreage in
    1997, though only 4 of total pesticides
  • Herbicide used 47of the winter wheat and 82 of
    the spring and durum sheats

38
Trends, cont
  • Cotton
  • One of the most pesticide-intensive field crops
    in the U.S.
  • 96 of cotton acreage received herbicides
  • 74 received insecticides and 68 received other
    types of pesticides
  • Much greater insect infestation on cotton is due
    to its longer growing season

39
Trends, cont.
  • Potatoes
  • Most pesticide-intensive crops for all types of
    pesticides
  • Other Vegetable and Fruits
  • found it profitable to use insecticides and
    fungicides on a higher percentage of acreage than
    growers of most field crops do

40
Pesticide Expenditures
  • Annual pesticide expenditures for all farm uses
    increased from 6.3billion to 8.8 billion over
    1991-97 (40 increase)
  • Pesticide costs per acre increased for
  • Corn 20
  • Cotton 19
  • Soybeans 25
  • Wheat 10

41
Pesticide Resistance
  • Most likely to develop when a pesticide with a
    single mode of action is used over and over in
    the absence of any other management measures to
    control a specific pest
  • Herbicide-resistant weeds
  • Scouting to determine economic thresholds for
    treatments, alternating the use of pesticide
    families, and several other management strategies
    to combat resistance are in use

42
Biological Pest Management Practices
  • Include the use of pheromones, plant regulators,
    and microbial organisms
  • Biorational pesticides- microbial pesticides and
    pheromones
  • biologicals are unlikely to replace pesticides
    in the foreseeable future, due to the small
    market
  • Beneficial organisms

43
Cultural Pest Management Practice
  • Number of production techniques and practices,
    including crop rotation, tillage, trap crops, and
    irrigation scheduling, and such and such
  • Controls work by preventing pest colonization of
    the crop, reducing pest populations, reducing
    crop injury, and increasing the number of natural
    enemies in the cropping system

44
Cultural Pest Management Practice, cont.
  • Crop rotation
  • One of the most important cultural techniques
  • 82 of the U.S. corn acreage
  • 89 of soybeans
  • Cultivation for weed control
  • Field sanitation and water management

45
Decision Criteria and Information
  • Scouting and Economic thresholds
  • To monitor the populations of major insect and
    other arthropod pests for several decades
  • Scouting on 70-90 of grape, orange, apple
    acreage, and thresholds used on a significant
    proportion of that acreage

46
Decision Criteria and Information, cont.
  • Sources of pest management information
  • Farm supply/chemical dealers
  • consultants/pest control advisors
  • Professional scouting services
  • Extension advisors

47
Decision Criteria and Information, cont.
  • Expert system
  • Integrate information on pest density, economic
    thresholds, application methods, and other
    elements of pest management into a computer
    software package
  • Precision Farming
  • Emerging technology that may allow a more
    efficient application of inputs by using yield
    monitors, satellite images, etc.

48
Factors Affecting Pest Management Decisions
  • Factors should be influenced by pest
    infestations, yield and quality losses caused by
    those infestations, as well as by crop prices and
    the costs of pesticides and alternative control
    methods
  • Changes in planted acres
  • Weather and other environmental conditions

49
Factors Affecting Pest Management Decisions, cont.
  • Pesticide prices
  • Increased 17 over 1991-96
  • Herbicides 17 increase
  • Fungicide almost 14 increase
  • Insecticide about 24 increase

50
Pesticide Regulatory Issues
  • EPA regulates pesticides under the Federal
    Insecticide Fungicide and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA)
  • Pesticide residues in food under the Federal
    Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA)
  • The Clean Air Act, Clean Water Act also contain
    provisions that affect pesticide manufacturers

51
Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont.
  • Important regulatory actions
  • Ex.) Stop selling products containing cyanazine
    by 1999
  • Pesticide registration costs
  • The research and development of a new pesticide
    averages 11years and cost manufacturers 50-70
    million
  • Regulatory streaming for reduced-risk pesticides

52
Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont.
  • New pest control products and technology
  • The EPA registers new pesticides every year
  • Between 22 and 31 new pesticides per year from
    1994 to 1998 are registered
  • Genetically Engineered plants
  • Seed and chemical companies have expanded
    research on plant biotechnology because of the
    increasing costs to develop chemical pesticides

53
Pesticide Regulatory Issues, cont.
  • Genetically engineered plants
  • Reduces the time required to identify desirable
    traits
  • Allows a precise alteration of a plants traits
  • Development of genetically modified plants takes
    about 6 years and cost about 10 million
  • U.S. consumer acceptance

54
Alternative Pest Management Programs and
Initiatives
  • Integrated pest management (IPM) programs
    research and promote a combination of cultural,
    biological and pesticide efficiency tools
  • Areawide pest management systems implements IPM
    and biological approaches on an areawide basis

55
Alternative Pest Management Programs and
Initiatives, cont.
  • Biologically based pest management
  • Intended to complement IPM programs
  • USDA incentive payments
  • Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP)
    provides assistance to eligible farmers and
    ranchers to address natural resource concerns on
    their lands in an environmentally beneficial and
    cost-effective manner

56
Alternative Pest Management Programs and
Initiatives, cont.
  • Voluntary environmental standards
  • Initiated by the private sector
  • Enforced by firms themselves
  • Use sanctions such as peer pressure for
    compliance
  • Focus on life-cycle impacts
  • Emphasize management systems

57
Nutrient Use and Management
58
Role of Plant Nutrients
  • Major nutrients
  • Nitrogen (N)
  • Phosphorus (P)
  • Potassium (K)
  • Other required nutrients
  • Magnesium
  • Calcium
  • Sulphur

59
Role of Plant Nutrients
  • If no nutrients applied, crops would deplete the
    soils store of nutrients and yields would decline

60
Why manage nutrients?
  • According to the EPA, nutrient pollution is
    leading cause of water quality impairment in
    lakes and estuaries and third leading cause in
    rivers.
  • This usually occurs because of leaching and
    run-off.

61
Nutrient Sources
  • Commercial fertilizer
  • Anhydrous ammonia is source of nearly all
    nitrogen fertilizer
  • Phosphate fertilizer produced by treating
    phosphate rock
  • Potash is used for potassium. Canada supplies US
    with 95 of their potash

62
Animal manure
  • Transportation costs limits using animal waste as
    fertilizer
  • Among major field crops share of acres treated
    with manure
  • Corn 15
  • Soybeans 10
  • Wheat lt 3

63
Municipal and Industrial Wastes
  • Municipal Solid Waste (MSW)
  • Paper and paperboard
  • Glass
  • Metals
  • Plastics
  • Rubber
  • Leather
  • Textile
  • Wood
  • Food wastes
  • Yard trimmings
  • And others

64
Municipal and Industrial Wastes
  • Three major methods for MSW disposal
  • Land filling (61)
  • Recoveries for recycle (17)
  • Incineration (12)

65
Commercial fertilizer use
  • Was 7.5 million nutrient tons in 1960
  • Rose to 23.7 million nutrient tons in 1981
  • Dropped to 21.3 million nutrient tons in 1995
  • Rose again to 22 million nutrient tons in 1999

66
Factors Affecting Fertilizer use
  • Principal factors
  • Level and mix of planted cropland
  • Fertilizer prices
  • Commodity prices and programs
  • Other factors
  • Soil characteristics
  • Climate and weather
  • Crop rotations
  • Application technology
  • Nutrient management practices

67
Nutrient Balance
  • Nutrient mass calculates the residual nitrogen or
    phosphorus that may remain in the soil or be lost
    to the environment
  • Categorized as
  • High nutrient input exceeded output in harvested
    crop by more than 25
  • Moderate nutrient input exceeded output by less
    than 25
  • Negative total nutrient input was less than the
    output

68
Nutrient management practices
  • Effective management can help reduce nutrient
    losses to the environment while sustaining
    long-term productivity and profitability
  • Includes
  • Assessing nutrient needs
  • Timing nutrient application
  • Placing nutrients close to crop roots

69
Assessing nutrient needs
  • Improved management requires more information
    about the nutrients and the use of balances to
    better assess needs

70
Timing nutrient application
  • Timing applications leaves less nutrients
    available for loss and can reduce total amount
    applied
  • Times vary by crop, texture of soil, climate, and
    stability of the fertilizer

71
Irrigation management
  • Irrigation management is important because
  • Too much water promotes leaching, affects
    nutrient concentration, and affects the rate of
    nutrient movement
  • Too little water can stunt plant growth, and
    reduce crop yield.

72
Improving nutrient management
  • Societies through government can
  • Adjust the anticipated costs or benefits of
    production practices
  • Regulate certain production practices
  • Establish markets for animal wastes
  • Research develop and demonstrate production
    practices less environmentally damaging
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