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Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism

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Figure 18-22 The enzymatic activities of phosphorylase a and glycogen synthase ... X-Ray structure of bovine rhodopsin. Page 675 ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism


1
Regulation of Glycogen Metabolism!!
2
Figure 18-22 The enzymatic activities of
phosphorylase a and glycogen synthase in mouse
liver in response to an infusion of glucose.
Page 648
3
Figure 18-9 The control of glycogen phosphorylase
activity.
Page 635
4
Figure 18-13 Control of glycogen metabolism
in muscle.
Page 639
5
Figure 18-16 X-Ray structure of rat testis
calmodulin.
Page 642
6
Figure 18-19 Schematic diagram of the
Ca2CaM-dependent activation of protein
kinases.
7
Figure 18-21 The antagonistic effects of insulin
and epinephrine on glycogen metabolism in muscle.
Page 645
8
Maintaining Blood Glucose Levels
  • During exercise or long after meals, the liver
    releases glc into the bloodstream
  • Glc inhibits pancreatic ?-cells from secreting
    glucagon. Inhibition is released when glc levels
    fall.
  • Glucagon receptors on liver cells respond to
    glucagon binding by activating AC causing ?
    cAMP.
  • ? cAMP increases the rate of glycogen breakdown
    and increased G6P.
  • G6P cannot pass through cell membranes.
    However, the liver, which doesnt rely on glc for
    a major energy source, has a G6P hydrolase to
    release glc.

9
Figure 18-23 Comparison of the relative enzymatic
activities of hexokinase and glucokinase over the
physiological blood glucose range.
Page 649
10
Figure 18-24 Formation and degradation of
?-D-fructose-2,6-bisphosphate as catalyzed by
PFK-2 and FBPase-2.
Page 649
11
Figure 18-26a The livers response to stress.
(a) Stimulation of ?-adrenoreceptors by
epinephrine activates phospholipase C to
hydrolyze PIP2 to IP3 and DAG.
Page 652
12
  • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine
  • Mention 2,5 BFP

13
Figure 18-26b The livers response to stress. (b)
The participation of two second messenger systems.
Page 652
14
Signal Transduction--Ch 19
15
Figure 19-1a Classification of hormones. (a)
Endocrine signals are directed at distant cells
through the intermediacy of the bloodstream.
Page 658
16
Figure 19-1b Classification of hormones. (b)
Paracrine signals are directed at nearby cells.
Page 658
17
Figure 19-1c Classification of hormones. (c)
Autocrine signals are directed at the cell that
produced them.
Page 658
18
Figure 19-2 Major glands of the human endocrine
system.
Page 658
19
Table 19-1 Some Human Hormones Polypeptides.
Page 659
20
Table 19-1 (continued) Some Human Hormones
Polypeptides.
Page 659
21
Table 19-1 (continued) Some Human Hormones
Steroids.
Page 659
22
Table 19-1 (continued) Some Human Hormones
Amino Acid Derivatives.
Page 659
23
Fig. 19-16 Receptor-mediated activation/inhibitio
n of Adenylate Cyclase
24
Figure 19-13 Activation/deactivation cycle for
hormonally stimulated AC.
Page 674
25
Figure 19-14 General structure of a G
protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
Page 674
26
Figure 19-15 X-Ray structure of bovine rhodopsin.
Page 675
27
Figure 19-51 Role of PIP2 in intracellular
signaling.
Page 708
28
Figure 19-21 Schematic diagram of a typical
mammalian AC.
Page 682
29
Figure 19-50 Molecular formula of the
phosphatidylinositides.
Page 707
30
Figure 19-52 A phospholipase is named according
to the bond that it cleaves on a
glycerophospholipid.
Page 709
31
Figure 19-57 Activation of PKC.
Page 713
32
Figure 19-64 Insulin signal transduction.
Page 719
33
Figure 19-18a X-Ray structure of the
hetero- trimeric G protein Gi.
G? subunit is violet with its Switch I, II,
and III segments green, blue, and red,
respectively
Page 679
34
Figure 19-19 Mechanism of action of cholera toxin.
Page 680
35
Figure 19-23 Domain organization in a variety of
receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) subfamilies.
Page 684
36
Figure 19-27a Growth pattern of vertebrate cells
in culture. (a) Normal cells stop growing
through contact inhibition once they have formed
a confluent monolayer.
(b) In contrast, transformed cells lack contact
inhibition they pile up to form a multilayer.
37
Figure 19-28 Variation of the cancer death rate
in humanswith age.
Page 688
38
Figure 19-29a Transformation of cultured chicken
fibroblasts by Rous sarcoma virus. (a) Normal
cells adhere to the surface of the culture
dish.(b) On infection with RVS, these cells
become rounded and cluster together in piles.
(a)
(b)
Page 689
Page 689
39
Figure 19-38 The Ras-activated MAP kinase cascade.
Page 696
40
Figure 19-40 MAP kinase cascades in mammalian
cells.
Page 698
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