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Response to Intervention RTI


Explain the direction of the state relative to RTI in response to changes in IDEA 2004 ... performance refers to a students relative standing (growth) on some critical ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Response to Intervention RTI

Response to Intervention (RTI)
  • Tonya Middling
  • Learning Improvement Coordinator
  • OSPI, Special Education
  • Paul Alig
  • Program Supervisor
  • OSPI, Special Education
  • Tuesday, December 12, 2006

  • To provide an overview of RTI systems and how it
    aligns with Reading First
  • Building capacity Begin thinking about how your
    schools can apply existing practices
  • To other academic areas and behavior and
  • In pre-K and upper grade levels by using the
    Response to Intervention framework.
  • Explain the direction of the state relative to
    RTI in response to changes in IDEA 2004
  • RTI is currently optional

  • Define RTI
  • Background and research
  • Discuss support for RTI in federal law
  • Review core principles of an RTI system
  • Discuss use of RTI for special education
  • Review relevant IDEA 04 regulations
  • District Implementation-Case scenario

What is RTI?
  • RTI is the practice of (1) providing
    high-quality instruction/intervention matched to
    student needs and (2) using learning rate over
    time and level of performance to (3) make
    important educational decisions to guide
  • National Association of State Directors of
    Special Education, 2005

Response to Intervention What are the big ideas?
  • High quality instruction/intervention
    Instruction or intervention matched to student
    need that has been demonstrated empirically and
    by practice to demonstrate high learning rates
    for most students
  • Learning rate and level of performance Learning
    rate refers to students growth in academic or
    behavioral skills over time in comparison to
    prior levels and peer growth rates. Level of
    performance refers to a students relative
    standing (growth) on some critical dimension of
    academic or behavioral skills compared to
    expected/predicted growth.
  • Important educational decisions Student
    intervention outcomes drive decision making at
    every tier. Decisions about intensity and
    duration of interventions are based upon data
    across multiple tiers of intervention.

What RTI Is and Is Not
  • Is
  • RTI is an overall integrated system of service
  • Is Not
  • RTI is not just an eligibility systema way of
    reducing the numbers of students placed into
    special education.

What RTI Is and Is Not
  • Is
  • RTI is effective for students who are at risk for
    school failure as well as students in other
    disability categories.
  • Is Not
  • RTI is not limited to students with learning

Background and Research Support
  • Stan Denos data-based decision program
    modification model (Deno, 1985 Deno Mirkin,
  • John Bergans behavioral consultation model
    (Bergan, 1977)
  • Sharon Vaughn's 3-Tier Model
  • 2 Research articles provided in packets-Fletcher
    et al and Klingner and Edwards
  • Nearly all of the RTI models being implemented
    today include features drawn from all three of
    these models.

Why RTI?
  • Provides appropriate learning experiences for all
  • Uses school-wide progress monitoring to assess
    entire class progress and individual student
  • Promotes early identification of students at risk
    for academic failure
  • Involves multiple performance measures rather
    than measurement at a single point in time
  • Under RTI, students receive interventions based
    on reliable and valid data earlier than the wait
    to fail scenario

Why RTI? continued
  • RTI identifies specific skill deficits, whereas
    teacher referrals are more frequently general
    statements of need
  • Scientifically-based interventions are used more
    frequently and earlier
  • Over identification based on race/ethnicity is
    reduced in programs for students with learning
    disabilities and mental retardation
  • African-American children are twice as likely as
    white children to be labeled mentally retarded
    and more likely to be label EBD

Why RTI? continued
  • Greater numbers of at-risk students achieve
  • Principals and superintendents want to know if
    students are achieving benchmarks, regardless of
    placement in general education, gifted, or
    special education
  • SLD category has grown 300 since 1976-80 there
    because they havent learned how to read 40
    there because they havent been taught to read.

Effectiveness of LD Programs based on Discrepancy
  • Special education placements tend to stabilize
    the reading growth of students with reading
    disabilities rather than accelerate it. (Vaughn,
    1998, Moody, 2000)
  • The change in acceleration rates for students
    with reading disabilities is about .04 SD/year.
    It will take 8 years to move from 5th to 9th
    percentile (Torgeson, in press Hanushek, 1998)
  • Students who enter special educaiton2 years
    below age mates can be expected to maintain
    disparity or fall farther behind.
  • Its the nature of the program more than the
    label that makes the difference.

RTI Manual Introduction
  • Outlines principle components of RTI
  • Guidance on RTI decision making
  • Recommendations on using RTI data to identify
    specific learning disabilities (SLD)
  • Answers common questions
  • Includes additional resources and practical

How to use the RTI manual
  • Recommendations NOT regulations
  • Each district and school design their own RTI
    system built on your existing Reading First
    practices depending on resources
  • The RTI manual aligns with OSPIs K-12 Reading
    Model-Should be familiar with both models

RTI Big Ideas
  • RTI is a general education approach that aligns
    resources from general, remedial and special
    education through a multi-tiered service delivery
    model in order to provide scientific,
    research-based interventions to struggling
  • Can be applied in all academic areas and behavior

RTI Big Ideas
  • RTI includes making data-based decisions using
    curriculum based measurements (CBMs) through
    problem-solving or standard protocol approaches
  • Uses formative assessments to monitor
    effectiveness of interventions and student
  • May be used in the identification of students
    with specific learning disabilities

RTI- A Systems Change
  • Shift in sequence related to funding
  • Shifting our view of the problem-RTI focuses on
    student intervention need and not What is wrong
    with the student?
  • Need to first look at variables that might be
    preventing the student from learning (i.e., the
    curriculum, instruction, or environment)
  • Shift in student data Focus on instructional
    need rather than diagnosis
  • Shift in student ownership Not just special
    education or Title 1, but all of our students

Activity 1 Leadership
  • Complete Leadership table on the RTI checklist
    with team (10 minutes)
  • Guiding questions
  • Who would be natural leaders in expanding
    practices used in Reading First into a full RTI
  • What commitment is needed to expand existing
    practices to pre-K and upper grades
  • Prioritize 2 things that need to occur regarding
    leadership in your school or district and enter
    on the Action Plan

Response to Intervention Core Principles
  • Use all available resources to teach all students
  • Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Monitor classroom performance
  • Conduct universal screening/benchmarking
  • Use multi-tier model of service delivery
  • Make data based decisions using a problem
    solving/standard protocol approach
  • Monitor progress frequently
  • Implementation fidelity

1. Use all available resources to teach all
  • RTI practices are built on the belief that all
    students can learn and everyone supports all
  • Districts need to review existing initiatives to
    determine where RTI can complement and/or help
    unify efforts already in place.
  • Basic Education
  • LAP/Title
  • Reading First (NCLB, 2001)
  • School Improvement Plan
  • Student Learning Plans
  • Special Education (IDEA 2004)
  • K-12 Reading Model
  • Goal is to match resources in a manner that is
    directly proportional to students needs,
    regardless of source.

2. Use scientific, research-based interventions
  • Curriculum and instruction approaches must have a
    high probability of success for the majority of
  • Offer as soon as it is clear the student is
    lagging behind
  • Increase intensity of instruction and practice
  • Opportunity for explicit and systematic
    instruction/practice and cumulative review
  • Provide skillful instruction with good error
    correction, immediate feedback
  • Guided by and in response to progress monitoring
  • Must provide a supportive atmosphere for learning

Activity 2-Curriculum
  • Discuss and complete the curriculum table on the
    RTI checklist with team (10 minutes)
  • Guiding questions
  • What core instructional programs are in place for
    the intermediate grades in reading?
  • For math and writing, what core instructional
    changes are needed at all grades?
  • What about school wide behavioral systems?
  • Prioritize 2 things that need to occur regarding
    curriculum in your school or district

3. Monitor classroom performance
  • General education teachers
  • Play a vital role in designing and delivering
    high quality instruction
  • Collect student centered data for making informed
    instructional decision rather than waiting for an
    outcome measure (i.e., WASL)
  • Are in the best position to assess students
    performance in relationship to state standards
  • Must constantly assess and reassess the value of
    programs and their impact on students

4. Assessment System
  • 4 types of assessment, each for varying purposes
  • Universal Screening (i.e., DIBELS, Gates-
    MacGinitie Reading Test)
  • Progress Monitoring(i.e., Curriculum Based
    Measures CBMs)
  • Targeted-(i.e., Curriculum Based Mastery
  • Outcome- WASL

a) Universal Screening Assessments
  • School staff conduct universal screening in all
    academic areas and behavior to all students three
  • Purpose of universal screening is to identify
    students at risk for academic or behavior
  • Universal screening data tells us whether a child
    is on track compared to peer group and/or state
  • The students data at benchmark testing periods
    can be utilized to validate the effectiveness of
    intervention. Is the gap closing?

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b) Progress Monitoring
  • Documents student growth over time to determine
    if students are learning critical skills at an
    adequate rate
  • CBMs are primarily used as a method for progress
    monitoring because they are brief, easy to
    administer and score, and are good predictors of
    student ability
  • Progress monitoring data provide a picture of the
    students performance and rate of growth to
    inform instructional and curricular changes so
    that every student reaches proficiency on
    targeted skills

Words Read Correct
Words Read Correct
c) Targeted Assessment
  • Targeted assessment means shifting to evaluations
    that are designed around the specific targeted
    concerns of the student.
  • In other words, we select assessments that
    measure the area of concern rather than
    administering an assessment and then trying to
    determine what it means.
  • Usually conducted when student enters Tier III,
    but may be conducted earlier

Tools and Resources for Universal Screening,
Progress Monitoring and Targeted Assessments
  • OSPIs Reading Assessment Tool
  • http//
  • Use as a reference tool
  • Not endorsed by OSPI
  • Simply a consumers guide to norm and criterion
    referenced assessment tools and purpose and type
    of measurement
  • Investigate further what will work for your
  • Consistency of use, delivery, data reporting, and
    use of data to drive instruction will make the
    biggest difference
  • Reading, math and writing tools
  • http//
  • Aimsweb/DIBELS

Data Management for Assessment System
  • Technical Support
  • How will you track assessment data and who has
    access to this data?
  • Who will be responsible for maintaining the data?

Activity 3 Assessment System
  • Complete the screening table on RTI checklist (10
  • Refer to page 1 of Appendix A in RTI manual
  • Guiding questions
  • What assessment tools are used in reading, math
    and writing in grades beyond K-3?
  • What kinds of assessments are currently being
    used to monitor progress and to drive instruction
    at all grade levels?
  • When should targeted assessments be applied in
    all grades?
  • Prioritize 2 things that need to occur regarding
    assessment in your school or district

Features of a Multi-Tiered Model
  • Each tier represents increasingly intense level
    of services associated with increasing levels of
    learner needs-the greater the tier the greater
    the support needed for the student
  • The nature of the academic or behavioral
    intervention changes at each tier, becoming more
    rigorous as the student moves through the tiers
  • Students move up and down the tiers depending on

Three-Tier Model of School Supports
  • Intensive, Individual Interventions
  • Individual Students
  • Assessment-based
  • Intense, durable procedures

Tier I All Students
  • All students receive high quality scientific
    research based instruction in the core curriculum
    in all areas
  • Core curriculum provides the foundation for
    instruction upon which all strategic and
    intensive interventions are formulated
  • Serves 80-90 of the student body
  • Some Tier I interventions may be applied to at
    risk students followed by progress monitoring

Activity 4 Tier ITable Discussion (15 minutes)
  • Guiding questions
  • What does Tier I currently look like in your
    schools relative to universal screening, progress
    monitoring, and interventions? What might Tier I
    look like in the intermediate grades (4-6) in
  • What is needed so teachers are able to implement
    an effective core program in every classroom for
    grades 4-6 in reading?
  • What about in math, writing or behavior K-6?
  • How will you evaluate the effectiveness of your
    core programs in math and writing?
  • What changes need to occur, if any?

Tier II Some Students
  • For students who are not achieving standards
    through the core curriculum alone, strategic
    interventions would be necessary to supplement
    the core program
  • Consists of 5-10 of the student body
  • Occurs in small groups of 3-6 students
  • Short-term in duration 9-12 week blocks
  • Interventions are not implemented for set periods
    of time but, rather, are modified or discontinued
    based on student progress data.
  • Recommended 3-4 sessions per week at 30-60
    minutes per session

Tier II Some Students, cont.
  • Students progress is monitored more frequently at
    Tier II, usually every 2 weeks
  • Students should receive more than one block of
    Tier II interventions if progressing but who have
    not yet reached the goal
  • Students who reach goal would be reintegrated
    into Tier I
  • Students who do not progress in Tier II may
    require more intensive interventions

Activity 5 Tier IITable Discussion (15
  • Guiding questions
  • What does Tier II currently look like in your
    schools relative to progress monitoring, targeted
    assessment and strategic interventions? What
    might Tier II look like in the intermediate
    grades (4-6) in reading?
  • What is needed so staff are able to implement
    effective strategic interventions for struggling
    students in grades 4-6 in reading?
  • What about in math, writing or behavior K-6?
  • Who could deliver strategic interventions and
    when might it occur?

Tier III Few Students
  • Intensive interventions are designed to
    accelerate a students rate of learning by
    increasing the frequency and duration of
    individualized interventions based on targeted
    assessment data.
  • Students at Tier III are those performing
    significantly below standards and have not
    adequately responded to Tier I or Tier II

Tier III, cont.
  • Consists of less than 5 of student body
  • Occurs in groups of no more than 3 ideally
  • May occur longer than 9-12 weeks
  • Student progress is monitored on at least a
    weekly basis
  • Students who are successful at Tier III
    reintegrate to Tier I with Tier II support
  • If not successful at Tier III, consider referral
    for special education and/or other long-term
    planning 504 plan, additional Tier III cycle

Activity 6 Tier IIITable Discussion (15
  • Guiding questions
  • What does Tier III currently look like in your
    schools relative to progress monitoring, targeted
    assessment and intensive interventions? What
    might Tier III look like in the intermediate
    grades (4-6) in reading?
  • What is needed so staff are able to implement
    effective intensive interventions for struggling
    students in grades 4-6 in reading?
  • What about in math, writing or behavior K-6?
  • Who could deliver intensive interventions and
    when might it occur?

6. Data-Based Decision Making
  • The purpose of using data based decision making
    is to find the best instructional approach for a
    student with an academic or behavioral problem
  • Decisions are made by teams consisting of
    professionals knowledgeable about the student,
    and the parent
  • Decisions regarding interventions should not be
    made based on scores alone
  • Decisions should be made by a team using a
    combination of the a) problem solving process
    and/or b) standard protocol approach

a) Problem Solving
  • What is problem solving?
  • A process that uses the skills of professionals
    from different disciplines to develop and
    evaluate intervention plans that significantly
    improve the school performance of students
  • The composition of the team will vary by adding
    additional specialists expertise as students
    move from tier to tier

Scientific Method The Problem Solving Process
Designing Instruction to Meet Student Needs
Standardized Assessments
Benchmarking or Screening

Instructional Problem Solving
Requires taking multiple sources of evidence and
selecting appropriate instructional interventions
based on identified student needs
Progress Monitoring
Performance or Criterion Assessments
Content Domains of Influence
Apply R.I.O.T. procedures to each of the content
Evaluation Planning
b) Standard Treatment Protocol
  • The words standard (consistent, the same for all
    students), treatment (instruction, intervention),
    and protocol (predetermined format or delivery
    system) describe this approach to RTI.
  • SP uses one validated intervention, to improve
    the academic skills of its struggling students.
    Because a single, consistent intervention is
    used, it is easier to ensure accurate
    implementation, or treatment fidelity.
  • A variety of support staff (such as paras,
    tutors, or parent volunteers) can deliver the
    instruction however, critical that they receive
    comprehensive training before assuming their
    instructional responsibilities.

Soap Lake Example
Activity 7 Decision Making/ Teaming
  • Complete the table on Teaming in the RTI manual
    (10 minutes)
  • Guiding questions
  • What does decision making look like in your
  • Are you using a combination of the two approaches
    of decision making?
  • What are the strengths and weaknesses of using
    problem solving? Standard treatment?
  • Are the right people participating in decisions
    at the right time?
  • Prioritize 2 things that need to occur regarding
    decision making in your school or district and
    include on the action plan

Lack of Responsiveness to Interventions
  • Defined as rate of improvement, or progress slope
    that is not sufficient for the student to become
    proficient with state standards without more
  • Decisions to advance students from one tier to
    another is based upon analysis of the progress
    monitoring data to determine if the student is
    responsive e.g. 4-6 data points below the
    aimline after interventions have been altered may
    show a student is non-responsive

  • Fidelity refers to the degree to which RTI
    components are implemented as designed, intended,
    and planned.
  • Fidelity is achieved through sufficient time
    allocation, adequate intervention intensity,
    qualified and trained staff, and sufficient and
    sufficient materials and resources.
  • Fidelity is vital in universal screening,
    instructional delivery and progress monitoring.

Intervention Plan
  • Documents analysis of student data and outlines
    interventions and evaluation of progress
  • Also documents implementation of interventions
    with fidelity See appendix F

Support for RTI in federal law
  • IDEA 2004 focused national attention on a growing
    successful practice in the general education
    classroom-RTI as a tool for assessing and working
    with struggling learners. IDEA 2004 brings new
    interest to the use of RTI because of major
    changes made in the law
  • when determining whether a child has a SLD as
    defined in Section 602, a LEA shall not be
    required to take into consideration whether a
    child has a severe discrepancy between
    achievement and intellectual ability P.L.
    108-446, 614(b)(6)(A)
  • In determining whether a child has a SLD, a LEA
    may use a process that determines if the child
    responds to scientific, research-based
    intervention as a part of the evaluation
    procedures P.L. 108-446, 614(b)(6)(B) and

Support for RTI in federal law, contd. Early
Intervening Services and NCLB
  • a LEA may use up to 15 of its federal IDEA Part
    B funding to develop and implement coordinated,
    early intervening servicesfor students in
    kindergarten through grade 12 (with a particular
    emphasis on students in kindergarten through
    grade 3) who have not been identified as needing
    special education or related services but who
    need additional academic and behavioral support
    to succeed in the general education environment
    P.L. 108-446, 613(f)(1).
  • Aligns with No Child Left Behind (2001)

RTI and Child Find
  • Anyone, including parents and teachers, can make
    a referral at any time in a RTI system.
  • A student cannot be required to go all the way
    through Tier III before being evaluated if
    evidence exists to suspect a disability.

When should a student be suspected of having a
disability due to a lack of responsiveness?
  • Students who are performing significantly less
    than their peers and have been provided two or
    more Tier III interventions that did not
    significantly decrease the gap in achievement
    should be suspected as having SLD and evaluated
    absent other evidence.

Parent Involvement in RTI
  • In a RTI system parents must be provided progress
    monitoring data. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(b)(2).
  • Parents must also be informed of
  • State policies regarding the amount and nature of
    student performance data that is collected and
    the general education services that are provided
  • The strategies for increasing the students rate
    of learning and
  • Their right to request an evaluation.
  • 34 CFR Sec. 300.311(a)(7).

Is consent required before conducting screenings
or CBMs?
  • Teachers or specialists do not need to obtain
    consent to evaluate when administering universal
    screening, CBMs, or targeted assessments to a
    student in order to determine appropriate
    instructional strategies for curriculum
  • 20 USC Sec. 1414(a)(1)(E).

Using RTI data to identify SLD
  • SLD Flowchart
  • District procedures set out criteria for using
    RTI data to establish SLD.
  • District criteria must incorporate new federal
    regulations on SLD.
  • 34 CFR Sections 300.309 through 300.311

Adopt an established approach for using RTI data
to identify SLD
  • Districts are strongly encouraged to use
    established approaches for using RTI data to
    identify SLD.
  • Criteria determines if a student is not making
    sufficient progress to meet age or State-approved
    grade-level standards in one or more of the SLD
    areas. 34 CFR Sec. 300.309(a)(2)(i).

Special Education Eligibility
  • To be eligible for special education, the
    evaluation group for students with SLD must find
    an adverse educational impact and the need for
    specially designed instruction (SDI).
  • The evaluation report for eligible students
    should include recommendations about the SDI and
    any related services, program modifications,
    accommodations and other supports the student
    needs with enough specificity to develop an IEP.
  • In a RTI system, the SDI provided should
    supplement the scientific-based interventions and
    high quality instruction the student was already
    receiving in general education.

Same players new roles I
  • The New Psychologist Role
  • Data Manager
  • Data Analyzer
  • Data Synthesizer
  • Detective Extraordinaire
  • Progress Monitoring?
  • The New Sped Teacher Role
  • Data Provider
  • Targeted Assessment
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Intervention opportunities

Same players new roles II
  • The New Parent Role
  • Data Provider (FAAB)
  • Interventionist
  • Progress Monitoring
  • The New General Ed.Teacher Role
  • Tier 1 Tier 2 interventions
  • Progress Monitoring
  • Data provider (FAAB) for Learning Env.
  • Be ready for intervention

Same players new roles III
  • The New Principal Role
  • As goes the principals attitude, so goes the
  • Providing for the assessment of intervention
  • The New Attitude
  • We are not looking at the child as broken
  • Focus is on Why isnt the general education
    curriculum working for this child?

  • Early Intervening Services are
  • Activities to support students in grades
  • K-12 who are not currently identified as
    needing special education, but who need
    additional academic and behavioral support to
    succeed in the general education curriculum
  • Districts may not use more than 15 of IDEA Part
    B funds for EIS activities, less any amount
    reduced by MOE
  • 34 CFR 300.226

EIS Allowable Activities
  • EIS activities may include
  • Professional development for teachers and other
    school staff to enable such personnel to deliver
    scientifically based academic and behavioral
  • Instruction on use of adaptive and instructional
    software and
  • Educational and behavioral evaluations, services
    and supports

Disproportionate Representation
  • States must require LEAs to reserve maximum
    amount of EIS funds to address any issues of
    disproportionate representation of minority
    students in special education
  • 34 CFR 300.646

Thank You!
RTI Manual http//