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New Hope for Hurt Neurons

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Christopher Reeve as Superman. Christopher Reeve Paralysis ... Reeve's Goal. To Stand and Raise a Glass on 50th Birthday. 9/25/2002. Traditional Divisions ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Hope for Hurt Neurons


1
New Hope for Hurt Neurons
  • Is there recovery after damage to the spinal cord
    or brain?
  • Can stem cells be used to reconstruct broken
    pathways?
  • A few years ago, the stuff of myths.
  • Perhaps a reality

2
Christopher Reeve as Superman
3
Christopher Reeve Paralysis Foundation
www.paralysis.org
4
Reeves Goal
To Stand and Raise a Glass on 50th
Birthday.
9/25/2002
5
Traditional Divisions
KW 2-13
6
Functional Divisions
KW 2-13
7
CNS and PNS
KW 1-2
8
Brain in Skull
KW 2-1
9
CNS and PNS (sketch)
Skull
Brain
Vertebrae
Spinal cord
Nerves (PNS)
10
Neurons and Glial Cells
KW 2-12
11
Neuron
KW 3-3
12
Types of Neurons
KW 3-7
13
Neuron (detail)
KW 3-5
14
Neuron (info flow)
KW 3-6
15
Types of Glial Cells
KW 3-1
16
Glial Cell Functions
  • Supportive glial glue
  • Nutrition
  • Waste disposal vacuum cleaners
  • Insulate neurons

17
Neurons vs Glial Cells
  • Neurons
  • Transmit message.
  • Mature cells dont replicate.
  • Dead cells are not replaced.
  • Glial cells
  • Supportive role.
  • Mature cells do replicate.
  • Dead cells are replaced.

18
CNS and PNS Myelin
19
Astrocyte
KW 3-9
20
Myelin Wrap
CNS
PNS
21
Myelin Sheath in PNS
Schwann Cells in PNS
Axon
Myelin Sheath
22
Schwann cell beakdown
KW 3-11
23
Schwann Cell Recovery
KW 3-11
24
Combo Schwann
KW 3-11
25
Can axons regrow in CNS?
  • Yes, but their path is blocked by CNS Glial
    Cells.
  • CNS Glial cells (Oligodendrocytes) form scar
    tissue.
  • Pathway is blocked by scar tissue.

scar
26
CNS Solutions
  • Block scar tissue from forming.
  • Schwann cell bridges (Lars Olson).
  • Spinal motor pathways cut in rats.
  • Loss control of hind limbs.

27
Other CNS Solutions
  • Nerve growth factors.
  • Stem cell implants.
  • Quick response to spinal cord injury.
  • Golden Hour first hour after injury.
  • Prevent further damage.

28
Rapid Response to Injury
  • Steroids to reduce swelling.
  • Provide support.
  • Cord usually not severed.
  • Relieve pressure.
  • Stabilize vertebrae.

29
Recovery from injury
  • Drugs to help remaining neurons function better.
  • Retrain body to use back-up systems.
  • Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES) a
    computer assisted movement system

30
Functional Electrical Stimulation
31
Hand Grasp in Operation
32
Spinal Cord Outcomes
  • 12,000 new cases a year
  • Most young men.
  • 90 survive accident.
  • Lifetime disability
  • Greater hope for recovery.
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