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Motivation, SelfRegulation and SelfConcept of College Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired

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The purpose of this paper is to investigate, using the mixed methods design, ... on studies conducted with sighted students, e.g. Reeve, Nix, Glen and Hamm (2003) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Motivation, SelfRegulation and SelfConcept of College Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired


1
Motivation, Self-Regulation and Self-Concept
ofCollege Students Who Are Blind or Visually
Impaired
  • Karo Caran
  • George Mason University

2
Abstract
  • The purpose of this paper is to investigate,
    using the mixed methods design, motivation,
    self-regulation, and self-concept of students
    with visual impairment in order to determine if
    these factors influence college attendance and
    graduation. It is hypothesized that students
    self-regulation and motivation will be the same
    or higher as in the sighted students. Similarly,
    their overall self-concept should be the same or
    higher.
  • The study will measure motivation and
    self-concept of 10 students. It will also explore
    their self-regulation and establish, by
    interviewing 5 students, if there are other
    factors that contribute to the attendance and
    college graduation. The results will help reduce
    the drop-out rate of blind college students. The
    findings will also help support blind students
    who plan to attend or are currently in college.

3
Purpose
  • To measure self-efficacy and self-concept of
    college students who are blind
  • To explore self-regulatory strategies and other
    issues that may be important when conducting
    studies on blind students who attend college.

4
Literature Review Self-Regulation
  • No self-regulation studies were conducted with
    college students who are blind. Future studies
    may be based on self-regulation of sighted
    college students, e.g. Zimmerman and Kitsantas
    (2002) studied the influences of modeling and
    social feedback on the acquisition of writing
    revision. Students watching a coping female model
    gradually improving her writing technique on a
    sentence-combining task surpassed students
    observing a mastery model perform the technique
    flawlessly on a writing-skill measure and an
    array of self-regulatory measures, such as
    self-satisfaction reactions, self-efficacy
    perceptions, and intrinsic interest in the task.
    Students observing a mastery model surpassed
    those learning without the benefit of modeling on
    these same measures.

5
Literature Review - Motivation
  • No studies on motivation of college students who
    are blind have been conducted. Future studies may
    be modeled on studies conducted with sighted
    students, e.g. Reeve, Nix, Glen and Hamm (2003)
    tested models of the experience of
    self-determination in intrinsic motivation and
    the perceived choice.
  • Results supported the model in which internal
    locus and volition, but not perceived choice,
    constitute valid indicators of self-determination.
    In light of the findings, the authors proposed a
    modified definition for perceived
    self-determination and discussed the conundrum of
    choice by proposing the conditions under which
    teachers can (and cannot) expect choice to
    increase students' intrinsic motivation.

6
Literature Review Self-Concept
  • Studies on self-concept have been conducted, but
    not in relation to college education of blind
    students. There has been a comparative study of
    blind and sighted students.
  • Martinez and Sewell (1996) investigated the
    self-concept of students (college age) with and
    without visual impairment. There was no
    significant difference between the self-concept
    of the visually impaired and the sighted
    students. Moreover, no significant differences
    were found in the GPA scores and the IQ scores of
    the students with and without visual impairment.
    Competence seems to be more important than the
    fact of having a disability when students reach
    the college age.

7
Significance
  • The study will
  • Investigate how college students who are blind
    motivate and self-regulate themselves and what is
    their self-concept
  • Establish foundations for future directions of
    studies conducted with students who are blind
  • Suggest concepts or constructs which will emerge
    during interviews and observations of students,
    which may lead the research on students who are
    blind in new directions

8
Self-regulated Learning
  • Self-regulation self-generated thoughts,
    feelings and actions that are systematically
    designed to affect ones learning of knowledge
    and skills (Zimmerman, 1989, 1990 Zimmerman
    Kitsantas, 1996).

9
Motivation
  • Social cognitive approaches to strategic learning
    focus on students perception of self-efficacy as
    a major influence on their motivation and
    strategic learning (Bandura, 1986 Schunk, 1989
    Zimmerman, 1989a).
  • Self-efficacy refers to personal judgment of
    ones capabilities to organize and execute
    courses of action to attain designated
    educational performances, such as a particular
    grade or percentage of accuracy on a test
    (Zimmerman Bonner, in press).

10
Self-Concept
  • The totality of a complex, organized, and dynamic
    system of learned beliefs, attitudes and opinions
    that each person holds to be true about his or
    per personal existence (Purkey, 1988).

11
Hypotheses Research Questions
  • It is hypothesized that students self-efficacy
    and self-concept will be the same or higher than
    in sighted students.
  • The research questions will focus on further
    exploration of their motivation, self-regulation
    and self-concept as well as exploration of other
    factors that may influence their college
    attendance/graduation. What motivates them to go
    to, go through, and graduate from college? How do
    they self-regulate in college? How is their
    self-concept influenced by their
    abilities/disabilities and achievements/limitation
    s? What are other factors that influence them?

12
Study Participants
  • Motivation and Self-Concept of 20 students will
    be measured (10 blind 10 sighted)
  • 5 students self-regulation will be explored.
    They will also be asked open-ended questions
    regarding their college experience and will be
    observed in and outside the classroom. All 5
    students will be blind.

13
Measures
  • Quantitative
  • Jerusalem and Schwarzers General Self-Efficacy
    Scale will be used to measure students
    motivation. The range of Cronbachs alpha is
    between .76 and .90. It is a Likert-type scale
    with 10 questions with the responses ranging from
    not at all true to exactly true. A sample
    question is I can solve most problems if I
    invest the necessary effort.
  • Fitts Tennessee Self-Concept Scale will be used
    to measure the students self-concept. The
    reliability of the scale ranges between .60 and
    .90. It consists of 100 questions and the 5
    possible answer choices to each question vary
    from strongly agree to strongly disagree. A
    sample question is I am an attractive person.

14
Measures
  • Qualitative
  • Students self-regulation will be assessed based
    on Self-Regulation Questionnaires developed for
    the purpose of the study. They will include
    questions such as are you a fast learner? and
    when you do your homework, do you take a lot of
    long breaks? No answers will be provided so that
    the students responses are not influenced by
    them. Students will also be asked to keep diaries
    in which they log their day-to-day activities and
    how much time they take.
  • In addition to the two scales and the assessment
    of students self-regulation, an interview with
    open-ended questions will be conducted with five
    students, in order to further explore the
    research question, i.e. whether other factors
    than the three mentioned above influence
    students college attendance and graduation. A
    sample question is Do you have role models that
    have inspired you to attend college?

15
Expected Results
  • It was hypothesized that blind students
    self-efficacy and self-concept would be the same
    or higher than in sighted students. The reason to
    expect such results is that blind students who
    have gone through primary and secondary education
    should, by the time they enter college, have
    mastered self-efficacy beliefs and should have
    reflected a lot on who they are. They should have
    gained enough experience to know how
    self-efficacious they are and what their
    strengths and weaknesses are.
  • The mixed methods approach has been chosen in
    order to measure the constructs that have
    previously been neglected or given little
    attention in relation to blind students, such as
    self-concept and especially self-regulation. as
    well as other factors that may influence
    students college attendance and graduation will
    be explored through surveys and observations.
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