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HS4331 International Health Theory

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HS4331 International Health Theory. Sep 15, 2007 The Context of International ... Rationalism. Open debate. Environmental Advantage ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HS4331 International Health Theory


1
HS4331 International Health Theory Sep 15,
2007 The Context of International Health
Origins of Disparity
? http//classes.deonandan.com/hss4331
2
Announcements
  • 10 more spaces in this class!
  • Email Joanne Chartrand to register
    jchartra_at_uottawa.ca x4247
  • Deadline for registration is Sep 19

3
Announcements
  • Today
  • 630pm to 830pm
  • 1848 (University Centre)
  • The Global Burden of HIV/AIDS by Yours Truly
  • Sponsored by the International House
  • Suggested donation (I think) 2
  • Proceeds go to the AIDS Walk

4
ACTION Global Health Network
http//www.actionsantemondiale.ca/
5
http//www.ubuntuproject.org/
(I think they mean October)
6
(No Transcript)
7
What is health?
  • health is a state of complete physical, mental,
    and social well-being and not merely the absence
    of disease or infirmity
  • World Health Organization

8
The state of the world in a few sobering numbers
  • By 2010, there will be nearly 20 million children
    orphaned by AIDS in Africa alone (UN, 2004)
  • By 2015, 800 million people will have no access
    to safe water (WHO, 2004)
  • More than 2,6 billion people, 40 of the planet,
    have no access to basic sanitation (WHO, 2004)
  • Half the worlds children are threatened by
    extreme poverty (UNICEF, 2004)

9
The state of the world in a few sobering numbers
  • Every year around 17 million people die from
    diseases which could be treated. (Oxfam, 2007)
  • 80 of all illness in the world is caused by
    dirty drinking water. (Oxfam, 2007)
  • nearly one in three people in the world cannot
    read or write . (Oxfam, 2007)
  • 190 million 10 to 14-year-olds in the developing
    world have to work . (Oxfam, 2007)

10
When I say international health, what do most
people think of?
  • Poor
  • Starving
  • Children
  • Dark skinned
  • African

11
  • However, health disparities exist worldwide
  • Within rich nations, gap between rich and poor
    can be great
  • There are nations within nations
  • In almost every nation, womens health and mens
    health are approached differently

12
Gap Between Rich and Poor
  • ?in Canada, top 20 of earners saw net income
    increase by 43 from 1984-1999
  • ?in Canada, bottom 20 saw net income decrease by
    51 from 1984-1999
  • Canadian Council on Social Development, 2002

13
There are nations within nations
  • 18.5 of Canadian children live beneath the
    poverty line Canadian Council on Social
    Development, 2002
  • 25 of First Nations children in Canada live
    beneath poverty line Campaign 2000
  • Canada ranks 4 on UN Human Development Scale
  • But Aboriginal communities in Canada, if viewed
    separately, would be 78 beneath Kazakhstan

14
Gender Gap
  • Use of prenatal techniques to sex-select,
    overwhelmingly disfavours females
  • Research is disproportionately on males
  • Eg, almost no studies of effectiveness of AZT on
    women
  • Women have fewer educational opportunities than
    men
  • In Africa, women are responsible for 80 of food
    production, but own less than 1 of the land

15
Gender Gap (continued)
  • Women are more likely to experience problems
    resulting from domestic work
  • are at greater risk of depression
  • Their household duties may also expose them to
    greater risk of some infectious disease
  • Domestic violence is borne by women, especially
    in situations of political conflict and
    instability
  • Men are more likely to die prematurely from
    work-related injuries, smoking-related diseases,
    male-on-male violence, and road traffic injuries

Bulletin of the World Health Organization vol.82 n
o.3 Genebra Mar. 2004
16
So what am I trying to say?
  • Issues of population health disparity are not
    strictly those of rich countries versus poor
    countries
  • We can observe international health issues
    anytime a population displays poor health
    relative to another, whether that population is
    defined by nationality, race, gender, ethnicity,
    age, etc

17
But.
  • Given that there are undeniable health
    development disparities between rich nations and
    poor nations.
  • How did this come to pass in the first place?

18
Debt
Brain drain
History of colonialism
Exploitation of Natural resources
Wealth Disparity
Redrawn borders ? National insecurity
Conversion to Cash crop agriculture
Military overspending
Political corruption
19
Colonialism
  • Many of the disparity issues seen today are the
    result of conquest and colonial activities of the
    past, mostly perpetrated by European nations over
    the past 500 years
  • Controversy
  • To what extent is colonialism still responsible
    for wealth disparities?

20
European Colonialism
  • Began in the 15th century during the Age of
    Discovery -gt East Asia, South Asia, Americas
  • In 19th century, the Industrial Age led to New
    Imperialism, when pace of colonialism
    accelerated, particularly in Africa
  • End of 18th and early 19th centuries saw the era
    of decolonialization leading to ostensible
    independence for most former colonies

21
Competing views
  • Europeans were able to supplant other cultures
    because
  • They were innately superior
  • They had a philosophical advantage
  • They had an environmental advantage

22
Philosophical Advantage
  • Championed by the likes of Victor Davis Hanson
  • Certain characteristics of Northern culture are
    superior
  • Political freedom
  • Capitalism
  • Individualism
  • Republicanism
  • Rationalism
  • Open debate

23
Environmental Advantage
  • Championed by Jared Diamond (Guns, Germs and
    Steel)
  • Eurasians got a head start in developing tools of
    wealth and war by virtue of geographical good
    fortune
  • Discovery of high caloric, robust grains
  • Ability to spread across latitude, rather than
    longitude
  • Availability of domesticable large mammals
  • Close association with animals ?disease immunity

24
First International Health Crisis
  • When Europeans arrived in the Americas, they
    brought disease

25
History of colonialism
Wealth Disparity
26
Impacts of Colonialism
  • Two types of colonies
  • Same race/culture and different race/culture
  • Which type do you think were talking about?
  • Colonies exist to service the colonizer nation
  • Resources are transferred from colony to
    colonizer
  • India made Britain wealthy
  • Conquered community is decapitated

27
Colonialism
  • ? brain drain
  • ? corruption
  • ? capitalism
  • ? environmental degradation

28
Opposing views
  • http//www.afbis.com/analysis/neo-colonialism.html
  • ? The myth of neo-colonialism
  • Two Cheers for Colonialism by Dinesh DSouza
    (The Chronicle Review, May 10, 2002)
  • Response D'Souza and the Narcosis of Historical
    Consciousness by Masud Zavarzadeh

29
More Opposing Views
  • Colonialism Was Good For Africa by Jan
    Lamprecht
  • http//www.globalpolitician.com/22569-africa
  • (be forewarned of some of the language in this
    article which might be construed as racist)

30
More reading, for the keen
  • The Betrayal of Africa by Gerald Caplan,
    chapter 2 history matters

31
History of colonialism
Wealth Disparity
Redrawn borders ? National insecurity
32
Redrawn Borders
  • European powers drew new borders in Asia, Africa,
    Polynesia and the Americas
  • Based on European political need
  • Ignored natural geographical boundaries
  • Cut across tribal and ancestral lands
  • Africa was redrawn most dramatically by Europeans
    at 1884/85 Conference of Berlin
  • Africa has experienced 103 official border
    disputes since Conference of Berlin

33
By 1902, 90 of African land was under European
control
Africa in 1914 (Stolen from Wikipedia entry for
Conference of Berlin)
34
From Exploringafrica.matrix.msu.edu
35
Wealth Disparity
Conversion to Cash crop agriculture
36
What is a cash crop?
  • crop grown for export, not for local consumption

37
Cash Crops
  • By 19th century, Europe was resource poor
  • European industry was dependent upon natural
    resources from Asia, Americas and Africa
  • ? colonization of Africa was a direct result of
    demands among Europes industrial sector for
    better access to resources
  • ? colonization allows a colonial power to also
    protect a guaranteed market for their goods

38
Colonization of Africa
The Scramble for Africa, 1886-1914
39
It wasnt just crops
  • Zambia and Congo were colonized for copper and
    minerals
  • Angola, Kenya and Zimbabwe were colonized for
    coffee and tea
  • Senegal, Nigeria transformed to produce nuts
  • Mali, Niger, Sudan ? cotton
  • Malawi ? tobacco

40
Results of Cash Crop Economy
  • Land that was previously used to grow diverse
    food crops is now used to produce handful of
    crops for export
  • You cant eat coffee
  • Lands given to large companies to create big
    farms
  • ?local farmers forced to give up their land and
    work on these big farms

41
Free Market Not In Play
  • Colonies forced to accept low prices for finished
    goods
  • ? cant grow enough to feed themselves
  • ? too poor to buy food from abroad
  • ? malnutrition
  • ? deleterious health outcomes

42
Case Study
  • The impact of colonialism on health and health
    services in Tanzania by Turshen. Int J Health
    Serv. 19777(1)7-35.
  • the health status and size of the rural
    population of Songea District in Tanzania are
    shown to have been determined by the economic,
    social, and political requirements of German and
    British colonial rulers rather than by the health
    needs of the African population
  • Cash crop economy required workers, resulting in
    mass migration into plantations
  • Songea District provided males to other parts of
    the country, leaving women and children
    unsupported
  • No domestic food production, only cash crops
  • Migration needed to seek cash to pay taxes
  • Little money left over to buy what little food is
    left
  • ?malnutrition

43
End of Colonialism
  • Colonial rule ends, but economic system is still
    in play
  • Former colonies borrow money to restructure
    economies
  • Debt cycle

CORRUPTION
44
Things For You To Think About
  • What is our role in addressing these disparities?
  • Should change be effected locally or nationally?
  • What policy initiatives would you have suggested
    or expected in the past, now or in the future?
  • ? paper
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