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Closing Achievement Gaps in California What, Why and How

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Title: Closing Achievement Gaps in California What, Why and How


1
Closing Achievement Gaps in California What,
Why and How?
  • California Curriculum Instruction Leadership
    Symposium February 2005
  • Russlynn Ali - Director, The Education Trust-West

2
Who and Where Are We Now?
3
DEMOGRAPHICS OF CALIFORNIA
Source California Department of Education, 2004
4
At 4th Grade?Percentage of 4th Graders Reaching
Proficiency on CA Standards Tests
Source California Department of Education, 2004
5
At 8th Grade?Percentage of 8th Graders Reaching
Proficiency on CA Standards Tests
Source California Department of Education, 2004
Note In 8th grade, students take different
course-specific tests in math depending on what
course they enroll in. These results show
proficiency in general math, which test 6th and
7th grade standards.
6
  • Californias NAEP scores are significantly lower
    than the average scores in the nation.

Source Californias k-12 Public Schools How Are
They Doing, RAND, 2005
7
And Lets Be Clear. Its Not Our Demographics.
8
When students family backgrounds are controlled
for, Californias scores are the lowest in the
nation.
Source Californias k-12 Public Schools How Are
They Doing, RAND, 2005
9
Poor White 4th Graders in California Read At A
Lower Level Than Poor White Students in Almost
Every State
California
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
National Assessment of Educational Progress (2003)
10
White 8th graders in California Read at a Lower
Level than White 8th Graders in Almost Every
Other State
California
Source National Center for Education Statistics,
National Assessment of Educational Progress (2003)
11
A Look at High Schools and Beyond
12
Reading All Students 200411th Grade
Source California Department of Education, 2004
13
Not mastering even the most basic skills.
Source California Department of Education, 2004
14
What About Achievement For Different Groups of
Students?
15
4th Grade Reading 2004California Standards
Test, by Family Income
Source California Department of Education, 2004.
16
4th Grade Reading 2004California Standards
Test, by Race
Source California Department of Education, 2004.
17
8th Grade Reading 2004California Standards
Test, by Family Income
Source California Department of Education, 2004.
18
8th Grade Reading 2004California Standards
Test, by Race
Source California Department of Education, 2004.
19
In California, Black and Latino 4th Graders Read
Below White Second Graders
White
Black
Latino
Source EdTrust West Analysis of California
Department of Education, 2004
20
In California, Latino and Black 8th Graders Read
At the Level of White 4th Graders
White
Black
Latino
Source EdTrust West Analysis of California
Department of Education, 2004
21
In California, Latino and Black 11th Graders Read
Below White 7th Graders
White
Black
Latino
Source EdTrust West Analysis of California
Department of Education, 2004
22
  • What do these gaps mean in terms of skills?

23
2003 NAEP Grade 8 Sample Question
24
2003 NAEP CaliforniaGrade 8 Mathematics
Performance
94
92
66
61
SOURCE U.S. Department of Education, Institute
of Education Sciences, National Center for
Education Statistics, National Assessment of
Educational Progress (NAEP), 2003 Mathematics
Assessments. 
25
2003 NAEP Grade 8 Sample Question-Performance
Results
26
What does this mean for high school completion,
college entry, and college graduation?
27
CA Students Graduate from High School at
Different Rates9th graders who graduated four
years later, class of 2003
Source Education Trust-West Analysis of CDE
data, using the Manhattan Institute methodology
28
And For Those Who do Graduate?Remediation at
CSU Too Few Freshmen Demonstrate Strong English
Skills
Percentage of CSU Freshmen Requiring Remediation
in English, Fall 2003
Source CSU, Analytic Studies Unit, 2004.
http//www.asd.calstate.edu/performance/proficienc
y.shtml
29
Remediation at CSU Too Few Freshmen Demonstrate
Strong Math Skills
Percentage of CSU Freshmen Requiring Remediation
in Math, Fall 2003
Source CSU, Analytic Studies Unit, 2004.
http//www.asd.calstate.edu/performance/proficienc
y.shtml
30
Graduation Rates at UC SchoolsAfrican American
vs. White
Source CollegeResults.org (www.edtrust.org)
31
Graduation Rates at UC SchoolsLatino vs. White
32
Graduation Rates at CSU SchoolsLatino vs. White
33
Are the Gaps Closing Over Time?
34
Latino-White Gaps Closing Only Slightly
2003 Gap 33 points
1992 Gap 37 points
35
Black-White Gaps Closing Only Slightly
1992 Gap 36 points
2003 Gap 31 points
36
Statewide Schools With Greater than 50 Latino
Students Still in Bottom Two API Deciles
Source Unpublished analysis by WestEd and the
Education Trust West, 2004.
37
Statewide Schools With Greater than 50 African
American Students Still in Bottom Two API Deciles
Source Unpublished analysis by WestEd and the
Education Trust West, 2004.
38
Does It Have To Be This Way?
39
High-minority and high poverty California schools
that score in the top third of all schools in the
state
40
California Schools That Have the Smallest
Achievement Gaps
41
A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County
Source California Department of Education
http//www.cde.ca.gov
42
A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County
Source California Department of Education
http//www.cde.ca.gov
43
A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County
Source California Department of Education
http//www.cde.ca.gov
44
A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County
Source California Department of Education
http//www.cde.ca.gov
45
A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County
Source California Department of Education
http//www.cde.ca.gov
46
A Tale of Two Schools in Merced County 3rd
Graders at Yamato Reading at the Level of 5th
Graders at Sparkes
Source California Department of Education, 2004
47
California Districts Closing GapsGarden Grove
Unified
48
Gaps Narrow in Some Whole Districts Long Beach
Unified
Source Research by the National Center for
Educational Accountability
49
  • Entire States Are Closing the Achievement Gap

50
MA Passing HS Competency Exam
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
51
MA Narrowing the High School Competency Gap
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
52
MA Narrowing the High School Competency Gap
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
53
MA Narrowing the High School Competency Gap
Source Massachusetts Department of Education
Web site.
54
MCAS English Raising First-Time Pass Rates
Narrowing Gaps
Source Massachusetts Department of Education Web
site.
55
What Do We Know About the Places That Are
Improving Results?
56
Would More Money Help?
57
Despite recent funding increases for K-12
education, for the past 15 years CA schools have
spent well below the national average
58
California ranks 44th in per-pupil spending.
Fewer than 1 of CA students are in districts
that spend at least the national average.
Source Education Week, Quality Counts 2005
59
Yes, More Money Will Help.
  • But how much it will help depends on how wisely
    we spend it.
  • Until more comes, schools can and ARE making
    great gains.

60
  • Where there is an Achievement Gap, there are
    Practice Gaps. Period.
  • Successful schools and districts close them.

61
Element 1 They Have Clear and Specific Goals For
What Students Should Learn in Every Grade
LevelALIGNED TO ASSESSMENTS
62
Historically, most of the really important
decisions about what students should learn and
what kind of work was good enough left to
individual teachers.
63
Result? A System That
  • Doesnt expect very much from most students and,
  • Expects much less from some types of students
    than others.
  • Leaves a lot to chance

64
Grade 7 Writing Assignment
Essay on Anne Frank Your essay will consist of
an opening paragraph which introduced the title,
author and general background of the novel.
Your thesis will state specifically what Anne's
overall personality is, and what general
psychological and intellectual changes she
exhibits over the course of the book You might
organize your essay by grouping psychological and
intellectual changes OR you might choose 3 or 4
characteristics (like friendliness, patience,
optimism, self doubt) and show how she changes in
this area.
Source Unnamed school district in California,
2002-03 school year.
65
Grade 7 Writing Assignment
  • My Best Friend
  • A chore I hate
  • A car I want
  • My heartthrob

Source Unnamed school district in California,
2002-03 school year.
66
High Performing Districts Elementary School
Curriculum
  • Usually common across schools
  • Model lessons that teachers may use.
  • In High School
  • Enroll them as if they are going on to college,
    and let them be empowered to make the choice!
  • All students enrolled in the College Prep
    Curriculum

67
WHY?
68
8 out of 10 California high schools students want
to go to college.But only 4 out of 10 take the
curriculum most likely to help them get there.
Source The Bridge Project Strengthening K-16
Transition Policies, Stanford University,
Stanford, CA, 2001
69
Transcript Study single biggest predictor of
college success isQUALITY AND INTENSITY OF HIGH
SCHOOL CURRICULUM
  • Source Adelman, Answers in the Tool Box, U.S.
    Department of Education.

70
Better alignment has major benefitsA strong
h.s. curriculum improves college completion and
narrows gaps
11
28
Completing at least Algebra II plus other
courses. Source Adapted from Adelman, Clifford,
U.S. Department of Education, Answers in the
Toolbox, 1999.
71
But were talking about ALL now. College isnt
for everyone. But A-G is.
72
It is increasingly clear that student
success--in college, on assessments, and in
gaining access to good jobs--depends on
completing a rigorous, college prep-level
curriculum.
73
Students of all levels will learn more . . .
Grade 8-grade 12 test score gains based on 8th
grade achievement.
Source USDOE, NCES, Vocational Education in the
United States Toward the Year 2000, in Issue
Brief Students Who Prepare for College and
Vocation
74
And They Will Fail Less
Ninth-grade English performance, by high/low
level course, and eighth-grade reading
achievement quartiles
Source SREB, Middle Grades to High School
Mending a Weak Link. Unpublished Draft, 2002.
75
Why Kids Drop Out
  • Students mainly consider dropping out because
    they are not engaged by the school.
  • Students are most likely to cite the following
    reasons for considering dropping out
  • School was boring (76) and
  • They were not learning enough (42).

Source Metropolitan Life, Survey of the American
Teacher 2002 Student Life School, Home and
Community, p. 9.
76
(No Transcript)
77
Defining workplace expectations
  • Highly Paid Professional Jobs Earnings 40,000
    Projected Job Growth Rate 20
  • Well-Paid, Skilled Jobs Earnings
    25,00040,000 Projected Job Growth Rate 12
  • Low-Paid or Low-Skilled Jobs Earnings Less than
    25,000 Projected Job Growth Rate 15

25
37
38
Share of Jobs
78
To break through these old attitudes, we cannot
equivocate.
  • There is a common core of knowledge and skills
    essential to success in both higher ed and the
    workplace.
  • ALL students must graduate from high school ready
    for postsecondary education, which also means
    ready for work.

79
American Diploma Project Interviews with
Employers
  • They mostly want the same things that higher
    education wants!
  • Strong Reading Ability read/comprehend
    informational and technical texts
  • Emphatic about literature understanding other
    cultures is necessary with diverse customers and
    co-workers
  • Writing ability key
  • Mathematics Imperative data, probability,
    statistics and competent problem solvers.
    Algebra I, Geometry and Algebra II.

Source Workplace Study by the National Alliance
for Business for the American Diploma Project,
unpublished report, 2002.
80
Even in Jobs We Dont Expect
  • Requirements for Tool and Die Makers
  • Four or five years of apprenticeship and/or
    postsecondary training
  • Algebra, geometry, trigonometry and statistics
  • Average earnings 40,000 per year.
  • Requirements for
  • Sheet Metal Workers
  • Four or five years
  • of apprenticeship
  • Algebra, geometry,
  • trigonometry and
  • technical reading
  • Requirements for
  • Auto Technicians
  • A solid grounding
  • in physics is
  • necessary to
  • understand force,
  • hydraulics, friction
  • and electrical
  • circuits.

81
Employers Are Less Willing to Help
  • Remedial programs were victims of mid-90s cost
    cutting initiatives from a high point of 24 of
    businesses in 1993, the share of companies
    sponsoring such programs dropped to 15 in 1999
    and 12.3 in 2001.
  • --2001 American Management Association Survey on
    Workplace Testing

82
How close are we?
Element 1Clear and Specific Goals
83
Fewer than a quarter of students are prepared for
college.Performance of class of 2003
Note A-G mastery indicates that students have
completed the full A-G course sequence with a C
or better in each class. Source Education
Trust-West analysis of CDE data, using the
Manhattan Institute methodology
84
Latino and African American students are even
less prepared.9th graders who graduate with A-G
mastery, class of 2003
Note A-G mastery indicates that students have
completed the full A-G course sequence with a C
or better in each class. Source Education
Trust-West analysis of CDE data, using the
Manhattan Institute methodology
85
. Disadvantaged districts are only ¼ as likely
to have enough A-G classes for all students.
Note Disadvantaged means schools at the lower
end of CAs School Characteristics Index (SCI),
which takes into account demographic factors
including poverty level and English language
proficiency. Source Education Trust-West
analysis of CDE data
86
High Performing Districts Have Already Made A-G
the Default CurriculumExamples San Jose, New
Haven, Fontana
87
In 1998, San Jose Unified Took the Lead. . . By
2002 the First Graduating Class and Every Class
Since Then Has Dispelled All Sorts of Myths
That A-G Isnt Realistic for Californias
Students.

88
MYTH Requiring a rigorous course of study for
all high school students will result in a watered
down curriculum
89
AP Scoreswith a score of AP gt3
748 Test Taken
1197 Tests Taken
Source EdTrust West analysis of California
Department of Education data
90
SAT I Average Test Scores
Tests taken 1058
Tests taken 1065
Source EdTrust West analysis of California
Department of Education data
91
Seniors who have taken at least one AP course
Source EdTrust West analysis of California
Department of Education data
92
MYTH Grades will plummet if all students are
expected to complete a college preparatory
curriculum
93
Mean GPA for All SJUSD Graduating
94
MYTH Tough graduation requirements will cause
non college bound students to disengage and drop
out
95
A-G-for-all at SJUSDGraduation Rate
Manhattan Institute Method. Similar results
under Urban Institute Methodology (73 to 79).
96
Dropout Rate based on CBEDS data
97
MYTH Requiring traditionally underrepresented
students to take the full sequence of A-G courses
will result in huge failure rates
98
Pass Rate in A to G Courses for Hispanic Students
Source EdTrust West analysis of California
Department of Education data
99
MYTH Closing the achievement gap by demanding
rigor in graduation standards is the wrong place
to start
100
SJUSD SAT9 CAT6 Matched Reading Scores at
Grades 3-9 for Students who Have Been Tested
with STAR Every Year Since 1998
GAP REDUCED BY 48
Source EdTrust West analysis of California
Department of Education data
101
THE REALITY ISA college preparatory curriculum
for all students will result in dramatic
increases in the numbers of students, both
minority and non-minority, who are eligible to
enter UC/CSU directly our of high school
102
of SJUSD Graduates who Satisfy UC/CSU
Requirements
Source EdTrust West analysis of California
Department of Education data
103
San Joses Success Didnt Happen Overnight. But
We Sure Know A Lot More Now Then We Did Then.
Do we have the will?
104
To make the high school diploma more than an
empty promise, All has to mean All. A-G Used
to be reserved for some. Will we provide it to
all?
105
Course Titles Dont Guarantee Good Instruction
Good Standards Can Help Focus
  • But not if they sit on the shelf.

106
CA Language Arts Curriculum Calibration Analysis
Source DataWorks Education Research, 2002.
107
CA Language Arts Curriculum Calibration Analysis
Source DataWorks Education Research, 2002.
108
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
Element 1Clear and Specific Goals
A frequent theme in literature is the conflict
between the individual and society. From
literature you have read, select a character who
struggled with society. In a well-developed
essay, identify the character and explain why
this characters conflict with society is
important.
109
Grade 10 Writing Assignment
Element 1Clear and Specific Goals
Write a composition of at least 4 paragraphs on
Martin Luther Kings most important contribution
to this society. Illustrate your work with a
neat cover page. Neatness counts.
110
Curriculum Frameworks Can Help Teachers Teach
Standards
  • Every district needs a full curriculum framework
    that includes the textbook, but is not dependent
    on it.
  • Frameworks should articulate a scope and sequence
    at each grade level, aligning curriculum both
    horizontally and vertically.
  • Frameworks should provide rubrics or descriptions
    of proficiency.
  • Frameworks should include guidance on teaching
    low performing students, as well as high
    achieving students.

111
Element 2 Good Teachers Matter More Than
Anything Else
112
Element 2 Good Teachers Matter Most
113
Element 2 Good Teachers Matter Most
114
The Rivkin, Hanushek, and Kain estimates of
teacher performance suggest that having five
years of good teachers in a row could overcome
the average seventh-grade mathematics
achievement gap .
1.0 standard deviation above average, or at
the 85th quality percentile
SOURCE Eric A. Hanushek and Steven G. Rivkin,
How to Improve the Supply of High-Quality
Teachers, In Brookings Papers on Education
Policy 2004, Diane Ravitch, ed., Brrookings
Institution Press, 2004. Estimates based on
research using data from Texas described in
Teachers, Schools, and Academic Achievement,
Working Paper Number 6691, National Bureau of
Economic Research, revised July 2002.
115
Students in Californias Highest Minority Schools
Five Times More Likely To Have An Underqualified
Teacher
Source Esch, C. E., Chang-Ross, C. M., Guha, R.,
Tiffany-Morales, J., Shields, P.M.
(2004). Californias teaching force 2004 Key
issues and trends. Santa Cruz, CA The Center
for the Future of Teaching and Learning, p. 35.
116
What Does This Mean In Terms of Dollars Spent on
Teachers?
Source Californias Hidden Teacher Spending Gap
How State and District Budgeting Practices
Shortchange Poor and Minority Students and Their
Schools, Education Trust West, 2005.
117
In Californias Bay Area Districts,
Within-District Teacher Salary Gaps Range from
7,066 to 1,106
118
Average School Gap in 10 Largest CA Districts
119
To find out whether there are teacher spending
gaps in your district, visit www.HiddenGap.org
120
Element 3 Using Programs and Practices Proven to
Work
121
Professional DevelopmentHigh Implementation
Schools Wipe Out Black/White Gap in Math Skills
Pittsburgh
Note Chart compares students in schools with
similar demographics. Source Briar and Resnick,
CSE Technical Report 528, CRESST, UCLA, August
2000.
122
Black Students in High Implementation Schools
Outperform White Students in Other Schools
PROBLEM SOLVING
123
The Full Year Calendar
USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL TIME Analysis of One
California Urban Middle School Calendar
Source Ed Trust West analysis of the master
schedule of an unnamed school in CA
124
Less Summer Vacation
Source Ed Trust West analysis of the master
schedule of an unnamed school in CA
125
Less Weekends, Holidays, Summer Vacation
Source Ed Trust West analysis of the master
schedule of an unnamed school in CA
126
Less Professional Development Days Early
Dismissal/Parent Conferences
Source Ed Trust West analysis of the master
schedule of an unnamed school in CA
127
Less Class Picnic, Class Trip, Thanksgiving
Feast, Christmas, Kwanzaa, Hannukkah, Awards,
Assembles, Concerts
Source Ed Trust West analysis of the master
schedule of an unnamed school in CA
128
Less State and District Testing
Source Ed Trust West analysis of the master
schedule of an unnamed school in CA
129
Use of Instructional Time?
  • BOTTOM LINE?
  • Teachers are Left with about
  • 24 School Days
  • OR
  • 18 Eight Hour Days Per Subject Per Year

130
When Kids Are Behind, Schools Must Provide More
Instruction and Support
Take It Back!
  • Kentucky provides extra time for struggling
    students in high-poverty schools, in whatever way
    works best for the community before school,
    after school, weekends or summers.
  • Maryland offers extra dollars for 7th and 8th
    graders who need more support
  • San Diego City created more time, mostly within
    the regular school day, by doubling even
    tripling the amount of instructional time in
    literacy and mathematics for low-performing
    students.

131
Element 4 Monitoring and Measuring
132
  • Administer Common District-wide benchmark or
    snap-shot assessments, at least every 6-9 weeks.
  • Get the results immediately in the hands of
    principals, teachers, parents and supplemental
    instruction providers and,
  • Create vehicles for teachers to meet together to
    discuss assignments and student work.

133
Element 5 Intervene and Adjust
134
High Performing Schools and Districts Act
Immediately on Results from Snapshot Assessments
  • When the data suggests individual kids are behind
    those kids get immediate help.
  • When the data suggests that ½ or more of the kids
    in a class are behind, the teacher gets help.
  • No one right way, but high performers have
    consistent methods to intervene and help ...
    whoever needs it . . . when they need it.

135
Underlying Everything Is the Cycle of Low
Expectations
Low Expectations
Poor Test Results
Less Challenging Courses
Low Level Assignments/Instruction
136
The Education Trust-West
510-465-6444 www.EdTrustWest.org
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