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Frozen in Time, Incapable of adapting to a Fast Moving World, Cambodia Has Lost the Ownership of its

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Title: Frozen in Time, Incapable of adapting to a Fast Moving World, Cambodia Has Lost the Ownership of its


1
Frozen in Time, Incapable of adapting to a Fast
Moving World, Cambodia Has Lost the Ownership of
its Destiny
  • Seminar in Long Beach, California
  • April 30, 2006
  • Presented by
  • Naranhkiri Tith, Ph.D.

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  • If this conflict between Cambodia and Vietnam
    remains unsolved in the foreseeable future, a
    human tragedy of enormous proportion would take
    place in Cambodia, as the Cambodian people cannot
    be expected to sit still while their shrinking
    country is being chipped away, inch by inch, by
    illegal Vietnamese immigrants with the connivance
    and assistance of the Hun Sens regime.
  • Washington DC. March, 2006
  • Naranhkiri Tith, Ph.D.

13
Outline
  • Introduction Cambodia from the most powerful
    state in Southeast Asia to present day failed
    state What went wrong?
  • Part I Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
    Aggression Against the Khmer Empire
  • Chapter 1 From vassal to suzerain
    factors leading the breakaway of Thai people
    from the Khmer Empire and the founding of Siam
  • Chapter 2 relation between Siam and Cambodia
    during the French interregnum in Cambodia

14
Outline (continued)
  • Part II Chronology of Dai-Viets (Vietnam)
    Aggression Against the Khmer Empire
  • Chapter 3 Factors leading the emergence of
    Dai- Viet and its imperial march and colonialism
  • Chapter 4 Relation between Vietnam and
    Cambodia during the French interregnum in
    Cambodia
  • Part III French Protectorate
  • Part IV Factors Underlying Cambodias Failure
    to Respond to Foreign Aggression
  • Chapter 5 Cambodia a backwater state under
    French protectorate Second tiers colonialism

15
Outline (continued)
  • Chapter 6 Past legacy and fundamental flaws in
    Cambodian society leading to its failure to
    respond to foreign aggression
  • Chapter 7 Foreign aggression of Cambodia after
    independence under
  • A. Sihanouks autocratic rule and dominance
  • B. Lon Nol corrupt and irrelevant republic
  • C. The Khmer Rouges insanity and paranoia
  • D. Hun Sen and CPP illiberal democracy,
    systemic corruption and open border to illegal
    Vietnamese immigration
  • Part V A suggested Roadmap for Survival and
    conclusion

16
Introduction
  • From the most powerful state in mainland
    Southeast Asia in the twelve centuries, to
    Cambodia current status as a failed state. What
    went wrong? A brief survey of views expressed by
    Cambodians, as well as by foreign observers and
    scholars.
  • A. Khmer Empire a brilliant civilization and
    powerful state without rival as explained by
    scholars
  • B. Todays Cambodia failed state selected
    views from Cambodians as well as from foreign
    observers and scholars

17
Introduction (Continued)
  • A. Khmer Empire a brilliant civilization and
    powerful state without rival in Mainland
    Southeast Asia

18
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • Our knowledge of Khmer civilization is far from
    complete many surprises are in store, too many
    problems await detailed study. We can at least
    pronounce judgment on the period from the ninth
    to the twelfth centuries, which witnessed the
    pre-eminence of Angkor.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art and
    civilization

19
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • The chronological and historical framework is
    based on solid foundations we are familiar with
    the principal buildings and can follow the course
    of their evolution. Though our interpretation of
    the facts is still far from certain, we may
    without undue risk attempt to draw certain
    conclusions of general application.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art and
    civilization

20
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • But neither a favourable environment nor
    limitless resources nor years of peace would have
    sufficed without the spiritual contribution of
    India. India was the spark that fired the blaze.
    A strongly centralized society gradually grew up
    round the king, the god on earth, who guaranteed
    its spiritual and material existence. It was to
    this concentration of power as well as to her
    flourishing economy that Cambodia owed her
    unrivalled fame.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art and
    civilization

21
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • We are reminded, though on a more modest scale,
    of the Roman Empire united by the cult of Caesar,
    or better still of the Chinese Empire, itself
    also the product of the exploitation of the soil
    and of a religion both of which centered on the
    person of the Emperor. In this respect Cambodia
    sometimes even surpassed her Indian teachers.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art and
    civilization

22
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • The Khmer civilization was the most important,
  • the most brilliant and original in ancient
  • Indochina. Although classification by order of
  • merit is a somewhat puerile historical pastime,
    it
  • can also be regarded as one of the greatest,
  • together with that of Indonesia, in the whole of
  • Indianized Asia.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art and
    civilization

23
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • The brilliant achievements of ancient Cambodia
    were due primarily to the country s wealth of
    natural resources. No other country of the
    peninsula could boast of such an unbroken extent
    of fertile and well-watered land. Cambodia,
    being a strictly defined and admirably situated
    geographical unit, was the cradle of a powerful
    and gifted race. The people were left in peace
    throughout ten centuries, without any outside
    interference.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art and
    civilization

24
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • On the other hand, we must not be led by its
    undeniable brilliance to bestow unqualified
    praise on Khmer civilization. It contained
    within itself the seeds of its own destruction.
    An excessive and too exclusive inflation of the
    royal power produced a kind of hypertrophy which
    exhausted the nation beyond hope of recovery.
    The country was milked dry for the sole benefit
    of the king. Religion and art alike were
    dedicated to his service.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art
    and civilization

25
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The significance of the Khmer civilization
  • Our judgment may perhaps be warped owing to the
    disappearance of all secular writings and of an
    incalculable number of works of art. But there
    is no evidence of any healthy philosophy
    developing outside the cult of the king-god,
    after whose disappearance there was in any case
    nothing capable of regenerating the nation. In
    such a closed society nothing was left to pin
    one's faith on - except Buddhism, a religion of
    total renunciation.
  • Source Bernard Phillip Groslier Angkor Art
    and civilization

26
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The Khmer Empire at its Zenith in the twelfth
    century

Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short
History, Yale University Press, 1984
27
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The Khmer Empire at its Zenith in the twelfth
    century

Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short
History, Yale University Press, 1984
28
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Prelude to decline of Angkor Civilization
  • Under Jayavarman VII, the Khmer civilization
    reached a new peak after the collapse caused by
    the Cham invasion. At the dawn of the thirteenth
    century, Angkor experienced an extraordinary
    renaissance attested by the creation of a new art
    style and the founding of a magnificent capital.
    Only a short time later, the khmer kingdom was
    struck down by sudden death. The population
    weakened by the work on the countless building
    sites of Jayavarman VII, was no longer strong
    enough to hold out against new attack s of new
    invaders.
  • Source Henri Sterlin The Cultural History of
    Angkor Editions Aurum Press Ltd. United Kingdom,
    1984

29
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Prelude to decline of Angkor Civilization
  • The main danger was no longer Champa, situated to
    the east of Angkor. The new threat lay on the
    western frontier. Driven south by the Mongols who
    were descending upon Indochina by way of the
    Burmese valleys, the Thais were penetrating
    deeper and deeper into the Menam basin.
  • Source Henri Sterlin The Cultural History of
    Angkor Editions Aurum Press Ltd. United Kingdom,
    1984

30
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Prelude to decline of Angkor Civilization
  • The Cham took advantage of the situation and
    threw the khmer yoke. About the same time, in the
    late thirteenth century, Tcheou Ta-Kuoan came to
    Angkor as an ambassador and admired the last
    radiance of the glorious civilization which had
    ruled over the whole Southeast Asia. Shortly
    after the visit, the Khmers lose all their
    influence in Indochina.
  • Source Henri Sterlin The Cultural History of
    Angkor Editions Aurum Press Ltd. United Kingdom,
    1984

31
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Decline of the Khmers
  • A number of factors led to the decline of the
    Khmers, among them Jayavarman VII's building
    projects that laid a heavy burden on the kingdom
    economy. It is estimated that during his time the
    Khmer state built and supported 102 hospitals,
    101 rest houses for pilgrims, and 20,000 shrines.
    He constructed roads linking the capital with the
    principal provincial centers where temples were
    built and furnished with images.
  • From D.R. Sardesai Southeast Asia PastPresent,
    Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1989)

32
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Decline of the Khmers
  • There were nearly 300,000 priests and monks
    supported by the state treasury. The burden of
    monument-building on the population was too
    severe to bear. Thousands of villages, tens of
    thousands of officials, and an army of laborers
    and artisans were assigned to the uneconomic
    tasks of building monuments to glorify the
    royalty.
  • Jayavarman's punitive wars against Champa and
  • From D.R. Sardesai Southeast Asia PastPresent,
    Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1989)

33
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Decline of the Khmers
  • recalcitrant vassal kingdoms further drained the
    empire. As in the past, the Chams continued to
    pose a threat on the northeast frontier. Even
    more serious was the progressive movement
    southward of the Thai people who carved out new
    states in the territory formerly ruled by the
    Khmers. Thus, Sukhotai in the upper Menam
    declared its independence of the Khmer rule in
    1219, the year of Jayavarman VII's death. Later,
    in the thirteenth century, the Mongol rulers of
    China helped weaken the Khmer power by
    encouraging the Thais to move farther into
    Southeast Asia.
  • Source D.R. Sardesai Southeast Asia
    PastPresent, Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1989)

34
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Decline of the Khmers
  • A religious factor that undermined the Khmer
    authority was the spread of Hinayana Buddhism in
    the empire. This version of Buddhism did not
    permit belief in bodhisattvas or in the divine
    basis of kingship. It came to Burma from Sri
    Lanka in the eleventh century, and through the
    Mons and Thais it spread in the Khmer empire,
    where the masses seem to have appreciated its
    egalitarian character. No more would they regard
    the kings as divine. The great extension of the
    god-king cult under Jayavarman VII
  • Source D.R. Sardesai Southeast Asia
    PastPresent, Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1989)

35
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Decline of the Khmers
  • might have been a response to this threat.
  • Such forces continued to act against the Khmer
    power throughout the period after Jayavarman's
    death. The Chams in the east and the Thais in the
    west took large chunks of the Khmer empire in
    1431, Angkor itself was captured by the Thais.
    The Khmers regained their former capital for a
    brief period, but in 1434 they abandoned it and
    established a new capital near Phnom Penh.
  • Source D.R. Sardesai Southeast Asia
    PastPresent, Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1989

36
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Decline of the Khmers
  • In sum, the Khmer empire developed a civilization
    that dominated the southern and central areas of
    mainland Southeast Asia for several centuries.
    Though its political authority clearly declined
    from the fourteenth century, many of its main
    features in the social, cultural, and
    administrative domains were transmitted to the
    new states that were built on its ruins.
  • Source D.R. Sardesai Southeast Asia
    PastPresent, Westview, Boulder, Colorado, 1989

37
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Abandon of Angkor
  • Nevertheless, Angkor was abandoned quite
    abruptly. Why ? Some archaeologists presume that
    a dyke broke, causing calamitous flooding. In
    some places diggings have revealed a layer of
    alluvial deposits. All of these factors doubtless
    helped bring about the country's downfall.
    However we believe there was yet another
    determining cause.
  • Source Henri Stierlin The Culture and History of
    Angkor (Aurum Press LTD. London, 1984

38
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • The Abandon of Angkor
  • During the Siamese invasions, the irrigation
    system was certainly badly damaged. The
    precarious balance man had created artificially
    by means of canals and barays was disturbed. The
    water flow changed. In the canals clear river
    water replaced the muddy water which had kept the
    fields fertile for such a long time.
  • Source Henri Stierlin The Culture and History of
    Angkor (Aurum Press LTD. London, 1984

39
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Abandon of Angkor
  • The flow was no longer strong enough to carry
    along sediment torn from the banks. As soon as
    the water cleared up, malaria became a problem.
    Anopheles mosquitoes do not lay eggs in muddy
    water. Both the adults and the larvae show a
    marked preference for clear water. The population
    of Angkor was probable decimated by fevers and
    malaria before the enormous city was abandoned.
  • Source Henri Stierlin The Culture and History
    of Angkor (Aurum Press LTD. London, 1984)

40
Introduction A. a Brilliant and Powerful State
(continued)
  • Abandon of Angkor
  • An ecological catastrophe brought the incredible
    irrigation system to a standstill. As a result,
    the Khmers lost their wealth prosperity and
    power. Rice production ceased as if it had been
    under a curse. The survivors went back to the
    sites where their ancestors had lived before the
    rise of Khmer civilization and the creation of
    the rice factory which had been the main cause of
    their splendour and glory.
  • Source Henri Stierlin The Culture and History
    of Angkor (Aurum Press LTD. London, 1984)

41
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed State
  • B. Present days Cambodia failed state selected
    views from Cambodians as well as from foreign
    observers and scholars

42
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State
  • International Monetary Fund on Cambodia failure
  • 4 July 2004 IMF denounces a Mafia State
    in a non published report (2) On June 22, the
    French newspaper Le Figaro published from Paris
    an article titled Le Fonds monétaire
    international dénonce la dérive mafieuse de
    l'Etat cambodgien (The International Monetary
    Fund denounces the drift of Cambodia into a mafia
    State) by François Hauter, who based his writing
    on a non published, very strongly worded IMF
    report presented to Finance Minister Keat Chhon
    last May.

43
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State
  • International Monetary Fund on Cambodia failure
  • 4 July 2004 The IMF reportedly points to the
    fact that the Cambodian State no longer plays
    its role which explains lawlessness and the
    continuous aggravation of poverty and
    recommends that international assistance be
    reconsidered. Eight hundreds NGOs are accused by
    the IMF of being part of a network that annually
    plunders some US 250 millions from donors,
    notably under the cover of technical
    assistance. Development prospects, especially in
    agriculture, are described as bleak. See
    original text at (http//www.lefigaro.fr/internati
    onal/20040622.FIG0062.html)

44
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • A lawmaker from the Sam Rainsy Party has
    submitted a proposal asking the Co-Minister of
    the Interior to remove the authorization for
    Vietnamese Associations in 19 towns and
    provinces. The proposal said that after the
    Ministry of the Interior made an irresponsible
    decision to allow illegal Vietnamese immigrants
    to set up the association and its branches in 19
    provinces and towns, the number of illegal
    Vietnamese immigrants has doubled in the last 10
    months, as could be seen in areas where
    Vietnamese live
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

45
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • Chhnok Tru in Kompong Chhnang, Chong Khnies in
    Siem Reap, and Svay Pak or Chbar Ampov district
    in Phnom Penh.
  • The proposal continued that the huge influx of
    illegal Vietnamese within a short period, their
    illegal settlement along rivers and in populated
    areas without respect for respectable Khmer
    society, and their arrogant destruction of
    natural resources. The decision of the Ministry
    of the Interior is contrary to the world view
    that is now calling for eliminating all kinds of
    prejudice and discrimination.
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

46
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • The proposal also raised the associations
    bylaws, which specify in their chapter 3, The
    main purpose of the Vietnamese Association is to
    educate Vietnamese brothers and sisters living
    throughout Cambodia in respect for Cambodian law
    and tradition ... to enhance the good
    relationship between Cambodians and Vietnamese
    ... to promote the living standards of poor
    people and so on.
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

47
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • However, Cambodians never see the association
    doing anything to comply with that bylaw.
    Furthermore, their chapter 4 says that both sexes
    aged 18 or over have the right to ask for
    membership in the association they must be of
    Vietnamese origin and have relatives living
    legally in Cambodia. such as fish cause damage to
    the Khmer social order and tradition. In fact,
    they have worked as prostitutes, whom authorities
    have arrested for trafficking young girls.
    Moreover, they compete with Khmers for work.
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

48
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • This chapter has enabled illegal Vietnamese to
    enter Cambodia as much as they wish because we do
    not know what relationship they are, or who
    certifies such a relationship. In addition, the
    so-called legal Vietnamese immigrants who are
    currently living in Cambodia, are not yet taken
    into account. Who did they get permission from to
    live in Cambodia?
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

49
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • Despite the many Khmers living in Kampuchea Krom,
    the Vietnamese authorities have never allowed
    them to form an association or to bring Buddhist
    books from Cambodia for the pagodas there.
  • Observers do not expect that the proposal by the
    opposition lawmaker will receive a positive
    reply.
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

50
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • This chapter has enabled illegal Vietnamese to
    enter Cambodia as much as they wish because we do
    not know what relationship they are, or who
    certifies such a relationship. In addition, the
    so-called legal Vietnamese immigrants who are
    currently living in Cambodia, are not yet taken
    into account. Who did they get permission from to
    live in Cambodia?
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

51
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Sam Rainsy Lawmaker Asks for Vietnamese
    Associations to Be Removed from 19 Provinces and
    Towns
  • Despite the many Khmers living in Kampuchea Krom,
    the Vietnamese authorities have never allowed
    them to form an association or to bring Buddhist
    books from Cambodia for the pagodas there.
  • Observers do not expect that the proposal by the
    opposition lawmaker will receive a positive
    reply.
  • Source Mirror of Cambodian Society (Koh
    Santepheap, Vol.37, 5202, 18.8.2004)

52
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Drugs Steering Cambodia Toward Danger, U.N.
    Warns Wednesday, June 30, 2004 With a jump
    in methamphetamine usage and an evermore
    sophisticated heroin export system, Cambodia
    could be headed toward a "catastrophic" rise in
    drug abuse and crime, a U.N. report warned
    yesterday. Last year officials seized 50 percent
    more methamphetamines than in 2002, while an
    average of 22 to 44 pounds of heroin is believed
    to enter Cambodia from Laos every week, Agence
    France-Presse reported.

53
Introduction B. Signs of a Failed State
(continued)
  • Drugs Steering Cambodia Toward Danger, U.N.
    Warns Wednesday, June 30, 2004
  • The country's hospitals are not able to handle
    the drug problem, the education system is barely
    functional and the judicial system is widely
    regarded as corrupt, AFP said. Southeast Asian
    neighbor Thailand is in the midst of battling a
    massive methamphetamine addiction problem. Last
    year, it launched a three-month war on the drug
    which claimed 2,500 lives and has led to charges
    of extrajudicial killings.
  • (Samantha Brown, AFP, June 29).

54
Introduction B. Signs of a Failed State
(continued)
  • Drugs Steering Cambodia Toward Danger, U.N.
    Warns Wednesday, June 30, 2004
  • Thailand's crackdown has "led many to speculate
    that transnational organized crime syndicates
    have shifted the emphasis of their
    methamphetamine trafficking strategy from
    Thailand to other countries" such as Cambodia,
    the U.N. report says. The report urged Cambodia,
    which is not a party to any of the three
    international treaties on drug control, to sign
    to them and adopt a five-year strategy formulated
    by UNODC and the government's drug
    control office.
  • (Samantha Brown, AFP, June 29).

55
Introduction B. Signs of a Failed State
(continued)
  • Cambodias Struggle for Survival
  • By Lao Mong Hay, Ph.D,Executive Director, The
    Khmer Institute of Democracy, Phnom Penh,
    Cambodia
  • In March 1998 a national census was conducted.
    There was a set of questionnaires including
    questionnaires on individual particulars. These
    particulars included, among other things, the
    mother tongue and religion of individuals. The
    ethnicity of those individuals was not specified
    in those questionnaires, though.

56
Introduction B. Signs of a Failed State
(continued)
  • Cambodias Struggle for Survival
  • By Lao Mong Hay, Ph.D,Executive Director, The
    Khmer Institute of Democracy,
  • Phnom Penh, Cambodia
  • Many groups of the results of the census have
    been released gradually. When this author
    inquired about the results on the mother tongue
    and religion, the reply was that they were being
    considered and might not be released at all in
    the end. The reply added that results on the
    religion might be published.

57
Introduction B. Signs of a Failed State
(continued)
  • (Mong Hais concluded)
  • This reply should reflect the sensitivity of the
    ethnic issue in Cambodia. Indeed the issue has
    been with Cambodia for many centuries. One
    element of that issue which concerns the
    Vietnamese ethnic minority has contributed to and
    has been heightened by three wars over the last
    30 years the war in 1970 against the presence of
    the North-Vietnamese and Vietcong troops in the
    Cambodian border regions which led to the
    extension of the Vietnam war into Cambodia

58
Introduction B. Signs of a Failed State
(continued)
  • (Mong Hais concluded)
  • the border war between the Khmer Rouge and
    Vietnam from 1975 followed by the overthrow of
    the Khmer Rouge regime by Vietnam at the end of
    1978 and the war of resistance against the
    Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia since that
    overthrow.

59
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Corruption 'sucking vitality' from country
    By Richard Woodd (Phnom Penh Post April
    2004) RAMPANT corruption at all levels is
    sucking the vitality out of Cambodia, and
    costing the country desperately needed foreign
    investment, says a private sector business leader
    and legal specialist. Every survey of the
    private sector in the past four years has
    identified corruption as the number one issue for
    people in business who are paying taxes and
    trying to operate legally in this environment,
    Brett Sciaroni told a public debate at the
    Foreign Correspondents' Club in Phnom Penh.

60
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (continued)
  • Corruption 'sucking vitality' from country
    By Richard Wood (Phnom Penh Post April 2004)
  • Corruption is rampant and widespread and has
    become increasingly worse in recent years. It's
    an urgent issue that must be grappled with by the
    country's political leadership. We've had enough
    talking, it's time for action.
  • A new report on obstacles to foreign investment
    estimates under-the-table payments in the
    manufacturing and service sectors alone at 120
    million a year. Sciaroni says this is just the
    tip of the iceberg.

61
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (concluded)
  • Failure of leadership
  • Cambodia, I fear, is past helping itself. Its
    future, if it is to have one, cannot be entrusted
    to the hands of its present leaders, most of
    their opposition, and the class that they
    represent. The country has lost its international
    importance and possesses only its own worth, the
    life of a nation of ten million. Over the past
    century, its life has been grossly tampered with
    by many outsiders. By France, for sake of
    colonial possession. By Japan, as a piece in its
    Greater Asian Co-Prosperity Sphere.
  • Source Henry Kamm Cambodia Report from a
    Stricken Land, Archade Publishing, New York, 1998

62
Introduction B. Cambodia Signs of a Failed
State (concluded)
  • Failure of leadership
  • By the United States, to facilitate its
    withdrawal from a losing war in Vietnam. By
    China, because having a friend in Cambodia gave
    it a foothold on the Southeast Asian continent
    and a thorn in the side of Vietnam, a client of
    the Soviet Union. By Vietnam, to establish its
    preeminence over and Indochinese bloc of its
    design. By the Soviet Union, because those who
    opposed Vietnam in Cambodia were China's client.
  • Source Henry Kamm Cambodia Report from a
    Stricken Land, Archade Publishing, New York, 1998

63
(No Transcript)
64
Definition of Genocide
65
Definition of Genocide
66
Genocide in Practice
  • Clash between civilizations (Vietnam/Cambodia),
    vs. within civilization (Thailand/Cambodia)
  • The Annamites simply moved in, took possession
    of the land and remained there. The Siamese
    claimed the country from a distance and subjected
    it to intermittent raids, carrying off properties
    and inhabitants.
  • From Lawrence Palmer Briggs A Sketch of
    Cambodian History (The Far Eastern quarterly,
    Vol. 6, No. 4, August 1947)

67
Genocide in Practice
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • More than their conquest of Angkor a century and
    a half earlier, the Thai capture of Lovek marked
    the beginning of a decline in Cambodia's
    fortunes. One possible reason for the decline was
    the labor drain imposed by the Thai conquerors as
    they marched thousands of Khmer peasants, skilled
    artisans, scholars, and members of the Buddhist
    clergy back to their capital of Ayutthaya.

68
Genocide in Practice
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • This practice, common in the history of Southeast
    Asia, crippled Cambodia's ability to recover a
    semblance of its former greatness. A new Khmer
    capital was established at Odongk (Udong), south
    of Lovek, but its monarchs could survive only by
    entering into what amounted to vassal
    relationships with the Thai and with the
    Vietnamese. In common parlance, Thailand became
    Cambodia's "father" and Vietnam its "mother."

69
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • By the late fifteenth century, the
    Vietnamese--who, unlike other Southeast Asian
    peoples, had patterned their culture and their
    civilization on those of China--had defeated the
    once powerful kingdom of Champa in central
    Vietnam. Thousands of Chams fled into Khmer
    territory.

70
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • By the early seventeenth century, the Vietnamese
    had reached the Mekong Delta, which was inhabited
    by Khmer people. In 1620 the Khmer king Chey
    Chettha II (1618-28) married a daughter of Sai
    Vuong, one of the Nguyen lords (1558- 1778), who
    ruled southern Vietnam for most of the period of
    the restored Le dynasty (1428-1788).

71
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • Three years later, Chey Chettha allowed the
    Vietnamese to establish a custom-house at Prey
    Nokor, near what is now Ho Chi Minh City (until
    1975, Saigon). By the end of the seventeenth
    century, the region was under Vietnamese
    administrative control, and Cambodia was cut off
    from access to the sea. Trade with the outside
    world was possible only with Vietnamese
    permission.

72
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • There were periods in the seventeenth and the
    eighteenth centuries, when Cambodia's neighbors
    were preoccupied with internal or external
    strife, that afforded the beleaguered country a
    breathing spell. The Vietnamese were involved in
    a lengthy civil war until 1674, but upon its
    conclusion they promptly annexed sizable areas of
    contiguous Cambodian territory in the region of
    the Mekong Delta.

73
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • For the next one hundred years they used the
    alleged mistreatment of Vietnamese colonists in
    the delta as a pretext for their continued
    expansion. By the end of the eighteenth century,
    they had extended their control to include the
    area encompassed in the late 1980s by the
    Socialist Republic of Vietnam (Vietnam).

74
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • Thailand, which might otherwise have been courted
    as an ally against Vietnamese incursions in the
    eighteenth century, was itself involved in a new
    conflict with Burma. In 1767 the Thai capital of
    Ayutthaya was besieged and destroyed. The Thai
    quickly recovered, however, and soon reasserted
    their dominion over Cambodia. The youthful Khmer
    king, Ang Eng (1779-96), a refugee at the Thai
    court, was installed as monarch at Odongk by Thai
    troops.

75
Genocide in Practice (continued)
  • Cambodia
  • Domination by Thailand and by Vietnam
  • At the same time, Thailand quietly annexed
    Cambodia's three northernmost provinces. In
    addition, the local rulers of the northwestern
    provinces of Batdambang and Siemreab (Siemreap)
    became vassals of the Thai king, and these areas
    came under the Thai sphere of influence.

76
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • B. The founding of Sokhothai
  • Kings of Sokhothai
  • 1. Sri Andraditya 1240-1270 Former Khmer
    viceroy, first king of Sokhothai, after
    liberating Siam from Khmer Empire
  • 2. Ban Muang 1270-1279 Son of Sri
    Andraditya had trouble with other Thai
    principalities
  • 3. Ram khamheaeng 1279-1298 Son of Ban Muang
    Rama the Brave expanded Sokhothai empire
    created Thai script based on Khmer script
    Sokhothai is considered as the craddle of
    Thai civilization considered one of the
    five
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

77
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • B. The founding of Sokhothai
  • Kings of Sokhothai
  • 1. Sri Andraditya 1240-1270 Former Khmer
    viceroy, first king of Sokhothai, after
    liberating Siam from Khmer Empire
  • 2. Ban Muang 1270-1279 Son of Sri
    Andraditya had trouble with other Thai
    principalities
  • 3. Ram khamheaeng 1279-1298 Son of Ban Muang
    Rama the Brave expanded Sokhothai empire
    created Thai script based on Khmer script
    Sokhothai is considered as the craddle of
    Thai civilization considered one of the
    five
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

78
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • B. The founding of Sokhothai
  • Kings of Sokhothai
  • 3. Ram Khamheaeng 1279-98 greatest kings of
    Siam. While adopting the Khmer form of
    governing he kept the kingship open to the
    common people. Militarily, he adopted the
    Mongols organization and strategies.
    Sokhothai was free of constraints presided
    over by a just, benevolent, and thoroughly
    accessible monarch beloved by his people.
    This is in stark contrast to Angkor. He was
    an astute
  • diplomat maintained cordial relation with
    China, in turn allowed Sokhothai to
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

79
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • B. The founding of Sokhothai
  • Kings of Sokhothai
  • 3. Ram Khamheaeng 1279-98 to expand. He was a
    devout Buddhist. Sokhothai closely identified
    itself with Buddhism allowed animism
    practice.
  • 4. Lo Thai 1298-1346 Son of Ram
    Khamheaeng the vast empire
  • rapidly disintegrated Sokhothai has
    become a small local kingdom as before
  • 5. Ngua Nam Thom 1346-47 A Buddhist scholar
    wrote a Buddhist cosmology treatise named
    Traibhumokatha. Became a monk
  • 6. Mahathammaracha I 1346-68 Local king under
    Ayuthya
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

80
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • B. The founding of Sokhothai
  • Kings of Sokhothai
  • 7. Mahathammaracha II 1368-98 Local King
    under Ayuthya
  • 8. Mahathammaracha III 1398-1419 Local king
    under Ayuthya
  • 9. Mahathammaracha IV 1419-38 Local king
    under Ayuthya
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

81
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 1. Ramathibodi 1351-69 Of Chinese ancestry
    founder of Ayuthya laid siege on Angkor
    expanded Siamese territory to where
    Thailand is today urged by China (Kublai
    Khan) he made sustained efforts to subdue
    Cambodia
  • 2. Ramesuan 1369-70 Son of Ramathibodi
    Unpopular had to abdicate.
  • 3. Barommaracha I 1370-88 Uncle of
    Ramesuan faced internal conflict with
    Chaingmai and Sokhothai also fought war
    against Lan Na
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

82
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 4. Thong Chan 1388-? Son of Barommaracha. Put
    to death by Ramesuan
  • 5. Ramesuen (2nd reign) 1388-95 Revived his
    father policy of expanding into
    the Khmer territory Angkor was sacked
    but recovered by the Khmers immediately. He
    also captured Chiengmai
  • 6. Ramaracha 1395-1409 A son of
    Ramesuan tried to fight renaissance of
    Sokhothai without success
  • 7.Intharacha 1409-24 Son of
    Barommaracha I subdued Chiengmai
    and Sokhothai had three sons disputing the
    throne of Ayuthya
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

83
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 8. Barommaracha II 1424-48 Youngest of
    Intharachas sons became king as both elder
    brothers were killed in a dual of
    elephantsconsolidated the kingdom of Siam
    resumed attack against Angkor
  • 9. Barommatrailokanat 1448-63 Eldest son of ,
    known as king Trailok a great reformer and
    introduced the legal codes and reformed
    Siamese administration through
    centralization by creating five great civil
    and one military departments
    Interior,local government, Finance,
    agriculture, royal household,
    and one military department
    one of the greatest Thai kings. Sakdi Na
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

84
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 9. Barommatrailokanat (continued) land tenure
    system according to the social rank he
    introduced a compulsory military service.
    He built many public works and religious
    institutions. Under his reign Siam
    prospered. Reigned also in Phisanolok until
    his death. Extended suzerainty in Malacca
    to increase foreign trade First contact with
    Portuguese after the conquest of Malacca
    by Portugal. Created the post of Uparat
    (heir apparent) to address the problem of
    succession abdicated to enter monkhood.
    His son succeeded him king
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

85
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 10. Barommaracha III 1463-88 Son of Trailok
    remained in Ayuthya as king
  • 11. Intharacha II 1488-91 The same
    person as in 10.
  • 12. Ramathibodi II 1491-1529 Another son
    of Trailok reigned in a wealthy Ayuthya
    thanks to increase in foreign trade with
    wealth he launched a program of public and
    pious works a Treatise on Victorious
    Warfare was written by him to guide his army
  • 13. Barommaracha IV 1529-33 Son of 12 died of
    a smallpox infection
  • 14. Ratsada 1533-34 Son
    of 13. Reigned only five months, was killed
    by half brother of Barommaracha IV
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

86
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 15. Chairacha 1533-47 A
    usurper engaged Portuguese as bodyguards
  • and to trained his army in use of firearms
    entered into conflict with Burma and Lan Na
  • 16. Yot Fa 1547-48
    Elder son of 15 reigned only 7 months under
    his mother regency poisoned by his
    mother
  • 17. Khun Worawongsa 1548-48 A usurper became
    king with the help from the queen mother
    reigned only 6 weeks
  • 18. Chakkraphat 1548-69 Half
    bother of 16 came to the throne. Resisted
    Burmese attack successfully Burmese
    succeeded to capture Ramesuan (son) and
    Maha Thommaracha (son-in-law) of 18
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

87
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 18. Chakkraphat 1548-69 Betrayed
    by Mahathammaracha, the king fell ill and
    dies in 1569
  • 19. Mahin 1569-July, 69 Son of 18 came to
    the throne Ayuthya fell to Burmese was an
    ineffective king. Siam was discouraged and
    disoriented.
  • 20. Mahathammaracha 1569-90 Installed by the
    Burmese on the Thai throne Ayuthya became
    vassal of Burma. Cambodia attacked Siam from
    the east taking many war captives
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

88
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 21. Naresuan 1590-1605 Son of
    previous king dynamic leadership, brave
    turned the table against the Burmese. Also
    beaten back Khmer attacks. Siam recovered
    its self-confidence expanded relations
    with China and Japan one of greatest kings
    of Siam and as a liberator of Siam
  • 22. Ekhathosarot 1605-10 Brother of Naresuan.
    Interested in Financial reform Dutch
    connection was established increase trade
    with Japan and China
  • 23. Si Saowaphak 1610-11? Son of 22 was
    executed by a monk two months after becoming
    king
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

89
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 24. Song Tham 1611-28 Son of Ekhathosarot
    tried to get Dutch and English to fight
    against Cambodia attack on Lovek failed in
    1622. He disliked war appointed Munnag
    (Persian) family as main adviser in finance
    ministry
  • 25. Chettha 1628-29 Son of 24. He was a puppet
    of Si Worawong
  • his cousin who with the help of Yamada
    finally seized power killed Chettha
  • 26. Athitayawong 1629-29 Brother of 25 was
    murdered by Worawong
  • 27. Prasat Thong 1629-56 Worawong the regicide
    and usurper. Prasat Thong tried to curb power
    of nobles
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

90
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 28. Chai 1656-56 Eldest son of Prasat Thong
    briefly reigned
  • 29. Suthammaracha 1656-56 Brother of Chai
    reigned only a few months
  • 30. Narai 1656-88 Brother of Chai. Narai
    seized the throne developed relations with
    France to compensate Dutch influence used a
    Greek named Paulkon as senior adviser who
    worked with French missionaries to gain
    trading advantage and to covert the king to
    Catholicism. When the king fell ill in 1688,
    Paulkon was executed by
  • court members who were against Paulkon
  • imposed a royal monopoly on all foreign trade
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

91
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 31. Phra Petracha 1688-1703 A usurper. The
    so-called 1688 revolution brought Petracha
    to power Siam entered a period of
    instability increased. Difficulty in
    controlling provinces anti foreigners
    increased suffered revolt from nobles
  • 32. Sua (Tiger) 1703-09 Son of Petracha
    ruthless murdered many princes contenders
    to the throne
  • 33. Phuminthacha 1709-33 Son of Sua at the
    request of Cambodian princes and former
    king became involved in Cambodia in
    response to Vietnamese
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

92
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 33. Phuminthacha (continued)interference in that
    country. This was to recur with higher
    frequency as Cambodia was caught
    between Siam and Dai-Viet rivalry a negative
    turning point for Ayuthya
    after his death
  • 34. Barommakot 1733-58 Brother of 33
    mounted the throne after eliminating
    the two pretenders with the help of
    Khun Channarong rearranged administration to
    ward off instability due to succession and
    power
  • distribution among nobles and
    ministers
  • 35. Uthumphon 1758-58
  • 36. Suriyamarin 1758-67 Defeated by
    Burmese, Ayuthya sacked and totally
    destroyed the capital city
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

93
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • C. The founding of Ayuthya
  • Kings of Ayuthya
  • 34. Barommakot (continued) He was a strong
    supporter of Buddhism he was
  • virtuous king Ayuthya reached a
    golden age succeeded to put
    Thommoreachea back on the Cambodian
    throne
  • 35. Uthumphon 1758-58 Son of
    Barommakot reigned only ten days then
    abdicated in favor of his elder brother
  • 36. Suriyamarin 1758-67 he did not have
    the support of the nobles and
    ministers Burma again is planning a major attack
    on Ayuthya Defeated by Burmese,
    Ayuthya sacked and totally destroyed
    the capital city
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

94
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • D. The founding Thonburi and Bangkok
  • Kings of Thonburi and Bangkok, Chakri Dynasty
  • Taksin (Thonburi) 1767-1782 Seized power to
    become new king of Siam of Chinese
    origin defeated Burmese moved Thai
    capital from Ayuthya to Thonburi
    Continued to attack Cambodia put death
  • 1. Phra Phutthayofa (Rama I) 1782-1809 Founder
    of the Chakri dynasty he was a general
    working for Taksin moved capital from
    Thonburi across the river to Bangkok led
    army along with his brother to conquer
    and make Cambodia a vassal of Siam
  • 2. Phra Phutthayofa (Rama II) 1809-1824 Quiet
    reign close to the Bunnags
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

95
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • D. The founding Thonburi and Bangkok
  • Kings of Thonburi and Bangkok, Chakri Dynasty
  • 4. Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-68 made
    concessions to European demand to avoid
    loosing Siams independence signed the
    Bowring treaty in 1855 with England,
    making Thailand a virtual colonized
    country
  • 5. Chulalongkorn (Rama V) 1868-1910 Modernized
    Siam, hiring foreigners as advisers.
    signed treaty of 1907 with France
    reversing the 1867 treaty, and returned
    Battambang and Siemreap to French
  • Protectorate of Cambodia
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

96
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • D. The founding Thonburi and Bangkok
  • Kings of Thonburi and Bangkok, Chakri Dynasty
  • 5. Chulalongkorn (Rama V) (cont.) spoke many
    foreign languages considered as one of
    the five greatest Siamese kings built
    infrastructure hired foreigners to
    trained Thai in governing the country
  • 6. Vijiravudh (Rama VI) 1910-25 Led Siam
    to fight along allied forces in World
    War I educated in England
    Westernized Siamese dresses. Favor
    nationalism little care to political changes
  • 7. Prachadhipok (Rama VI) 1925-35 Also
    educated in England controversial
    figure became a constitutional monarch
    after the 1932 bloodless coup faced many
    economic problems. Military ascendency
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

97
Part I. Chronology of Siams (Thailand)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Chapter 1. From vassal to suzerain
  • D. The founding Thonburi and Bangkok
  • Kings of Thonburi and Bangkok, Chakri Dynasty
  • 8. Ananda Mahibol (Rama VII) 1935-46
    Mysteriously murdered in his palace in
    1946. Prime Minister Pridi was
    suspected behind regicide. Siam
    became officially Thailand. With
    Japanese help Thai military fought a
    war against France and took back
    Battambang and Siemreap returned
    them to Cambodia after world war II.
  • 9. Bhumibol Adulyadej 1946- Current king of
    Thailand very reformist and
    popular among Thais championing
    democracy. Played a great role in
    fighting communist insurgency
  • Source David K. Wyatt Thailand a Short Story,
    Yale University Press, New Haven,1984

98
Definition of Genocide
99
Definition of Genocide
100
Part II Chronology of Dai-Viets (Vietnam)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Nam Tiên Chronology Vietnams Imperial March
  • 10000-8000 before Jésus-Christ Mesolithic Hòa
    Bình Culture 8000-6000 before Jésus-Christ
    Inferior Neolithic Bao Son Culture 6000-4000
    before Jésus-Christ Middle Neolithic Da Bút
    Culture 4000-3000 before Jésus-Christ Superior
    Neolithic 2100-1500 before Jésus-Christ
    Phùng Nguyên Culture 750-300 before
    Jésus-Christ Dysnasty of the Hùng kings and
    beginning of the Dongsonian Culture 3rd
    century B.C. Foundation of Âu Lac kingdom Year
    207 B.C. Triêu Ðà founded Nam Viet and
    established its capital at Phiên
    Ngung ( near Canton ) Year 196 B.C. Triêu Ðà
    acknowledged vassalage towards China Year 111
    B.C. Nam Viêt was integrated to the Chinese
    Empire and became Giao Chi province
  • Source 1997-2004 Ðang Anh Tuan All Rights
    Reserved.

101
Part II Chronology of Dai-Viets (Vietnam)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Nam Tiên Chronology Vietnams Imperial March
  • 111 B.C.-39 A.D. Annexation of Nam Viet by the
    Han. Introduction of Chinese
    characters and Confucianism. Year
    40-43 Revolt of the Trung Trac Trung Nhi
    sisters. Year 221 First Chinese campaigns in
    Viet country. Year 248 Revolt of Trieu
    Au. 3rd 4th centruies Several attacks by China
    of Kingdom Lam Ap Year 544 Revolt of Ly Bon
    against the Chinese domination Year 618
    Beginning of the Tang dynasty in China. Year 679
    Creation by China of the protectorate general
    of An Nam Year 863 China
    occupied the protectorate by the Nam
    Tchao Source 1997-2004 Ðang Anh Tuan All Rights
    Reserved.

102
Part II Chronology of Dai-Viets (Vietnam)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Nam Tiên Chronology Vietnams Imperial March
  • 111 B.C.-39 A.D. Annexation of Nam Viet by the
    Han. Introduction of Chinese
    characters and Confucianism. Year
    40-43 Revolt of the Trung Trac Trung Nhi
    sisters. Year 221 First Chinese campaigns in
    Viet country. Year 248 Revolt of Trieu
    Au. 3rd 4th centruies Several attacks by China
    of Kingdom Lam Ap Year 544 Revolt of Ly Bon
    against the Chinese domination Year 618
    Beginning of the Tang dynasty in China. Year 679
    Creation by China of the protectorate general
    of An Nam Year 863 China
    occupied the protectorate by the Nam
    Tchao Source 1997-2004 Ðang Anh Tuan All Rights
    Reserved.

103
Part II Chronology of Dai-Viets (Vietnam)
Aggression Against the Khmer Empire (continued)
  • Nam Tiên Chronology Vietnam Imperial March
  • Year 906 Rebellion of Khúc Thua Du Year 917 End
    of T
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