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Quintessence a fifth force from variation of the fundamental scale

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Quintessence and solution of cosmological constant problem should be related ! ... How can quintessence be distinguished from a. cosmological constant ? ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Quintessence a fifth force from variation of the fundamental scale


1
Quintessence - a fifth force from variation of
the fundamental scale
2
  • Om X 1
  • Om 25
  • Oh 75
  • Dark Energy

?
3
Quintessence
  • C.Wetterich

A.Hebecker,M.Doran,M.Lilley,J.Schwindt, C.Müller,G
.Schäfer,E.Thommes, R.Caldwell,M.Bartelmann,K.Karw
an
4
Dark Energy dominates the Universe
  • Energy - density in the Universe
  • Matter Dark Energy
  • 25 75

5
Matter Everything that clumps
Abell 2255 Cluster 300 Mpc
6
Om 0.25
gravitational lens , HST
7
Otot1
8
Dark Energy
  • Om X 1
  • Om 25
  • Oh 75 Dark Energy

h homogenous , often O? instead of Oh
9
Space between clumps is not empty Dark Energy
!
10
Dark Energy density isthe same at every point of
space homogeneous Oh
11
Predictions for dark energy cosmologies
  • The expansion of the Universe
  • accelerates today !

12
What is Dark Energy ? Cosmological
Constant or
Quintessence ?
13
Cosmological Constant- Einstein -
  • Constant ? compatible with all symmetries
  • No time variation in contribution to energy
    density
  • Why so small ? ?/M4 10-120
  • Why important just today ?

14
Cosm. Const. Quintessence
static dynamical
15
Quintessence and solution of cosmological
constant problem should be related !
16
Cosmological mass scales
  • Energy density
  • ? ( 2.410 -3 eV )- 4
  • Reduced Planck mass
  • M2.441018GeV
  • Newtons constant
  • GN(8pM²)

Only ratios of mass scales are observable !
homogeneous dark energy ?h/M4 6.5 10¹²¹
matter
?m/M4 3.5 10¹²¹
17
Time evolution
t² matter dominated universe t3/2
radiation dominated universe
  • ?m/M4 a³
  • ?r/M4 a4 t -2 radiation dominated
    universe
  • Huge age small ratio
  • Same explanation for small dark energy ?

18
Time dependent Dark Energy Quintessence
  • What changes in time ?
  • Only dimensionless ratios of mass scales
  • are observable !
  • V potential energy of scalar field or
    cosmological constant
  • V/M4 is observable
  • Imagine the Planck mass M increases

19
Quintessence from time evolution of fundamental
mass scale
20
Fundamental mass scale
  • Unification fixes parameters with dimensions
  • Special relativity c
  • Quantum theory h
  • Unification with gravity
  • fundamental mass scale
  • ( Planck mass , string tension , )

21
Fundamental mass scale
  • Fixed parameter or dynamical scale ?
  • Dynamical scale Field
  • Dynamical scale compared to what ?
  • momentum versus mass
  • ( or other parameter with dimension )

22
Cosmon and fundamental mass scale
  • Assume all mass parameters are proportional to
    scalar field ? (GUTs, superstrings,)
  • Mp ? , mproton ? , ?QCD ? , MW ? ,
  • ? may evolve with time cosmon
  • mn/M ( almost ) constant - observation !
  • Only ratios of mass scales are observable

23
Example Field ? denotes scale of
transition from higher dimensional physics to
effective four dimensional description in theory
without fundamental mass parameter (except for
running of dimensionless couplings)
24
Dilatation symmetry
  • Lagrange density
  • Dilatation symmetry for
  • Conformal symmetry for d0

25
Dilatation anomaly
  • Quantum fluctuations responsible for
  • dilatation anomaly
  • Running couplings hypothesis
  • Renormalization scale µ ( momentum scale )
  • ?(?/µ) A
  • E gt 0 crossover Quintessence

26
Dilatation anomaly and quantum fluctuations
  • Computation of running couplings ( beta functions
    ) needs unified theory !
  • Dominant contribution from modes with momenta ?
    !
  • No prejudice on natural value of anomalous
    dimension should be inferred from tiny
    contributions at QCD- momentum scale !

27
Cosmology
  • Cosmology ? increases with time !
  • ( due to coupling of ? to curvature scalar )
  • for large ? the ratio V/M4 decreases to zero
  • Effective cosmological constant vanishes
    asymptotically for large t !

28
Asymptotically vanishing effective cosmological
constant
  • Effective cosmological constant V/M4
  • ? (?/µ) A
  • V (?/µ) A ?4
  • M ?
  • V/M4 (?/µ) A

29
Weyl scaling
  • Weyl scaling gµ?? (M/?)2 gµ? ,
  • f/M ln (? 4/V(?))
  • Exponential potential V M4 exp(-f/M)
  • No additional constant !

30
Without dilatation anomaly V const.
Massless Goldstone boson dilaton Dilatation
anomaly V (f ) Scalar with tiny time dependent
mass cosmon
31
Crossover Quintessence

  • ( like QCD gauge coupling)
  • critical ? where d grows large
  • critical f where k grows large
    k²(f )d(?)/4
  • k²(f ) 1/(2E(fc f)/M)
  • if j c 276/M ( tuning ! )
  • this will be responsible for relative increase
    of dark energy in present cosmological epoch

32
Realistic cosmology
  • Hypothesis on running couplings
  • yields realistic cosmology
  • for suitable values of A , E , fc

33
Quintessence cosmology
34
Quintessence
  • Dynamical dark energy ,
  • generated by scalar field
  • (cosmon)

C.Wetterich,Nucl.Phys.B302(1988)668,
24.9.87 P.J.E.Peebles,B.Ratra,ApJ.Lett.325(1988)L1
7, 20.10.87
35
Prediction homogeneous dark energyinfluences
recent cosmology- of same order as dark matter -
Original models do not fit the present
observations . Modifications ( i.e. E gt 0 )
36
Quintessence
Cosmon Field f(x,y,z,t)
  • Homogeneous und isotropic Universe
    f(x,y,z,t)f(t)
  • Potential und kinetic energy of the cosmon -field
  • contribute to a dynamical energy density of the
    Universe !

37
Fundamental Interactions
Strong, electromagnetic, weak interactions
On astronomical length scales graviton cosm
on
gravitation
cosmodynamics
38
Dynamics of quintessence
  • Cosmon j scalar singlet field
  • Lagrange density L V ½ k(f) j j
  • (units reduced Planck mass M1)
  • Potential Vexp-j
  • Natural initial value in Planck era j0
  • today j276

39
Quintessence models
  • Kinetic function k(f) parameterizes the
  • details of the model - kinetial
  • k(f) kconst. Exponential
    Q.
  • k(f ) exp ((f f1)/a) Inverse power
    law Q.
  • k²(f ) 1/(2E(fc f)) Crossover Q.
  • possible naturalness criterion
  • k(f0)/ k(ftoday) not tiny or huge !
  • - else explanation needed -

40
Cosmon
  • Scalar field changes its value even in the
    present cosmological epoch
  • Potential und kinetic energy of cosmon contribute
    to the energy density of the Universe
  • Time - variable dark energy
  • ?h(t) decreases with time !

41
Cosmon
  • Tiny mass
  • mc H
  • New long - range interaction

42
cosmon mass changes with time !
  • for standard kinetic term
  • mc2 V
  • for standard exponential potential , k
    const.
  • mc2 V/ k2 V/( k2 M2 )
  • 3 Oh (1 - wh ) H2 /( 2 k2 )

43
Cosmological equations
44
Cosmic Attractors
Solutions independent of initial conditions
typically Vt -2 f ln ( t ) Oh
const. details depend on V(f) or kinetic term
early cosmology
45
Quintessence becomes important today
46
Equation of state
  • pT-V pressure
    kinetic energy
  • ?TV energy density
  • Equation of state
  • Depends on specific evolution of the scalar field

47
Negative pressure
  • w lt 0 Oh increases (with decreasing
    z )
  • w lt -1/3 expansion of the Universe is
  • accelerating
  • w -1 cosmological constant

late universe with small radiation component
48
Quintessence becomes important today
No reason why w should be constant in time !
49
How can quintessence be distinguished from a
cosmological constant ?
50
Time dependence of dark energy
cosmological constant Oh t² (1z)-3
M.Doran,
51
small early and large presentdark energy
  • fraction in dark energy has substantially
    increased since end of structure formation
  • expansion of universe accelerates in present
    epoch

52
Early dark energy
  • A few percent in the early Universe
  • Not possible for a cosmological constant

53
A few percent Early Dark Energy
  • If linear power spectrum fixed today ( s8 )
  • More Structure at high z !

Bartelmann,Doran,
54
Early Dark Energy
  • A few percent in the early Universe
  • Not possible for a cosmological constant

1s and 2s limits
Doran,Karwan,..
55
Measure Oh(z) !
56
How to distinguish Q from ? ?
  • A) Measurement Oh(z) H(z)
  • i) Oh(z) at the time of
  • structure formation , CMB - emission
  • or nucleosynthesis
  • ii) equation of state wh(today) gt -1
  • B) Time variation of fundamental constants
  • C) Apparent violation of equivalence principle

57
Quintessence and time variation of fundamental
constants
Strong, electromagnetic, weak interactions
Generic prediction Strength unknown
C.Wetterich , Nucl.Phys.B302,645(1988)
gravitation
cosmodynamics
58
Time varying constants
  • It is not difficult to obtain quintessence
    potentials from higher dimensional or string
    theories
  • Exponential form rather generic
  • ( after Weyl scaling)
  • But most models show too strong time dependence
    of constants !

59
Quintessence from higher dimensions
work with J. Schwindt hep-th/0501049
60
Quintessence from higher dimensions
  • An instructive example
  • Einstein Maxwell theory in six dimensions

Warning not scale - free ! Dilatation anomaly
replaced by explicit mass scales.
61
Metric
  • Ansatz with particular metric ( not most general
    ! )
  • which is consistent with
  • d4 homogeneous and isotropic Universe
  • and internal U(1) x Z2 isometry

B ? 1 football shaped internal geometry
62
Exact solution
m monopole number ( integer)
cosmology with scalar
and potential V
63
Asymptotic solution for large t
64
Naturalness
  • No tuning of parameters or integration constants
  • Radiation and matter can be implemented
  • Asymptotic solution depends on details of model,
    e.g. solutions with constant Oh ? 1

65
problem time variation of fundamental constants
66
Are fundamental constantstime dependent ?
  • Fine structure constant a (electric charge)
  • Ratio electron to proton mass
  • Ratio nucleon mass to Planck mass

67
Quintessence and Time dependence of
fundamental constants
  • Fine structure constant depends on value of
  • cosmon field a(f)
  • (similar in standard model couplings depend
    on value of Higgs scalar field)
  • Time evolution of f
  • Time evolution of a

Jordan,
68
Standard Model of electroweak interactions
Higgs - mechanism
  • The masses of all fermions and gauge bosons are
    proportional to the ( vacuum expectation ) value
    of a scalar field fH ( Higgs scalar )
  • For electron, quarks , W- and Z- bosons
  • melectron helectron fH
    etc.

69
Restoration of symmetryat high temperature in
the early Universe
high T less order more symmetry example magn
ets
High T SYM ltfHgt0
Low T SSB ltfHgtf0 ? 0
70
In the hot plasma of the early Universe No
difference in mass for electron and muon !
71
Quintessence Couplings are still varying now
!Strong bounds on the variation of couplings
-interesting perspectives for observation !
72
Where to look for time variation of fundamental
couplings ?
  • Nucleosynthesis
  • Molecular absorption lines in the light of
    distant Quasars
  • Oklo natural reactor
  • Atomic clocks
  • CMB

73
baryons the matter of stars and humans
Ob 0.045
74
Abundancies of primordial light elements from
nucleosynthesis
A.Coc
75
Allowed values for variation of fine structure
constant
?a/a ( z1010 ) -1.0 10-3 GUT 1 ?a/a (
z1010 ) -2.7 10-4 GUT 2
C.Mueller,G.Schaefer,
76
Time variation of coupling constants
must be tiny would be of very high
significance ! Possible signal for
Quintessence
77
Violation of equivalence principle
  • Different couplings of cosmon to proton and
    neutron
  • Differential acceleration
  • Violation of equivalence principle

p,n
earth
cosmon
p,n
only apparent new fifth force !
78
Apparent violation of equivalence principle
and time variation of
fundamental couplings measure
both the cosmon coupling to ordinary matter
79
Differential acceleration ?
  • For unified theories ( GUT )

??a/2a
Q time dependence of other parameters
80
Link between time variation of a and
violation of equivalence principle
typically ? 10-14 if
time variation of a near Oklo upper bound
to be tested by MICROSCOPE
81
Summary
  • Oh 0.75
  • Q/? dynamical und static dark energy
  • will be distinguishable
  • Q time varying fundamental coupling
    constants
  • violation of equivalence principle

82
????????????????????????
  • Why becomes Quintessence dominant in the present
    cosmological epoch ?
  • Are dark energy and dark matter related ?
  • Can Quintessence be explained in a fundamental
    unified theory ?

83
End
84
A few references C.Wetterich ,
Nucl.Phys.B302,668(1988) , received
24.9.1987 P.J.E.Peebles,B.Ratra ,
Astrophys.J.Lett.325,L17(1988) , received
20.10.1987 B.Ratra,P.J.E.Peebles ,
Phys.Rev.D37,3406(1988) , received
16.2.1988 J.Frieman,C.T.Hill,A.Stebbins,I.Waga ,
Phys.Rev.Lett.75,2077(1995) P.Ferreira, M.Joyce
, Phys.Rev.Lett.79,4740(1997) C.Wetterich ,
Astron.Astrophys.301,321(1995) P.Viana, A.Liddle
, Phys.Rev.D57,674(1998) E.Copeland,A.Liddle,D.Wa
nds , Phys.Rev.D57,4686(1998) R.Caldwell,R.Dave,P
.Steinhardt , Phys.Rev.Lett.80,1582(1998) P.Stein
hardt,L.Wang,I.Zlatev , Phys.Rev.Lett.82,896(1999)
85
Cosmodynamics
  • Cosmon mediates new long-range interaction
  • Range size of the Universe horizon
  • Strength weaker than gravity
  • photon electrodynamics
  • graviton gravity
  • cosmon cosmodynamics
  • Small correction to Newtons law

86
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87
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88
Differential acceleration
  • Two bodies with equal mass experience
  • a different acceleration !
  • ? ( a1 a2 ) / ( a1 a2 )

89
small change of couplings in space
  • Fine structure constant depends on location in
    space
  • Experiments with satellites ?
  • for r 2 RE
  • d aem / aem 3 10 -19 / k2

90
  • Time evolution of fundamental couplings traces
    time evolution of quintessence
  • today wh close to -1
  • Small kinetic energy
  • Slow change of f
  • Slow change of a
  • Very small ?a/a for low z !

91
Crossover quintessence andtime variation of
fundamental constants
  • Upper bounds for relative variation of the
  • fine structure constant
  • Oklo natural reactor ?a/a lt 10 -7
    z0.13
  • Meteorites ( Re-decay ) ?a/a lt 3 10 -7
    z0.45
  • Crossover Quintessence compatible with QSO
  • and upper bounds !

92
Atomic clocks and OKLO
assumes that both effects are dominated by
change of fine structure constant
Observation ?a/a lt 2 10 -15 / yr
Munich group
93
Variation of fine structure constant as function
of redshift
  • Three independent data sets from Keck/HIRES
  • ?a/a - 0.54 (12) 10-5
  • Murphy,Webb,Flammbaum, june
    2003
  • VLT
  • ?a/a - 0.06 (6) 10-5
  • Srianand,Chand,Petitje
    an,Aracil, feb.2004

z 2
94
Cosmon and time variation of couplings fixed
points
  • small coupling of cosmon to matter due to fixed
    points behavior

close to fixed point small time evolution of
couplings coupling to matter weaker than
gravitational strength
95
Field equations
96
Energy momentum tensor
97
Free integration constants
M , B , F(t0) , (dF/dt)(t0) continuous m
discrete
98
Conical singularities
  • deficit angle
  • singularities can be included with
  • energy momentum tensor on brane
  • bulk point of view describe everything in terms
    of bulk geometry ( no modes on brane without tail
    in bulk )

99
Dimensional reduction
100
Time dependent gauge coupling
101
Realistic model Crossover Quintessence

  • ( like QCD gauge coupling)
  • critical ? where d grows large
  • critical f where k grows large
    k²(f )d(?)/4
  • k²(f ) 1/(2E(fc f)/M)
  • if j c 276/M ( tuning ! )
  • Relative increase of dark energy in
    present
  • cosmological epoch
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