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Downs Syndrome

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Individuals with Down syndrome are usually smaller than their non-disabled peers. ... Made for the National Down Syndrome Society, the Everyone Counts Teaching ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Downs Syndrome


1
Downs Syndrome
  • By Katy Watson

2
History
  • Before the early 19th century many people
    believed that people with down syndrome had not
    been identified, unless by the art, literature
    and science.
  • In 1866, English physician, John Langdon Down
    published the correct description of Down
    syndrome.
  • After his work he became the father of the
    syndrome.
  • 1959, French physician Jerome Lejeune figured out
    the syndrome was a chromosomal abnormally.

3
What is Downs Syndrome
  • A learning Disability caused by cells not
    dividing correctly during pregnancy. Giving a
    child 47 instead of 46 chromosomes. Resulting in
    an extra partial or complete 21st chromosome.
  • The added chromosome affects the order of the
    brain development.

4
Characteristics
  • There is more the fifty different
    characteristics, these are just the common.
  • Low muscle tone, An excessive ability to extend
    the joints. Individuals with Down syndrome are
    usually smaller than their non-disabled peers.
  • Flat facial profile, a somewhat depressed nasal
    bridge and a small nose
  • Upward slant to the eyes, Visual problems such as
    crossed eyes and far- or nearsightedness are
    higher in those with Down syndrome, Small skin
    folds on the inner corner of the eyes
  • An abnormal shape of the ear, as are mild to
    moderate hearing loss and speech difficulty
  • A single deep crease across the center of the
    palm , fifth finger has one flexion furrow
    instead of two, Excessive space between large and
    second toe
  • Enlargement of tongue in relationship to size of
    mouth
  • Children with Down syndrome frequently have
    specific health-related problems, most common is
    Heart Defects. A lowered resistance to infection
    makes these children more prone to respiratory
    problems

5
Incidences
  • Approximately 4,000 children with Down syndrome
    are born in the U.S. each year.
  • 1 in every 800 to 1,000 live births.
  • Although parents of any age may have child with
    Down syndrome, the incidence is higher for women
    over 35.
  • Most common forms of the syndrome do not usually
    occur more than once in a family.

6
Early Intervention and Schooling
  • Shortly after a diagnoses of Down syndrome is
    confirmed, parents should be encouraged to enroll
    their child in an infant development/early
    intervention program.
  • These programs offer parents special instruction
    in teaching their child language, cognitive,
    self-help, and social skills, and specific
    exercises for gross and fine motor development.
  • Continuing education, positive public attitudes,
    and a stimulating home environment have also been
    found to promote the child's overall
    development.
  • Due to these individual differences, it is
    impossible to predict future achievements of
    children with Down syndrome.
  • Teaching tasks in a step-by-step manner with
    frequent reinforcement and consistent feedback
    has been proven successful.
  • For hard of hearing children, a child may uses
    forms of sign language.
  • Inclusion with either a paraprofessional, or
    being taken out for one on one teaching in
    certain subject area.
  • In a study research found that the inclusion
    proved to beneficial because there was more time
    for conferences between teachers, parents, and
    support.
  • Must have teachers that are willing to modify
    class, and need to utilize hands on learning
    materials.
  • Made for the National Down Syndrome Society, the
    Everyone Counts Teaching Acceptance and
    Inclusion. Teaches both children with or without
    disabilities. The kid includes lesson plans,
    posters, videos, and a booklet about inclusion,
    for age range k-6. This program was piloted in
    21 different classroom in the north east states.
    A third grader wrote Having a disability means
    that you can have friends just like other people.
    It means that someone with a disability can be
    your best friend. You may not sound the same as
    some people, but you are just as important as all
    the other people in the world.

7
Environment Adaptations
  • Child with downs syndrome may have eating
    difficulties too. 
  • To help the child may need to use a sippy cup
    longer
  • May need to have help using a spoon
  • Their food may need to cut up in to small pieces
  • Learning centers should have accommodations too.
  • In the reading center there should be books about
    children with disabilities along with regular
    books. 
  • Dramatic play should have dolls with
    disabilities, along with different ethnicities.
  • Block/building center should have soft sponge
    like blocks so if the child does not have muscle
    control the block will not hurt if they get
    thrown.  There should also be blocks with holes
    for the child to grasp on.   
  • Like multiculturalism there should be pictures of
    children with disabilities around the room and in
    the bathroom. The other children along with the
    child with downs syndrome will be able to look at
    the pictures and recognize that some one close
    looks just like the picture.
  • If the child has some vision loss, a teacher may
    have to either write in large print or use a more
    notice able color
  • The child may be hard of hearing, so some labels
    on the toys with symbols and the ASL sign should
    be included through out the classroom. 
  • If the child in nonverbal or not speaking yet,
    the teacher should encourage the child to use
    sign language, and have the teacher use the
    correct pronunciation  of words when the child
    signs
  • Activities that is developmentally appropriate
    for that child. 

8
Resources
  • National Down Syndrome Society
  • http//www.ndss.org/content.cfm?fuseactionInfoRe
    s.Generalarticlearticle2
  • NICHCY
  • http//www.nichcy.org
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