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Research methodology


A survey or experiment that provides as output a quantitative or numeric ... ISM20 Project Management and Research Methods. Components of a survey method. The ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Research methodology

Research methodology
  • Quantitative Methods
  • Qualitative procedures

Quantitative Methods
  • A definition
  • A survey or experiment that provides as output a
    quantitative or numeric description of some
    fraction of the population, called the sample.

Components of a survey method
  • The survey design
  • The population and sample
  • The instrumentation
  • Variables in the study
  • Data analysis

The survey design
  • Purpose of the survey
  • The research question
  • Type of survey
  • Cross sectional
  • Longitudinal
  • Form of data collection

The population and sample
  • Description of the population
  • Sampling design
  • Single stage
  • Multistage
  • Stratified
  • Sample selection

The instrumentation
  • The instrument (tool)
  • Existing
  • New
  • Rating scale
  • Likert scale Rating the Items. 1-to-5 rating
    scale where
  • strongly unfavorable to the concept
  • somewhat unfavorable to the concept
  • undecided
  • somewhat favorable to the concept
  • strongly favorable to the concept
  • Pilot
  • Administration
  • Postal survey
  • email

Variables and analysis
  • The research question
  • Variable in the research
  • E.g. Number of years of academic study
  • The questions in the instrument
  • E.g. How many years of study in a University
  • As an undergraduate?
  • As a postgraduate?
  • Data analysis
  • Steps
  • Bias in the data
  • Non-response
  • Statistics, e.g. mean, standard deviation etc.

Components of an experimental method
  • Subjects
  • Instruments and materials
  • The experimental design

  • Selection
  • Conveniently
  • Random (RCT)
  • Group assignment
  • Random
  • Matched. E.g. Ability, Age
  • Size
  • Variables
  • Dependent
  • Independent

Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT)
  • A true experiment, in which the researcher
    randomly assigns some patients to at least one
    maneuver (treatment) and other patients to a
    placebo, or usual treatment. Key features the
    classic way to evaluate effectiveness of drugs
    (or exercise, diet, counseling). Patients are
    followed over time (Prospective). If properly
    done, an RCT can be used to determine cause and

Instrumentation and Materials
  • Description
  • Validation
  • Pilot
  • Content validity
  • Prediction validity
  • Materials

The experimental design
  • Type
  • Pre-experimental
  • No control group
  • Quasi-experimental
  • Control group, but not randomly assigned
  • Single subject design (over time)
  • Pure experiment
  • Repeated measures
  • Change groups

Overview of Qualitative Research Design
  • Historical routes in anthropology
  • Generates new understanding by naming and
    framing concepts and themes
  • Removes bias by questioning preconceived
    assumptions of the social group under study
  • Promotes neutrality through adoption by the
    researcher of naïve stance or critical
    discussion, challenges pre-conceived assumptions
    of both the researcher and the social group under
  • Produces new understanding about the world,
    changes the way power, culture and social
    interaction are understood

Data Collection in Qualitative Research
  • Observation (Videoed, non-participant,
    semi-participant and participant observation,
    field notes)
  • Interviews (individual and group - known as focus
    groups, tape recorded and transcribed, field
  • Secondary data analysis (using written material
    collected for purposes other than research)
  • Questionnaires (unstructured, postal, interviews)
  • A mixture of all four

Questions in Qualitative Research
In qualitative research questions are open-ended.
Sometimes a check list or topic guide will be
used by the researcher to ensure all the relevant
areas are covered. This is known as
semi-structured data collection. It is used in
all four methods of data collection Sometimes the
only guide is the topic itself and the researcher
collects verbatim or naturally occurring data.
This is known as unstructured data collection. It
is used in all four methods of data collection
Sampling in Qualitative Research
The sampling method of choice is theoretical
sampling (queuing behaviour) However, often this
is not possible and people resort to convenience
sampling (students) and snowball sampling
(mental health in black and ethnic minority
communities) Neither of the latter two methods
are considered strong but maybe all that can be
achieved. Research must be viable.
Data Analysis in Qualitative Research
  • Read and re-read data, become engrossed in it.
  • Identify themes common, conflicting, minority
  • Test themes across the data set, where are they
    common, under what circumstances are they found,
    not found. This sets the parameters on the
    interpretation and generalisation of data
  • Get more than one person to analyse the data
    independently then together
  • Demonstrate trustworthiness in data analysis
  • Examples
  • Biographical continuity
  • Nursing routines as a method of managing a
    transient workforce

Qualitative research
  • Interpretative research
  • Process orientated
  • Researcher(s) are the primary data collection
  • Descriptive research
  • Outputs are an inductive process

  • MSc project web pages
  • http//
  • Creswell, J. W. (1994) Research design
    qualitative and quantitative approaches. -
    Thousand Oaks, Calif. London Sage
    Publications, ISBN 0803952546