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Aristotle

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His father, Nichomachus, was a physician tot he Macedonian royal family and ... fish and whales and dolphins; proved that whales and dolphins are not fish ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Aristotle


1
Aristotle
(The one on the right)
  • By Andrea Turnquist

2
His Life
  • Aristotle was born in 384 B.C, in the city of
    Stagira , Greece
  • His father, Nichomachus, was a physician tot he
    Macedonian royal family and taught Aristotle
    medicine
  • In 367 B.C, Aristotle was sent to Athens to study
    philosophy with Plato, at his academy
  • He stayed at the Academy until 347 B.C

3
More
  • He was a brilliant pupil, but he was opposed to
    some of Platos teachings. As a result, when
    Plato died, Aristotle was not appointed head of
    the academy
  • Aristotle left Athens and traveled to many
    different places, such as present day Turkey
    studying biology
  • He returned to Macedonia in 338 B.C, to tutor
    Alexander the Great, and he set up his own
    academy, called the Lyceum

4
Even more
  • After Alexanders death, Aristotle was forced to
    flee Athens to the Island of Euboea, where he
    died in 322 B.C

5
What he Accomplished
  • Aristotle is said to have written over 150
    philosophical treatises, the subjects ranging
    from biology to physics to morals to politics to
    aesthetics
  • the passage on the next slide tell a summery of
    the contributions that Aristotle made to the
    mathematical and philosophical world

6
Whereas Aristotle's teacher Plato had located
ultimate reality in Ideas or eternal forms,
knowable only through reflection and reason,
Aristotle saw ultimate reality in physical
objects, knowable through experience. Objects,
including organisms, were composed of a
potential, their matter, and of a reality, their
form thus, a block of marble -- matter -- has
the potential to assume whatever form a sculptor
gives it, and a seed or embryo has the potential
to grow into a living plant or animal form. In
living creatures, the form was identified with
the soul plants had the lowest kinds of souls,
animals had higher souls which could feel, and
humans alone had rational, reasoning souls. In
turn, animals could be classified by their way of
life, their actions, or, most importantly, by
their parts.
From http//www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/history/aristot
le.html
7
More of what he accomplished
  • Even though his philosophies were not w/o errors,
    they were some of the greatest biological
    synthesis of all time
  • They remained the ultimate authority among people
    for centuries after his death
  • He observed and discovered many things about the
    world and biology years before anyone else, such
    as the anatomy of the octopus, cuttlefish,
    crustaceans and other sea animals

8
Cont
  • He discovered the difference between fish and
    whales and dolphins proved that whales and
    dolphins are not fish
  • He described the embryological development of a
    chick the social organization etc. of bees
  • His classification system of animals had two
    groups those w/blood and those w/o blood

9
Ce sont plus
  • The animals w/blood had five different
    genera-mammals, birds,amphibians, fishes, and
    whales
  • The animals w/o blood were classified as
    cephalopods,crustaceans, insects,shelled animals
    and zoophytes or plant animals
  • Aristotle also had treatises on Earth Sciences as
    well (cont on next slide)

10
Oui, cest bien!
  • He called his treatise Meteorology but he defined
    it as "all the affections we may call common to
    air and water, and the kinds and parts of the
    earth and the affections of its parts.
  • He worked out the hydrologic cycle too. "Now the
    sun, moving as it does, sets up processes of
    change and becoming and decay, and by its agency
    the finest and sweetest water is every day
    carried up and is dissolved into vapor and rises
    to the upper region, where it is condensed again
    by the cold and so returns to the earth."

11
You know
  • He also discusses winds and Earthquakes (he
    thought that Earthquakes were caused by
    underground winds), Thunder, Lightning, rainbows
    meteors, comets, and the Milky Way (which he
    thought had something to do w/ the atmosphere)
  • On the next few slides are quotes from his
    philosophies about the Earth

12
quotes
  • The same parts of the earth are not always moist
    or dry, but they change according as rivers come
    into existence and dry up. And so the relation of
    land to sea changes too and a place does not
    always remain land or sea throughout all time,
    but where there was dry land there comes to be
    sea, and where there is now sea, there one day
    comes to be dry land. But we must suppose these
    changes to follow some order and cycle. The
    principle and cause of these changes is that the
    interior of the earth grows and decays, like the
    bodies of plants and animals. . . .

13
More quote
  • But the whole vital process of the earth takes
    place so gradually and in periods of time which
    are so immense compared with the length of our
    life, that these changes are not observed, and
    before their course can be recorded from
    beginning to end whole nations perish and are
    destroyed.

14
THE END
  • Aristotle was one of the greatest thinkers his
    time and of all time when his work was
    rediscovered in the medieval times, his followers
    called him The philosopher or The master of
    those who know
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