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Biotechnology

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Gel Electrophoresis, I.e. DNA gels, sequencing gels, ... In the case of Dolly, the nucleus was from a differentiated mammary cell (of an ... Note: Dolly Parton! ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Biotechnology


1
Biotechnology
2
Biotech
  • Commercial use of recombinant DNA.
  • Genetic engineering.
  • Transgenic organisms.

3
Questions
  • What are the tools?
  • What has been done?
  • What are some ethical concerns?

4
Questions
  • What are the tools?

5
Biotech tools
  • Plasmid circle of bacterial DNA, used to
    transfer genes.
  • Vector modified plasmid or such.
  • Sequencing determining the sequence!
  • Restriction Enzymes cut DNA at specific
    sequences.

6
RFLP Digestion withEcoRI
7
DNA Fingerprint in Forensics
Q Which suspectshould beindicted?
A 3 is primesuspect
C SR CI E M NE E
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
Suspects
Suspects
8
Biotech tools
  • Size separation
  • Gel Electrophoresis, I.e. DNA gels, sequencing
    gels, protein gels.
  • Identification Take the gel and transfer to
    special filter paper.
  • Western blot protein, plus antibody probes.
  • Northern blot RNA, plus probes.
  • Southern blot DNA, plus probes.

9
Biotech tools
  • Cell culture, aka tissue culture.
  • Cells are grown in petri dishes, in incubators,
    bathed in solutions (usually fetal calf serum,
    plus nutrients).
  • Some cell types grow well, some dont grow.
  • Often from cancers Henrietta Lane-Hela cells.
  • CHO chinese hamster ovary cells.

10
Biotech tools
  • Bacteria and viruses are used to produce plasmids
    or proteins of our choice.

11
PCR
PCR Amplifies small amounts of DNA
rapidly. Polymerase chain reaction Taq
polymerase from deep sea vents.
12
Polymerase Chain Reaction(b) Multiple PCR Cycles
2 copies
4 copies
8 copies
DNAfragmentto beamplified
13
Biotech tools
  • Biochemistry chemical study of biological
    macromolecules.
  • Columns and centrifuges are used for size
    separation.

14
Biotech tools
  • Antibodies-identification of proteins (including
    health tests), isolation of proteins, gene
    expression, protein location and function.
  • GFP-gene expression, protein location and
    function.
  • Microarrays-gene expression, large quantities of
    genes.

15
Glow in the dark plants! (animals, too!)
16
Questions
  • What has been done?

17
Biotech-apps
Knowledge! Medecines. Transgenics. DNA
fingerprinting.
18
Knowledge-Antennapedia
NormalAntennae
Leg-likeAntennae
Fly Head (SEM)
19
Knowledge Ancient DNA in amber Juraissic Park!
20
Biotech-apps
  • Knockout mice gene is gone. Often no effect!
  • Redundancy!

21
Biotech-apps
  • Human Genome Project completed!
  • LOTS of info!
  • Also genomes of many other organisms.

22
Biotech-apps
  • Biotech companies.
  • Medecines such as insulin produced for us by
    bacteria, for diabetics.
  • Bay area includes Genenetech, Chiron, etc!
  • Pharmaceutical companies.

23
Biotech-apps
  • Transgenic plants.
  • Easier.
  • Pest, herbicide, disease resistance.
  • Ripening.
  • Oil content.
  • Vitamin A rice!
  • Frankenfoods!!!

24
Biotech-apps
  • Transgenic animals.
  • Pharming cows with special milk.
  • Fatter, faster growing animals.

25
Biotech-apps
  • Gene therapy insert a good gene into the cells
    of a human, to cure an illness.
  • Main problem so far delivery of genes to
    targeted cells.
  • Limited success. Scid bubble boy.

26
Biotech-apps
  • DNA fingerprinting (RFLP) rewriting history!
  • Forensics.
  • Innocence project.
  • History and natural history.

27
Questions
  • What are some ethical concerns?

28
Bioethics
  • DNA--- Human Being???!!!
  • Essence of our identity
  • What makes a human a human?!!!

29
Bioethics
  • Genetic Testing.
  • Risk factors for incurable diseases.
  • Medical Insurance, privacy issues.
  • Consent issues.
  • Can be done on fetus, child, adult.
  • - Genetic counselors.

30
Bioethics
  • Only a small percent of diseases are caused by
    mutations in one gene.
  • Cystic Fibrosis (CF) ?508
  • -most with it get very ill
  • -BUT a small number of people with it NEVER get
    ill
  • - a small number of people with CF have NO
    mutation in the CF gene (huh?!).

31
Bioethics
  • At best, biology can only predict a RISK of
    having a certain illness (or trait!).

32
Bioethics
  • In vitro fertilization (IVF).
  • selecting embryos.
  • unused embryos.

33
Bioethics
  • Genes for being smart, funny, good-looking?
  • Eugenics??!

34
Bioethics
  • Interspecies
  • Transgenic plants and animals.
  • Organs from other animals (pig heart valves).
  • New diseases?

35
Bioethics
  • Stem cells and cloning.

36
Bioethics
  • Stem cells cells in the body which produce the
    differentiated cells. Not yet found for all
    tissues!
  • Differentiated cells specialized cells,
    terminally or not.
  • Embryos totipotent cells. Cells which can
    become any other type of cell (upon inducement
    with hormones). Sort of the UNIVERSAL stem
    cells.
  • Aka embryonic stem cells.

37
Bioethics
  • Growing replacement organs/cells for ourselves to
    get around immune response.
  • use stem cells
  • use embryonic stem cells-easier.
  • cloned embryonic stem cells?

38
Bioethics
  • Research on embryos.
  • not once nervous system starts developing (day
    14).
  • so far, no permanent altering of genes (just
    picking naturally occuring variations).

39
Bioethics
  • Therapeutic cloning clone embryo and use it to
    grow cells, tissues, maybe even organs. Also,
    could use adult cells.
  • Reproductive cloning clone embryo and grow it
    into a baby.

40
Bioethics
  • Cloning
  • Interphase 2n nucleus in inserted into an egg
    cell,bypassing sex and fertilization.
  • No meiosis and no crossing over!
  • Nuclear transfer.
  • Note the nucleus comes from a mature,
    differentiated cell.

41
Bioethics
  • In the case of Dolly, the nucleus was from a
    differentiated mammary cell (of an already dead
    ewe). Note Dolly Parton!
  • Many animals (frogs, mammals such as CC, a cat)
    have been cloned, but often have health issues.
    It takes hundreds of tries to get one viable
    embryo. Primates have been hard to clone.

42
Bioethics
  • Some thinking points
  • What about identical twins?!
  • Transgenics how many genes does it take to be
    human, a monkey, a rabbit? Goat plus sheep
    embryos geep.
  • Cloning daughter is sister, clone your dead
    parent?
  • IVF time warp twins, 5 parents.

43
Bioethics
  • Movie rec
  • Gattaca!

44
The end
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