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CWL A Common Web Language for Humans and Computers

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Title: CWL A Common Web Language for Humans and Computers


1
CWLA Common Web Language for Humans and
Computers
  • Hiroshi Uchida
  • (Institute of Semantic Computing)
  • (UNDL Foundation)

2
Aim of the CWL
  • To make contents in web pages available for real
    semantic processing.
  • Web is a mine of information.
  • Knowledge mining
  • To break language barrier in web world

3
CWL-XG
  • Aim
  • - Development of CWL system
  • - Development of CWL applications
  • - Standarizaion of the CWL
  • Achieved
  • - CWL system architecture.
  • - CWL specifications
  • - CWL Ontology
  • - CWL platform

4
Background of CWL
  • UNL Programme
  • - Started 1996 to break language barrier
  • - United Nations University
  • Institute of Advanced Studies
  • More than 20 languages
  • - Shift to the UNDL Foundation
  • - UNL
  • - UNL system

5
CWL
  • A graph language of semantic network with hyper
    node
  • - Every node can have a relation with any other
    node
  • A node represents a concept.(vocabulary)
  • An arc represents a relation between
    nodes.(relations)
  • nodes and arcs represent objectivity
  • A node can be annotated by attributes.(attributes)
  • Attributes represent subjectivity

6
Long ago, in the city of Babylon, the people
begun to build a huge tower, which seemed about
to reach the heavens.
long ago
people
huge
tim agt agt
aoj
tower
build
begun
obj obj
plc
obj obj
seemed
reach
city
obj
mod
gol
Babylon
heaven
7
CWL
  • Concepts of any language can be vocabulary of CWL
    and can be expressed using words of each
    language.
  • Surface structure and semantic structure of
    original document can be expressed in CWL.

8
Vocabulary of the CWL
  • Concepts of any language can be vocabulary of CWL
    and can be expressed using words of each
    language.
  • Concepts are represented by morphemes, words,
    phrases, clauses, and sentences of any language
    and Universal Words of the UNL.
  • A concept appears in CWL is contest sensitive.
  • Every concept must be defined in CWL ontology.
  • CWL ontology defined the linguistic and semantic
    knowledge of CWL.
  • Semantic inclusion relation
  • Semantic co-occurrence relation
  • Semantic definition of concept

9
CWL
  • CWL can be expressed in three form.
  • UNL CWL.unl
  • CDL CWL.cdl
  • RDF CWL.rdf
  • CWL.unl is for multilingualism
  • CWL.cdl is for semantic computing
  • CWL.rdf is for semantic web applications

10
CWL representation
11
CWL Ontology
  • CWL ontology defines the vocabulary of CWL.
  • CWL ontology defined the linguistic and semantic
    knowledge of CWL.
  • Semantic inclusion relation
  • Semantic co-occurrence relation
  • Semantic definition of concept CWL
  • A semantic definition of a concept is described
    in CWL.
  • UW(Universal Word of the UNL) is used to describe
    CWL ontology
  • Every concept must be defined in CWL ontology.
  • CWL ontology is represented in CDL (CDD), in
    UNL(UNLKB), and in RDF(OWL)

12
UW(Universal Word)
  • Vocabulary of the UNL
  • Define concept label systematically.
  • A UW is a combination of UW and relation.
  • Express disjoint set of concept UWs
  • Basic UW
  • Express set of every concept an English
    word(/phase/clause) can express
  • ex) spring
  • Restricted UW
  • Restrict a concept by constraint
  • ex) spring(iclgttool)
  • spring(iclgtseason)
  • spring(agtgtperson,objgtperson)

13
Universal Word
  • ltUWgt ltheadwordgt ltconstraint listgt
  • ltheadwordgt ltcharactergt
  • ltconstraint listgt ( ltconstraintgt ,
    ltconstraintgt )
  • ltconstraintgt ltrelation labelgt gt lt
    ltUWgt ltconstraint listgt ltrelation labelgt gt
    lt ltUWgt ltconstraint listgt gt lt
    ltUWgt ltconstraint listgt
  • ltrelation labelgt agt and aoj obj
    icl ...

14
UW
  • Basic UW
  • Express set of every concept an English
    word(/phase/clause) can express
  • ex) spring
  • Restricted UW
  • Restrict a concept by constraint
  • ex) spring(iclgttool)
  • spring(iclgtseason)
  • spring(agtgtperson,objgtperson)

15
Basic Category of UW
  • UWs should belong to the following categories
  • Nominal Concept
  • Predicative Concept
  • Attributive Concept
  • Adverbial Concept

16
UW
  • Nominal Concept
  • swallow(iclgtthing)
  • Predicative Concept
  • change(agtgtthing) I changed my mind.
  • change(objgtthing) The weather will
    change. 
  • remember(agtgtthing) I cannot remember his
    name.
  • remember(aojgtthing) Do you remember me?

17
UW
  • Attributive Concept
  • positive(aojgtthing) Are you positive about
    that?
  • a positive fact
  • only(modltthing) the only person
  • Adverbial Concept
  • weekly(iclgthow) This class is held
    weekly.
  • only(iclgthow) The child only cried.

18
UW
  • If the ambiguity of an UW still remains, upper
    category labels of UW system(hierarchy) or case
    relations will be used.
  • Restrict using upper category
  • swallow(iclgtbird) the bird
  • One swallow does not make a summer
  • swallow(iclgtact) the act of swallowing
  • at one swallow
  • swallow(iclgtquantity) the quantity
  • take a swallow of water

19
UW
  • Restrict using case relations
  • spring(agtgtthing,objgtwood) bending something
  • spring(agtgtthing,objgtmine)) blasting something
  • spring(agtgtthing,objgtperson, escaping (from)
    prison
  • srcgtprison))
  • spring(agtgtthing,golgtplace) jumping up
  • to spring up
  • spring(agtgtthing,golgtthing) jumping on
  • to spring on
  • spring(objgtliquid) gushing out
  • to spring out

20
CWL Ontology
  • concept
  • nominal concept
  • thing
  • abstract thing
  • attribute
  • quality
  • feature
  • event
  • action
  • mental action
  • physical action
  • process
  • phenomenon
  • mental phenomenon
  • physical phenomenon
  • process

21
CWL Ontology
  • concept
  • nominal concept
  • thing
  • state
  • mental state
  • physical state
  • group
  • group(iclgtvolitional thing)
  • set
  • information
  • quantity
  • rule
  • way
  • behavior
  • manner
  • method

22
CWL Ontology
  • concept
  • nominal concept
  • thing
  • attributive thing
  • concrete thing
  • living thing
  • human
  • animal
  • plant
  • natural world
  • substance
  • functional thing
  • facilities
  • tool
  • volitional thing
  • human
  • animal

23
CWL Ontology
  • concept
  • nominal concept
  • thing
  • place
  • area
  • relative place
  • time
  • period
  • predicative concept
  • do
  • act
  • express
  • make
  • take
  • change
  • move
  • put

24
CWL Ontology
  • concept
  • predicative concept
  • do
  • mentally do
  • physically do
  • do(agtgtthing)
  • do(agtgtthing,objgtthing)
  • occur
  • become
  • happen
  • change
  • move
  • mentally happen
  • physically happen
  • occur(objgtthing)
  • occur(golgtthing,objgtthing)

25
CWL Ontology
  • concept
  • predicative concept
  • be
  • be(aojgtthing)
  • be(aojgtthing,objgtthing)
  • attributive concept
  • (qualtthing)
  • (modltthing)
  • adverbial concept
  • (qualtpredicative concept)
  • (modltpredicative concept)
  • how

26
Relations of CWL
  • relation
  • predicative relation
  • agt (agent)
  • aoj (thing with attribute)
  • cag (co-agent)
  • cao (co-thing with attribute)
  • ptn (partner)
  • ben (beneficiary)
  • cob (affected co-thing)
  • obj (affected thing)
  • opl (affected place)
  • ins (instrument)
  • met (method)
  • man (manner)

27
Relations of CWL
  • relation
  • predicative relation
  • plc (place)
  • plf (initial place)
  • plt (final place)
  • scn (scene)
  • gol (goal, final state)
  • src (source, initial state)
  • via (intermediate place or state)
  • dur (duration)
  • tim (time)
  • tmf (initial time)
  • tmt (final time)

28
Relations of CWL
  • relation
  • inter concept relation
  • and (conjunction)
  • or (disjunction, alternative)
  • fmt (range)
  • frm (origin)
  • to (destination)
  • equ (equivalent)
  • icl (included, a kind of)
  • iof (an instance of)
  • inter event relation
  • con (condition)
  • coo (co-occurrence)
  • pur (purpose)
  • rsn (reason)

29
Relations of CWL
  • relation
  • inter event relation
  • seq (sequence)
  • qualification relation
  • bas (basis)
  • cnt (content)
  • mod (restriction)
  • nam (name)
  • per (proportion, rate, distribution)
  • pof (part of)
  • pos (possessor)
  • qua (quantity)

30
Relations of CWL
  • relation
  • inter sentence relation
  • ref (reference)
  • nxt (next)
  • shd (sentence head)

31
Attributes of CWL
  • attribute
  • attribute of nominal concept
  • logicality
  • view of reference
  • attribute of predicative concept
  • aspect
  • _at_begin
  • _at_complete
  • _at_contine
  • time
  • view of emphasis, focus and topic
  • attitude(modality)
  • feeling and judgement
  • attribute for attribute
  • modifying attribute on aspect

32
Attribute for Describing Logicality
  • _at_transitive has transitivity
  • _at_symmetric has symmetricity
  • _at_identifiable can identify the subject
  • _at_disjointed all element concept do not hold
    common instance.
  • all connected concept do not share
    instances.

33
Attribute for Times Respect to Writer
  • _at_past happened in the past
  • _at_present happening at present
  • _at_future will happen in future

34
Attribute for Writers View on Aspect of Event
  • _at_begin beginning of an event or a state
  • _at_complete finishing/completion of a (whole)
    event
  • _at_continue continuation of an event
  • _at_custom customary or repetitious action
  • _at_end end/termination of an event or a state
  • _at_experience experience
  • _at_progress an event is in progress
  • _at_repeat repetition of an event
  • _at_state final state or the existence of the
    object on which an action has been taken

35
Attribute for Writers View of Reference on
Concept
  • _at_generic generic concept
  • _at_def already referred
  • _at_indef non-specific class
  • _at_not complement set
  • _at_ordinal ordinal number

36
Attribute for View of Emphasis, Focus, and Topic
  • _at_contrast contrasted UW
  • _at_emphasis emphasized UW
  • _at_entry entry or main UW of a sentence or a
    scope
  • _at_qfocus focused UW of a question
  • _at_theme instantiates an object from a different
    class
  • _at_title title
  • _at_topic topic

37
Attribute for Writers Attitude
  • _at_affirmative affirmation
  • _at_confirmation confirmation
  • _at_exclamation exclamation
  • _at_humility in a humility manner
  • _at_imperative imperative
  • _at_interrogative interrogation
  • _at_invitation inducement
  • _at_polite polite way 
  • _at_request request
  • _at_respect respectful way
  • _at_vocative vocative

38
Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment
  • _at_ability ability, capability of doing something
  • _at_get-benefit speakers feeling of receiving
    benefits through the fact or result of
    something (to be) done by somebody else
  • _at_give-benefit speakers feeling of giving
    benefits by doing something for somebody
    else
  • _at_conclusion logical conclusion due to a certain
    condition
  • _at_consequence logical consequence
  • _at_sufficient sufficient condition
  • _at_consent consent feeling of the speaker about
    something
  • _at_dissent dissent feeling of the speaker about
    something
  • _at_grant to give/get consent/permission to do
    something
  • _at_grant-not not to give consent to do something

39
Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment
  • _at_although something follows against contrary
    to or beyond expectation
  • _at_discontented discontented feeling of the
    speaker about something
  • _at_expectation expectation of something
  • _at_wish wishful feeling, to wish something is
    true or has happened
  • _at_insistence strong determination to do something
  • _at_intention intention about something or to do
    something
  • _at_want desire to do something
  • _at_will determination to do something
  • _at_need necessity to do something
  • _at_obligation obligation to do something according
    to (quasi-) law, contract, or
  • _at_obligation-not obligation not to do something,
    forbid to do something according to (quasi-)
    law, contract or

40
Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment
  • _at_should to do something as a matter of course
  • _at_unavoidable unavoidable feeling of the speaker
    about doing something
  • _at_certain certainty that something is true or
    happens
  • _at_inevitable logical inevitability that something
    is true or happens
  • _at_may practical possibility that something is
    true or happens
  • _at_possible logical possibility that something is
    true or happens
  • _at_probable (practical) probability that something
    is true or happens
  • _at_rare rare logical possibility that something
    is true or happens
  • _at_unreal unreality that something is true or
    happens

41
Attribute for modifying Attribute on Aspect
  • _at_just expresses an event or a state that has
    just begun or ended/completed
  • _at_soon expresses an event or a state that is
    about to begin or end/completed
  • _at_yet expresses an event or a state that has not
    yet started or ended/completed, together with
  • _at_not

42
Attribute for Writers Felling and Judgment
  • _at_admire admiring feeling of the speaker about
    something
  • _at_blame blameful feeling of the speaker about
    something
  • _at_contempt contemptuous feeling of the speaker
    about something
  • _at_regret Regretful feeling of the speaker about
    something
  • _at_surprised surprised feeling of the speaker
    about something
  • _at_troublesome troublesome feeling of the speaker
    about the occurrence of something

43
Attribute for Convention
  • _at_passive passive form
  • _at_pl more than one
  • _at_angle_bracket lt gt are used
  • _at_brace are used
  • _at_double_parenthesis (( )) are used
  • _at_double_quote are used
  • _at_parenthesis ( ) are used
  • _at_single_quote are used
  • _at_square_bracket are used

44
CWL representation in UNLTable Form , List Form
  • I purchased a computer yesterday.
  • unl // List Form of UNL expression
  • W
  • I 01
  • purchase (iclgtbuy(agtgtperson, objgtthing))._at_entry._at_
    past02
  • computer (iclgtmachine)03
  • yesterday (iclgtday)04
  • /W
  • R
  • 02agt01
  • 02obj03
  • 02tim04
  • R
  • /unl

unl //Table Form of UNL expression agt(purchase
(iclgtbuy(agtgtperson,objgtthing))._at_entry._at_past),
I) obj(purchase(iclgtbuy(agtgtperson,objgtthing))._at_en
try._at_past), computer (iclgtmachine)) tim(purchase(i
clgtbuy(agtgtperson,objgtthing))._at_entry._at_pst),
yesterday(iclgtday)) /unl
45
CWL Representation in CDL
  • I purchased a computer yesterday.

SSituation
CDL // ModelSyntax S Situation A Event
tmp'past' A1 purchase (iclgtbuy(agtgtperson,o
bjgtthing) A2 I raldef A3
computer(iclgtmachine) ral'def' A4
yesterday(iclgtday) ral'def' A1 cdd.nlagt
A2 A1 cdd.nlobj A3 A1 cdd.nltim
A4
A1purchase
AEvent
agt
tim
A2I
obj
A4yesterday
A3computer
46
CWL representation in RDF
  • I purchased a computer yesterday.

RDF // N-Triples representation Subject
Property Object. S rdftype Situation. A
rdftype Event. S hasComplexEntity A. A
hasElementalEntity A1. A hasElementalEntity
A2. A hasElementalEntity A3. A
hasElementalEntity A4. A1 rdftype
purchase(iclgtbuy(agtgtperson,objgtthing). A2 I
rdftype I. A2 I ral def. A3 rdftype
computer(iclgtmachine). A3 ral def. A4
rdftype yesterday(iclgtday). A4 ral def. A1
agt A2. A1 obj A3. A1 tim A4. A tmp past.
47
CWL Platform
  • We use the UNL System as a basic platform of CWL.
  • CWL Platform
  • - UNL System (Language Servers)
  • - Conversion system among CWL.unl, CWL.cdl and
    CWL.rdf
  • - CWL Ontology in CWL.unl (UNLKB), CWL.cdl (CDL
    (CDD.nl) and CWL.rdf (OWL.cwl)

48
CWL Platform
  • Translation Editor
  • - word selection based analysis
  • - HTML file handler
  • - graphical representation
  • - conversion among UNL,CDL,RDF
  • - natural language generation
  • - available from April 2008

49
What we are going to do
  • Evaluation of CWL in actual use.
  • Wikipedia
  • Improvement of CWL platform for better
    performance
  • Enrichment of CWL ontology
  • Extend languages
  • Standarlization in W3C
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