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Watermelon Ripeness Sensor

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Measurement equipment: potentiometers. Data Analysis/Interface. Laptop with Labview interface ... Potentiometer. Potentiometer. Battery. 3.0 V. Battery 1.5V ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Watermelon Ripeness Sensor


1
Watermelon Ripeness Sensor
  • Melon Inc.
  • In Search of Perfect Melons.
  • Jason L. Firko
  • Allan Cohen
  • Matt Behr
  • Dave Bartoski

2
Watermelon Ripeness Sensor
  • Melon Inc. In search of perfect melons
  • Jason L. Firko
  • Allan Cohen
  • Matt Behr
  • Dave Bartoski
  • Customer Ed Kee Advisor
    Dr.James Glancey
  • Mission Develop a non-destructive method and
    apparatus for accurately measuring the properties
    of watermelons which could correlate to ripeness.
  • Approach Use customer wants to research and
    develop the most useful solution to the problem
    of determining the properties of watermelons
    which could be used in the development of
    non-destructive watermelon ripeness testing.
    Design a prototype and test it in an actual
    working environment.

3
Presentation Overview
  • Introduction
  • Mission, background, wants, constraints
  • Benchmarking
  • Metrics
  • Concept generation selection
  • Concept development
  • Prototype
  • testing, budget, hours
  • Conclusion

4
Background
  • Watermelon market is a large
  • Grown on 5 Continents
  • Grown in 90 countries
  • Annual production 50 billion lbs./year
  • 75 of the melons bought whole
  • Large domestic and international market
  • Problem with a long history - 1905 University of
    Georgia Study
  • There are currently no accurate non-destructive
    testing methods commercially available

5
Initial Systems Benchmarking
  • Current Methods Of Watermelon Testing
  • Traditional - Thumping, stem color, skin color,
    other traditional methods
  • Destructive Testing - Sucrometer readings
  • Near Infrared Testing - Experimental technique of
    sensing sugar content
  • Acoustic Testing - University of Oklahoma

6
Systems Benchmarking Cont.
  • Related Procedures (Fruits and others)
  • Thumping/Resonance Tires, Fruits
  • Acoustic testing Acoustic emission testing
  • Ultrasonic testing Materials,
    Medical
  • Optoelectrics Apples
  • Intrusive testing Medical(syringes)
  • Nuclear magnetic resonance Fruits, Medical
  • Electronic sniffing Strawberries

7
Customers Wants
8
Top Wants and Constraints
  • 1. Accuracy
  • 2. Portability
  • 3. Food Quality
  • 4. Cost
  • 5. Durable
  • 6. Easy to Use
  • 7. Fast
  • 8. Versatility
  • 9. Maintenance
  • 10. Service Life
  • 1. Maximum - 3000 budget
  • 2. Abide by all FDA regulations
  • Food quality
  • 3. Abide by all OSHA regulations
  • Safety standards

9
Metrics/Target Values
  • Metrics
  • Provide a means of objective measurement
  • Eliminate ambiguity
  • Target Values
  • Derived from customer wants, functional
    benchmarking, continued customer dialogue
  • Contact regulatory agencies
  • Listed with related wants (ranked)
  • Metrics and target values have been evolving with
    the project throughout the year

10
Metrics Target Values
  • Accuracy
    Target Value
  • Correlation coefficient 0.5
  • Dimensional measurement
    ? lt 0.5in
  • Sound wave deviation
    ? /max signal lt.05
  • Portability
  • Weight 51 lbs.
  • Size (dimensions) 3
    Sides
  • People - transport/operation
    1
  • Durability
  • Hours of continuous operation
    12 hrs.
  • Impact resistance
    30 lb static load
  • Ease of Use / Speed
  • Level of education required
    Some college

11
  • Time to train
    4 hr.
  • Number of steps 5
  • Time/cycle 10 sec.
  • Time per shipment 2 hrs.
  • Food quality
  • Size of intrusion
    1 mm.
  • Bacteria introduced 0
  • Visual quality inspection rating
    9 (out of 10)
  • Service life/Maintenance
  • Estimated years of service
    5 yrs
  • Cost/cycle (parts, upkeep, etc)
    .01/cycle
  • Versatility
  • Additional sensor adaptable
    Yes
  • of uses (melon types, sizes, etc.)
    4
  • Cost
  • Production cost (materials)
    1500

12
Concept Generation
  • SONIC TESTING - SINGLE FREQUENCY
  • SONIC TESTING - WHITE NOISE
  • INFARED
  • ENERGY IMPACT
  • STRAIN GAUGE
  • FLUID EXTRACTION
  • ACOUSTIC RESONANCE
  • ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES
  • ULTRASOUND
  • NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE (NMR)

13
Concept Evaluation/ Selection Process
  • Is this a viable solution?
  • Evaluate in terms of ranked metrics
  • Presentation - Time Constraints
  • Method - Comparison with metrics(related wants)
  • Strong in metrics
  • Weak in metrics
  • Notes on concept
  • SSD and Testing results lead to selection

14
Concept Evaluation
  • Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
  • Out of
    Budget - 60,000 - 1,000,000
  • Sonic Testing- Single Frequency
  • Food quality, Speed Need
    Proper Environment
  • Easy to use, Accuracy, Maintenance, Cost,
    Environment
  • Sonic Testing- White Noise
  • Food quality Need
    Controlled Conditions
  • Speed, Cost, Accuracy, Portability, Easy to use
  • Infrared
  • Accuracy, Speed, Food quality
    Auxiliary Power
  • Expensive, Easy to use, Portability
    Equiptment Needed

15
Concept Evaluation (Contd)
  • Energy Impact
  • Quick, Easy, Food quality, Portability,
    Durability
  • Accuracy
    Not Internal
  • Strain Gauge
  • Portable, Food quality
    Rind Properties
  • Easy to use, Speed, Accuracy
  • Fluid Extraction With Syringe
  • Accuracy, Portability, Easy to use
    Intrusive
  • Food quality, Maintenance

16
Ultrasound
  • Testing - CCM
  • Catch 22
  • High frequency - Cannot penetrate rind
  • Low frequency - Cannot sense density changes
  • Other problems - Air pockets, Seeds
  • Food quality, Service life, Versatility
  • Accuracy, Portability, Cost, Speed
  • Not a viable sensing mechanism

17
Electrical Properties
  • Resistance testing
  • RC modeling
  • Data normalized for physical parameters sugar
    content
  • Portability, Cost, Maintenance, Service life
  • Accuracy, Food quality, Speed
  • No correlation found - not a viable sensing
    mechanism

18
Acoustic Resonance Testing
  • Based on traditional method - acoustic
    properties have been used to determine ripeness
  • Resonance traditionally indicates ripeness
  • Ripening of melons changes physical structure
    which should alter acoustic response
  • Accuracy, Portability, Food quality, Cost, Easy
    to use, Fast
  • Maintenance, speed

19
General Setup
  • Main parts
  • Sensory
  • Signal conversion
  • Peripheral equipment
  • Measurement equipment
  • Data Analysis/Interface
  • Thumper

20
Feasibility of concept
  • Must determine
  • Repeatability and reliability
  • Determination of relevant variables
  • Required prototype components
  • Possible signal characteristics which may relate
    to ripeness
  • Testing of concept aids in design evolution

21
Concept Feasibility - Testing
  • Performed testing - 18 melons
  • -All melons were in ripe range (8 - 12 sugar)
  • Determined repeatability and reliability
  • -Stationary repeated testing -Impact height
  • -Background noise -Turning
  • Background noise - crucial for feasibility
  • -Tested with working environment noise
  • -voices, background equipment, etc. (?65db)

22
  • Varying Height of Thumper
  • Repeatable at each height
  • See clear shift in signal amplitude
  • Amplitude could indicate physical properties if
    impact is kept constant

23
  • Rotation of watermelon
  • Indicates uniform internal structure
  • One possible source of error during operation is
    eliminated

24
Prototype Components
  • Developed through wants and concept testing
  • System Elements
  • Sensory Standard microphone elements
  • Signal conversion PCMCIA Card
  • Peripheral equipment power source, connecting
    board/cable
  • Measurement equipment potentiometers
  • Data Analysis/Interface
  • Laptop with Labview interface
  • Program components continuous scanning, system
    voltage monitoring/warning, required
    displays/analysis

25
Prototype Evolution
  • i - Experimental set up - Dr. Suns Lab
  • ii - Initial prototype
  • iii - Final testing apparatus

26
Prototype Evolution
Lab Setup - Had the basic elements - Large
separate units - AC powered
Initial Prototype - Basic layout determined -
Portable - DC Powered
Final Prototype - Easier to use - More durable -
Even more portable - Faster - Lower maintenance
27
Final Prototype
28
Prototype Physical Features
Final Prototype General Electrical Layout
Laptop Computer
Microphone
Battery 3.0 V
Microphone
Connector
Potentiometer
Battery 1.5V
Potentiometer
Battery 1.5V
  • Easy adjustments
  • Sealed electronics
  • Portable
  • Easy to inspect
  • Low maintenance
  • Durable construction

29
Prototype Display/Interface
30
Repeatability of Signal Acquisition
Seven repeated signals Average standard
deviation ? 6.70 binary data points
max signal 150 binary data points
? / max signal 0.0447
31
Steady State Frequency Calculation
Ten waveforms analyzed for characteristic
frequency
32
Results/Correlation
  • Raw Data
  • Correlation found between dominant frequency and
    sugar content
  • Promising correlation coefficient found
    (R2.4436)
  • Normalization
  • Normalized using volume approximation as
    multiplier.
  • Significantly improves correlation coefficient
    (R2.8086)

33
Metrics with Target Values and Test Results
  • Accuracy Target Value Test
    Result
  • Correlation coefficient 0.5 0.81
  • Dimensional measurement ? lt 0.5in
    0.25in
  • Sound wave deviation ? /max signal lt.05
    0.045
  • Portability
  • Weight 51 lbs. 18.2 lbs
  • Size (dimensions) 36 in Sides 17
    x 17.5 x 11 in
  • People - transport/operation 1 1
  • Durability
  • Hours of continuous operation 12 hrs. 4
    hrs./336 hrs.
  • Impact resistance 30 lb static load
    30 lb static load
  • Ease of Use / Speed
  • Level of education required Some
    college Some college

34
  • Time to train 4 hr.
    3 hr.
  • Number of steps 5 6
  • Time/cycle 10 sec. 12 sec.
  • Time per shipment 2 hrs. 2.1 hrs.
  • Food Quality
  • Size of intrusion 1 mm. 0 mm.
  • Bacteria introduced 0 0
  • Visual quality inspection rating 9 (out of
    10) 10
  • Service Life/Maintenance
  • Estimated years of service 5 yrs
    10 yrs
  • Cost/cycle (parts, upkeep, etc) .01/cycle
    .003/cycle
  • Versatility
  • Additional sensor adaptable Yes Yes
  • of uses (melon types, sizes, etc.) 4
    4
  • Cost
  • Production cost (materials) 1500
    1080.81

35
Budget
  • Item Cost
  • Computer accessories 975.70
  • Base accessories 25.85
  • Microphone assembly 7.54
  • Thumper assembly 11.89
  • Caliper assembly 41.40
  • Miscellaneous 18.43
  • Total 1080.81
  • Event Hours
  • Engineering development time 1135.9
  • Machine time 50.03

36
Future Improvements
  • Addition of filters to improve FFT analysis
  • Adapters for length caliper
  • Purchase a spare battery power inverter
  • Motorized thumper
  • Further refine data correlation
  • Incorporation of ripeness correlation into
    program
  • Replace laptop with microprocessor

37
Conclusions
  • Our customer is satisfied with the result of the
    project.
  • The customer is encouraged by the determination
    of an initial correlation.
  • The speed of the apparatus is 20 slower then we
    had hoped.
  • The hours of continuous use for the laptop is
    currently lower then initially desired.
  • Our customer is very pleased with the portable
    design of the device.
  • We have reached the majority of our target values
    and are pleased with the final prototype.

38
Project Goal
  • Satisfied Customers!
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