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Phylogeny and Systematics

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The analytical study to understanding the diversity and relationships ... Polyphyletic- has several species but not the ancestor (not valid- missing some info) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Phylogeny and Systematics


1
Chapter 25
  • Phylogeny and Systematics

2
Phylogeny
  • The evolutionary history of a species or group of
    species.

3
Systematics
  • The analytical study to understanding the
    diversity and relationships of organisms

4
What data is used?
  • Fossil records
  • Remember- youngest species are in the upper strata

5
What data is used?
  • Molecular homologies
  • Compare amino acids sequences
  • Amount of heat needed to separate hybrid DNA

6
What data is used?
  • Morphological homologies
  • Homologous and vestigial structures
  • BUT be careful of analogous structures

7
Carolus Linnaeus
  • Developed system of Taxonomy
  • An ordered division of organisms into categories
    based on a set of characteristics.
  • Had 2 major contributions

8
Squirrels
9
Binomial Nomenclature
  • Practice of using a 2 part scientific name for
    every species.
  • First part is the genus name
  • Second part is the species specific name
  • Both words are in italics
  • Genus name is capitalized
  • ex. Homo sapien

10
2. Hierarchical Classification
11
Taxon
  • Any named group at any level.
  • However, grouping, especially at higher levels,
    is somewhat arbitrary.

12
Creating Trees
  • Cladograms
  • Displays patterns of shared characteristics.
  • Clade- a group of species that includes an
    ancestral species and all its descendants.

13
Creating Trees
  • What makes a valid clade?
  • Monophyletic- an ancestral species and all its
    descendants (valid)

14
Creating Trees
  • Paraphyletic- ancestral species and some
    descendants (not valid- missing some info)

15
Creating Trees
  • Polyphyletic- has several species but not the
    ancestor (not valid- missing some info)

16
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17
Creating trees
  • Shared primitive character- A character that
    extends beyond the taxon you are defining.
  • Shared derived character- evolutionary novelty
    unique to a clade.

18
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19
Creating Trees
  • Phylogenetic trees
  • Phylogram- Like a cladogram BUT it also includes
    relative times of changes.

20
Creating Trees
  • Ultrametric Trees- Like a Phylogram BUT includes
    actual times of changes.

21
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22
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23
Domains
  • Three Domains
  • Bacteria- Most prokaryotes
  • Archae- The rest of the prokaryotes that live in
    a variety of environments
  • Eukarya- All eukaryotes

24
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25
Universal Tree of Life
  • 1. Last common ancestor of all things.
  • 2. Possible fusion of bacterium and archaen,
    which led to eukaryotes.
  • 3. Symbiosis with mitochondria
  • 4. Symbiosis with chloroplast and the start of
    plants.
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