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Unit 10 Space 6

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The fourth layer of the Sun is the Photosphere, where visible light is given off. ... The Sun's color (yellow) and photosphere temperature (6000 K) are also ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit 10 Space 6


1
Unit 10 Space 6
  • Layers of the Sun
  • Suns Rotational Period
  • Sunspots and Sunspot Cycle
  • Solar Prominences and Flares
  • Coronal Mass Ejections
  • Our Sun Compared With Other Stars

2
Guiding Questions Space 6
  • List the six layers of the Sun. (p.709)
  • How fast does the Sun rotate on its axis? (p.710)
  • What are sunspots? What cycle do sunspot maximums
    follow? (p.710)
  • What are prominences and flares on the Suns
    surface? (p.710)
  • What are Coronal Mass Ejections? (p.711)
  • How are sunspots, prominences, flares and CMEs
    related? (pp.710-11)
  • Compare the Sun with other average stars. (p.712)

3
1. List the six layers of the Sun.
  • At the center of the Sun is the Core. This is
    where the fusion reaction that provides the Suns
    heat occurs. The core must be at least 10
    million degrees Kelvin for hydrogen fusion to
    occur.
  • The second layer is the Radiation Zone, where
    energy is transmitted by radiation.
  • The third layer of the Sun is the Convection
    Zone, where heat is transmitted outward in
    convection currents.
  • The fourth layer of the Sun is the Photosphere,
    where visible light is given off. The
    temperature here is 6000 K.

4
1. Suns Layers (cont.)
  • The fifth layer of the Sun is the Chromosphere.
  • The sixth and outer layer of the Sun is the
    Corona, which has temperatures as high as 2
    million K.

5
2. How fast does the Sun rotate on its axis?
  • Astronomers observing the movement of sunspots on
    the surface of the Sun have found that it takes
    about 25 days to complete one rotation at the
    equator, and about 33 days to make one rotation
    near the poles. Because the Sun is made of
    gases, it does not rotate as a solid body like
    Earth.

6
3. What are sunspots? What cycle do sunspot
maximums follow?
  • Sunspots are small areas of the Suns surface
    that appear darker than the surrounding surface,
    because they are slightly cooler (about 5000 K).
    They are caused by intense magnetic storms within
    the Sun, and usually occur in pairs. Sunspots
    are temporary features, lasting from days to
    months, and vary in size and number.
  • Sunspot activity reaches a maximum every 11 years.

7
4. What are prominences and flares on the Suns
surface?
  • A solar prominence is a large arching column of
    gas caused by magnetic storms. The gases can
    move at speeds up to 1000 km per second.
  • A solar flare is a violent eruption of gases that
    occurs near sunspots.

8
5. What are Coronal Mass Ejections?
  • A coronal mass ejection, or CME, is a giant
    bubble of magnetized ionized gas that detaches
    itself from the Sun and escapes into space. CMEs
    typically occur about once a week at sunspot
    minimums and up to three times a day during
    sunspot maximums.

9
6. How are sunspots, prominences, flares and CMEs
related?
  • Sunspots, solar prominences, solar flares and
    coronal mass ejections are all related to strong
    magnetic storms that happen within and on the
    surface of the Sun.
  • On Earth, they can cause interference with
    electrical transmissions, and have been blamed
    for some electrical blackouts. They can also
    interfere with radio and television
    transmissions, especially with satellite
    transmissions. CMEs can cause aurora displays
    far south of the polar regions where they usually
    occur.

10
6. Sunspots and Prominences (cont.)
11
7. Compare the Sun with other average stars.
  • Compared with other stars, the Sun has an average
    size, with about half the stars larger and half
    smaller. The Suns color (yellow) and
    photosphere temperature (6000 K) are also about
    average. The one unusual characteristic of the
    Sun is that it is not part of a binary star,
    multiple star system or star cluster, like most
    stars. The closest stars to the Sun, the Alpha
    Centauri system, is a triple star.
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