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The Kings:

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Saul's forces are defeated by the Philistines. Saul takes his own life. Or, did he? ... Defeats the Philistines. Ending the Philistine threat solidified David's power ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Kings:


1
Chapter 6
  • The Kings
  • Becoming a Nation

2
In This Chapter…
  • Stories of Transition to Nationhood
  • Samuel Anointer of Kings
  • Saul and David in Conflict
  • King David Nation Builder
  • King Solomon Temple Builder
  • Nationhood Revisited

3
Deuteronomic History
  • I II Samuel and I Kings written during the
    Exile, attempt to answer the following questions
  • How did we end up captured by our enemies, forced
    into exile far from home with our Temple and city
    destroyed?
  • Has God abandoned us?
  • Is there any hope for the future?
  • What have we learned from this disaster?

4
Stories of Transition
  • In those days there was no king in Israel all
    the people did what was right in their own eyes.
    (Judges 2125)
  • Deuteronomic history needed to address how the
    Israelites went from this lack of unity to a
    nation
  • Necessary to set the stage for the destruction of
    Israel and the Exile
  • Discusses the positive and negative aspects of
    the tribes becoming a nation with a monarchy

5
Need for Unity
  • Mid 11th century
  • End of the era of Judges
  • No central leadership figure
  • Judges were only temporary solutions able to fix
    problems but did not set up a long-range plan
  • Lack of unity led to other problems
  • Different ideas of what it meant to be Gods
    chosen people
  • Weak and susceptible to defeat from enemies

6
Need for a Nation?
  • Books of Samuel and 1 Kings
  • Describe transition to nationhood
  • Around 1000 BC
  • Israels first kings
  • Saul, David, Solomon
  • Show the nation growing in success and power
  • Positive and negative aspects
  • Being like other nations (1 Sam 820)
  • Could lead to division and destruction

7
Samuel Anointer of Kings
  • Samuel born to Hannah who dedicates him to God
    and sends him to Eli for care
  • Eli was a priest whose sons were unfaithful
  • Samuels Call (1 Sam 31-21)
  • Eli realizes that God is calling Samuel and
    instructs him how to answer
  • Speak, for your servant is listening
  • God tells Samuel of the end of Elis line

8
Cry for a King
  • Samuel acts as a priest and a judge
  • Sons are unfit to carry out leadership
  • People cry out for Samuel to appoint a king
  • God instructs Samuel to warn the people of what
    will happen if they have a king
  • 1 Samuel 81-22
  • The people are not concerned
  • They want a king to lead them into battle and to
    be like the other nations

9
Problems
  • The beginnings of the monarchy allow the
    Deuteronomists to set up what is going to happen
    to Israel
  • Loss of focus and faithfulness to God
  • Corruption and authority issues
  • Shift from a Theocracy to Monarchy
  • Rule by God to a rule by humans
  • Israel was called to be a light to the nations
  • An example of how to live according to the Law
  • How could they be an example if they were like
    everyone else?
  • Monarchy would bring temporary stability and
    prosperity to Israel
  • Would be short-lived as experienced by Israelites
    living during the Exile

10
Saul is Anointed
  • Saul is a tall and handsome farmer
  • Samuel is told by God to look for a specific man,
    and the description fits Saul.
  • Samuel anoints Saul king
  • poured oil over his head, a symbolic action
  • God chooses the lowliest
  • Familiar theme about those who God chooses
  • Saul is not perfect and will make mistakes

11
Saul Stumbles
  • Saul brings the tribes together and defeats the
    Ammonites
  • Warned by Samuel that the victory was due to God
    and not to human efforts
  • Saul breaks the Law
  • Offers a pre-battle sacrifice
  • Only priests were allowed to offer sacrifice
  • Breaks the ban
  • Samuel declares the Saul will be rejected by God
  • The crown will be given to a more faithful leader
  • Sets the stage for the arrival of David
  • Soon conflict would return to the scene

12
Another Choice for King
  • Samuel is led to choose another king
  • Again, God will choose the humble, lowly
  • Samuel selects the youngest son of Jesse
  • David, who was tending sheep in the hills
  • Anointed secretly
  • Saul meets David, but does not realize that David
    has been anointed to be king
  • David plays the harp for Saul
  • Story of David and Goliath

13
Sauls Jealousy
  • Davids growing popularity begins to make Saul
    jealous
  • Saul attempts to trap and murder David who is
    able to escape
  • God is no longer aiding Saul
  • Even his children give their loyalty to David
  • Saul realizes that nothing will stop David from
    becoming king

14
David The Loyal Outlaw
  • Escaping from Saul, David flees to Nob
  • Tricks a priest into giving him food
  • Saul finds out and the city is destroyed
  • David realizes responsibility and repents
  • Saul follows David and almost catches him
  • Falls asleep and is seen by David
  • David does not kill Saul
  • Saul realizes that David is righteous and should
    be king
  • David is not a perfect hero
  • Deception and other actions that we will see
    later
  • David pledges loyalty to Saul and will not harm
    his descendants

15
Death of Saul
  • Sauls forces are defeated by the Philistines
  • Saul takes his own life
  • Or, did he???
  • 1 Samuel tells of Sauls suicide
  • 2 Samuel shows Saul persuading a solider to give
    him a death blow after being injured
  • David has the solider killed for violating the
    Lords anointed

16
Tribal Split
  • Northern tribes Israel
  • Southern tribes Judah
  • After Sauls death, Judah accepts David as their
    King, but the northern tribes do not.
  • They anoint Sauls son.
  • After Sauls son is murdered, David is anointed
    by all 12 tribes.
  • David establishes himself as king
  • conquers Jerusalem and establishes it as his
    capital city
  • Never belonged to one of the 12 tribes
  • Key strategic location (north vs. south)
  • Defeats the Philistines
  • Ending the Philistine threat solidified Davids
    power
  • Brings the Ark to Jerusalem

17
Davidic Covenant
  • Wants to build God a house
  • instead the Lord will build David a house
  • a throne that endures forever.
  • The prophets believe that the messiah will be of
    the line of David.
  • Messiah the anointed one
  • Jesus was referred to by New Testament writers as
    the christos
  • Greek word for messiah

18
David and Bathsheba
  • David sees Bathsheba, Uriahs wife, bathing and
    sends for her. Uriah is a soldier, off at battle.
  • When Bathsheba becomes pregnant, David tries to
    cover it up by calling Uriah home to spend time
    with his wife. Uriah refuses to return while men
    are on the battle field.
  • When he cannot cover up his sin, David has his
    general put Uriah on the front lines to ensure
    that he will be killed in battle.
  • David then marries Bathsheba, who will become the
    mother of Solomon.
  • The prophet Nathan forces David to repent for his
    sin.

19
Davids Legacy
  • Israel is united.
  • A nation like the other nations
  • Able to resist the Philistines
  • No worry about attack
  • Jerusalem key to defense
  • Royal line will endure forever
  • Model for future kings
  • Lineage of the messiah
  • Psalms

20
Solomon
  • I II Kings tell the stories of Israels decline
    as a nation.
  • Nathan (the prophet) and Bathsheba convince David
    to promise the throne to Solomon instead of to
    his oldest son Adonijah.
  • David, on his deathbed, counsels Solomon to kill
    off all his enemies.

21
Solomons Wisdom
  • As a young man, Solomon asks God for the wisdom
    to judge right from wrong. God is so pleased with
    this request that he promises Solomon not only
    wisdom, but also riches and glory.
  • The Test
  • Two prostitutes come before Solomon. The both had
    infant sons, though one of the women claims the
    other smothered her son in her sleep, and then
    exchanged the infants.
  • Solomon calls for a sword to divide the child and
    give half to each woman. The true mother then
    cries out to let the other woman have the child,
    rather than kill him.

22
Solomon Builds the Temple
  • Once Solomon becomes rich, he sets out to build
    the temple David told God he wanted to build.
  • Using a Canaanite architect, and 30,000
    conscripted workers, Solomon builds a temple and
    a palace.
  • God tells Solomon that if the Israelites forsake
    the covenant, the temple will be destroyed.

23
Solomons Sins
  • Solomon adds to his wealth and his harem
    eventually he goes from tolerating his wives
    pagan worship to worshipping with them.
  • Because he is unfaithful, Solomons line will
    lose the throne and all the tribes except Judah.
  • When Solomon dies, the decline of Israel is
    evident.
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