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Principles of Growth

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Wholistic Care--physical, emotional, cultural, cognitive, spiritual, social, ... Preschooler--Phallic. School-age--Latent. Sexual Identity--notices boys & girls ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Principles of Growth


1
Principles of Growth Development
  • Presented By
  • Christine Hicks

2
Nursing Process Overview
  • Assessment
  • History Taking with Child Parent
  • Observation
  • Use of Assessment Tools (such as)
  • Height Weight Charts
  • Developmental Milestones
  • Denver II
  • Vision Hearing Screenings

3
  • Nursing Diagnoses (examples)
  • Risk for altered growth development
  • Altered growth development
  • Family Coping
  • Altered Nutrition
  • Knowledge Deficit

4
  • Planning
  • Wholistic Care--physical, emotional, cultural,
    cognitive, spiritual, social, nutritional
  • Individualized NCP
  • Inclusion of Family members, Caregivers,
    Teachers

5
  • Implementation
  • Goal is to encourage age-appropriate self-care
    activities
  • Work closely with Parents
  • Nurse acts as a Role Model

6
  • Evaluation
  • On-going evaluation hopefully leads to early
    detection of problems

7
Role of the Nurse and Growth Development
  • Health Promotion Illness Prevention
  • Anticipatory Guidance
  • Safety
  • Screenings/Health Care

8
  • Health Restoration Maintenance
  • Patient Education
  • Affect of Illness on Physical Growth

9
Principles of Growth Development
  • Terms
  • Growth
  • Development/Maturation
  • Psychosexual
  • Psychosocial
  • Moral
  • Cognitive
  • Developmental Task

10
  • Patterns (p. 749)
  • Continuous
  • Proceeds in orderly sequence
  • Predictable stages/different rates
  • All body systems do not develop at same rate
  • Development is cephalocaudal
  • Development is proximal to distal

11
  • Gross to refined skills
  • Optimum time for experiences
  • Neonatal reflexes must be lost
  • Many behaviors/skills are learned by practice

12
Factors Influencing Growth Development
  • Genetics
  • Gender
  • Health
  • Intelligence
  • Temperment

13
  • Environment
  • Socioeconomic Level
  • Parent-Child Relationship
  • Ordinal Position in the Family
  • Health
  • Nutrition

14
  • Nutrition (p.753-754)
  • Variety of Foods
  • Balance Food Activity
  • Plenty of Grains, Vegetables, Fruits
  • Low in Fat, Saturated Fats Cholesterol
  • Moderation of Sugars, Salt Sodium

15
  • Patient Education in Nutrition
  • Use of Food Pyramid
  • Components of Healthy Diet
  • Vegetarian Diets
  • Alcohol Abuse

16
Theories of Development
  • Psychosexual--Freud
  • Psychosocial--Erikson
  • Cognitive--Piaget
  • Moral--Kohlberg

17
Freud
  • Id-Ego-Superego of Personality Development
  • Stages of Psychosexual Development

18
  • Id
  • Ego
  • Superego
  • Instinctual Drives
  • Individual/Reality
  • Society

19
Stages
  • Infant--Oral
  • Toddler--Anal
  • Explores world with mouth/tongue
  • Thumbsucking Breastfeeding
  • Control of urination defecation
  • Toilet Training

20
  • Preschooler--Phallic
  • School-age--Latent
  • Sexual Identity--notices boys girls
  • Questions about birth
  • Nonactive development

21
  • Adolescent--Genital
  • Establishes relationships with opposite sex
  • Dating

22
Erikson
  • Stages of Social Growth Development
  • Differences between Freud Erikson

23
  • Infant--Trust v. Mistrust
  • Toddler--Autonomy v. Shame
  • Love
  • Bonding
  • Independent
  • Makes Decisions
  • Expresses Opinion

24
  • Preschooler--Sense of Initiative v. Guilt
  • School-age--Sense of Industry v. Inferiority
  • Learns how to do things
  • Basic problem solving skills
  • Learns how to do things well
  • Rewards/Satisfaction

25
  • Adolescent--Sense of Identity v. Role Confusion
  • Body Image
  • Who he/she is
  • Emancipation
  • Career/College Choice
  • Values Strengthen

26
Piaget
  • Stages of Cognitive Development

27
  • Infant-2 Years--
  • Sensorimotor
  • Environment-Child Relationship
  • Hand-eye Coordination
  • Experiments
  • Memory
  • Imitation

28
  • 2-7 Years--
  • Perioperational Thought
  • Thought becomes more symbolic
  • Mental answers rather than physical
  • Concept of Time is Now
  • Concept of Distance is as far as Child can see

29
  • 7-12 Yrs--
  • Concrete Operational Thought
  • Systematic Reasoning
  • Uses memory for broad concepts
  • Classifications
  • Concept of Reverse

30
  • 12 Yrs--
  • Formal Operational Thought
  • Can solve hypothetical problems
  • Use of scientific reasoning
  • Cause Effect
  • Concept of Past, Present Future

31
Kohlberg
  • Stages of Moral Development

32
  • 2-3 Yrs--Preconventional Stage 1
  • 4-7 Yrs--Preconventional Stage 2
  • Punishment Obedience--needs clear instructions
  • Individualism--needs assistance with self-care

33
  • 7-10 Yrs--Conventional Stage 3
  • 10-12 Yrs-- Conventional Stage 4
  • Follows the rules wants to be good helps others
  • Maintenance of Social Order follows rules from
    authority has difficulty modifying procedure

34
  • Older than 2 Yrs--Postconventional
  • Stage 5
  • Stage 6
  • Social contract follows standards of society
  • Ethical principles follows internalized
    standards of conduct

35
Continuing Themes
  • Development of Play
  • Development of Language

36
Development of Play
  • Function of Play
  • Classification of Play
  • Age Characteristics of Play
  • Selection of Age-appropriate Toys Activities
  • Toy Safety

37
Development of Language
  • Prelinguistic Stage
  • Holophrastic Stage
  • Telegraphic Stage
  • Preschool Period
  • Middle Childhood Period

38
Continuing Threads
  • Nutrition
  • Family-Child Interaction/Family Functioning
  • Health Eduation
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