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Psychodynamic Therapies

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Id : Pleasure principle, primary process. Ego : Reality principle, secondary process ... Phallic stage : 4-5 yr. Initiative vs. Guilt. 4). Latency stage : 6-11 yr. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Psychodynamic Therapies


1
Psychodynamic Therapies
2
Freudian Psychoanalysis
  • Psychic determinism
  • Unconscious motivation
  • Early experiences
  • ? The Instincts
  • libido
  • life instinct (Eros)
  • death instinct (Thanatos)

3
  • ? The Structure
  • Id Pleasure principle, primary process
  • Ego Reality principle, secondary process
  • Superego 1). Ego ideal
  • 2). Conscience

4
  • ? The psychosexual stages (Freud) vs.
  • psychosocial stages (Erikson, 1963)
  • 1). Oral stage 0-1 yr.
  • Trust vs. Mistrust
  • 2). Anal stage 1-3 yr.
  • Autonomy vs. Shame Doubt
  • 3). Phallic stage 4-5 yr.
  • Initiative vs. Guilt

5
  • 4). Latency stage 6-11 yr.
  • Industry vs. Inferiority
  • 5). Genital stage 12-20 yr.
  • Ego identity vs. Role confusion
  • 6). Intimacy vs. Isolation 20-24 yr.
  • 7). Generativity vs. Stagnation 25-65 yr.
  • 8). Ego Integrity vs. Despair 65 yr.

6
  • ? Anxiety
  • 1). Reality anxiety
  • real danger from the outside world
  • 2). Neurotic anxiety
  • ego vs. id impulse
  • 3). Moral anxiety
  • ego vs. standards of the conscience
    (superego)

7
  • ? Mechanisms of Defense
  • the ego attempts to keep these conflicts and
    their discomfort from reaching consciousness by
    employing a variety of defense mechanisms,
    usually at an unconscious level
  • Repression ?? (Suppression)
  • Denial ??
  • Reaction Formation ????
  • Projection ??

8
  • Displacement ??
  • Rationalization ???
  • Sublimation ??
  • Regression ??
  • Introjection ??
  • Identification ??
  • Compensation ??
  • Rituals Undoing ?????

9
Goals of Psychoanalysis
  • 1). Intellectual and emotional insight into the
    underlying causes of the clients problems
  • 2). Working through or fully exploring the
    implications of those insight
  • 3). Strengthening the egos control over the id
    and the superego

10
Psychoanalytic treatment techniques
  • Free association
  • The use of dreams
  • Analysis of everyday behavior
  • Analysis of resistance
  • Analysis of the transference
  • Making analytic interpretation

11
Variations on Classical Psychoanalysis
  • ? Early Alternatives to Freudian Psychoanalysis
  • Individual Psychology (Alfred Adler)
  • Analytical Psychology (Carl Jung)
  • Will Therapy (Otto Rank)
  • Interpersonal Relations School (Harry Stack
    Sullivan)

12
  • ? Contemporary Psychodynamic Approaches
  • Ego Psychology (Anna Freud, Heinz Hartman,
    David Rappaport)
  • Object Relations Theory (Melanie Klein, Otto
    Kernberg, David Winnicott, W. R. D. Fairbairn,
    the British School)
  • Self Psychology (Heinz Kohut)
  • Short-term Psychodynamic Approaches (Wilhelm
    Stekel, Hans Strupp)
  • Postmodern Approaches (Robert Stolorow, George
    Atwood)

13
Humanistic Therapies
14
The Humanistic Approach
  • Phenomenological approach
  • behavior of each human being at any given
    moment is determined primarily by the persons
    unique perception of the world
  • Assumptions
  • 1). Human being are , thinking people who are
    individually responsible for what they do and
    fully capable of making choices about their
    behavior

15
  • 2). No one can understand another persons
    behavior without perceiving the world through
    that persons eyes
  • A reaction against Freud
  • Existentialist philosophers
  • Heidegger, Kierkeggard, Sartre.
  • Gestalt school
  • North America
  • each person possesses a potential for growth

16
Kellys Personal Construct Theory
  • George Kelly(1955)
  • Fundamental assumption
  • human behavior is determined by personal
    constructs, or ways of anticipating the world
  • Like Scientists
  • the major goal of human beings is to validate
    their personal constructs, and thus to make sense
    of the world as they perceived it

17
Rogerss Self Theory
  • Carl Rogers(1942, 1951,1961,1970)
  • The actualizing tendency
  • innate motive toward growth
  • Organismic vs. Self experiences
  • Incongruity
  • Conditions of worth
  • Distort reality in problematic ways

18
Maslow and Humanistic Psychology
  • Abraham Maslow(1954, 1962, 1971)
  • Self-Actualization
  • Need Hierarchy
  • Satisfaction of needs
  • Deficiency vs. growth motivation
  • Peak experiences

19
Perls and Gestalt Psychology
  • Fritz Perls(1947)
  • An instinct or tendency toward self-preservation
    and self-actualization
  • Ego as facilitating peoples growth and
    self-preservation by mediating conflicts between
    internal needs and environmental pressure
  • Awareness

20
Common Features in Humanistic Therapies
  • 1). Their clients lives can be understood only
    when viewed from the point of view of those
    clients (phenomenological world)
  • 2). View human beings not as instinct-driven
    creatures but as naturally good people who are
    able to make choices about their lives and
    determine their own destinies (self-actualization)

21
  • 3). View the therapeutic relationship as the
    primary vehicle
  • 4). Clients are regarded as equals
  • treat client as responsible individuals
  • 5). Emphasize the importance of experiencing and
    exploring emotions that are confusing or painful

22
Client-Centered Therapy
  • Carl Rogers
  • Nondirective Counseling
  • Conditions of worth force people to distort their
    real feeling, symptoms of disorder appear
  • If therapist (created what) then client
    (potential growth)
  • Growth-enhancing Relationship

23
Unconditional positive regard
  • Convey three messages
  • 1). Cares about the client
  • Nonpossessive caring
  • Willingness to listen is an important
    manifestation
  • patient, warm, interested
  • Dont interrupt, change the subject, give other
    sign

24
  • 2). Accepts the client
  • Unconditional accept clients as they are
    without judging them
  • Separate a clients worth as a person from the
    worth of the clients behavior
  • 3). Trusts the clients ability to change
  • Positive is reflected in the therapists
    trust in the clients potential for growth and
    problem-solving

25
Empathy
  • Accurate empathy or empathic understanding
  • React to clients external or internal frame of
    reference (Table 7.4 p.262)
  • Reflection, dual purpose
  • 1). Communicating the therapists desire for
    emotional understanding
  • 2). Making clients more aware of their own
    feelings
  • Distilling and playing back the clients feeling

26
Congruence
  • Genuineness
  • The therapists feelings and actions should be
    congruent
  • Promote trust

27
Gestalt therapy
  • Fritz Perls
  • Aim at enhancing clients awareness
  • Assimilate or re-own the genuine aspects of self
  • Taking Responsibility
  • Experience
  • More active and dramatic than client-centered
    treatment

28
  • Focus on the Here and Now
  • nowexperienceawarenessreality
  • Role-playing or part-taking
  • explore inner conflicts experience the
    symptoms, interpersonal games, psychological
    defenses
  • Frustrating the client
  • method of self exploration
  • help clients give up their maladaptive
    interpersonal roles games
  • hot seat

29
  • Use of nonverbal cues
  • pay special attention to what clients say and
    what they do
  • The use of dreams
  • are seen as messages from the client to him-
    or herself

30
  • Other methods
  • Force clients to take responsibility for their
    feelings
  • convert indirect questions into direct statements
  • Topdog-underdog dialogue
  • Empty chair technique
  • Unmailed letter technique
  • Role played reversals

31
Other Humanistic Therapies
  • Logotherapy Viktor Frankl
  • 1). Take responsibility for their feelings and
    actions
  • 2). Find meaning and purpose in their lives
  • Postmodern Approaches
  • postmodernism constructionist,
    intersubjectivist, or narrative approaches
  • therapist-as-collaborator
  • vs. therapist-as-erpert
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