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Ancient Israel


1400 Egypt at height. 1350-1250 Egypt & Hittites compete. 1220 Merneptah Stele: ... Most legislation found in the Pentateuch (5 books of Moses, the Torah) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Ancient Israel

Ancient Israel
  • HST 597 Ancient History
  • Prof. Marc Cooper

(No Transcript)
General Timeline
  • 1400 Egypt at height
  • 1350-1250 Egypt Hittites compete
  • 1220 Merneptah Stele earliest mention of
  • 1220-1180 Attacks of Sea People end of Egyptian
    empire in Syria
  • 1150-500 Era of small states
  • 850-612 Assyrian domination of Syria
  • 586 Babylonian conquest of Jerusalem
  • 332 Alexander destroys Tyre and takes Judea

  • History prior to 750 known only from Bible
  • According to tradition
  • 1400 Exodus from Egypt
  • 1400 1050 Judges
  • 1050-950 United Monarchy
  • 950-586 Split into Israel and Judah
  • 586-537 Babylonian Exile
  • 537-135 Persian/Seleucid Period
  • 135-4 BCE Hasmonean Period
  • 4 BCE-640 Roman/Byzantine Period

How did the Hebrew Bible come to be?
  • Hebrew prose tradition prior to the Exile.
  • Oldest work in Bible is possibly Deuteronomy.
  • Royal palace and temple kept accounts of the past
    and some records.
  • Little evidence for an oral tradition.
  • Tales developed around famous figures.
  • Authoritative copies of important books kept in
    temple during the Persian period.
  • A canon was created during the Hasmonean period.
  • Final set created at Yavneh Council 70-80 CE.

Early Hebrew Writing
  • Tell Dan inscription
  • Early historical narrative
  • Earliest mention of House of David
  • Other inscriptions
  • Letters
  • Seals

Ketif-Hinnom Amulet ca. 600 BCE
  • -h/hu. May be blessed h/sh-
  • -e by Yahweh,
  • the warrior/helper and
  • the rebuker of
  • Evil May bless you,
  • Yahweh,
  • keep you.
  • Make shine, Yah-
  • -weh, His face
  • upon you and g-
  • -rant you p-
  • -eace.

Major ideas
  • Monotheism Belief in one god
  • One law for all
  • One system of justice
  • One morality
  • Covenant between God and His People
  • God rewards and punishes corporately
  • Universal God Jonah story
  • Classless society equality before God
  • Revelation through text and prophets
  • Savior
  • End of times

Biblical law
  • Legal material found in many parts of the Hebrew
  • Most legislation found in the Pentateuch (5 books
    of Moses, the Torah)
  • Legislation often similar in form and content to
    Babylonian law codes
  • Babylonian law treats women as property
  • Hebrew law attempts to protect aliens
  • Hebrew law accepts but limits slavery
  • Hebrew law concentrates on ritual propriety
  • Private property in Babylonia vs. Hebrew natural
  • Differentiates on the basis of gender, age,
    culture (native and alien)

Ten Commandments
  • Found in
  • Exodus 201-17
  • Deuteronomy 56-21
  • Popularized by donations of plaques to promote
    The Ten Commandments

Ten Commandments
Which law is more egalitarian?
  • If a free man has struck the daughter of a free
    man and caused her to miscarry, he shall pay 10
    shekels for what was in her womb.
  • If that woman has died, they shall put to death
    his daughter.
  • Hammurabi
  • When men strive together, and hurt a woman with
    child, so that there is a miscarriage, and yet no
    harm follows, the one who hurt her shall be fined
    according as the womans husband shall lay upon
    him and he shall pay as the judge determines. If
    any harm follows, you shall give life for life .
    . .
  • Book of Exodus