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Overview

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Relations of culture to social structure, national policies, democracy, & development ... People: role players embedded in groups. Individuals inde-pendent actors ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Overview


1
Overview
  • 3 empirically based cultural dimensions
  • A cultural map of the world
  • Pace of cultural change
  • Relations of culture to social structure,
    national policies, democracy, development

2
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE
Ideal Individual / Group Relationship
People role players embedded in groups
Individuals inde-pendent actors
3
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE
Ideal way to elicit productive, cooperative,
activity in society
Hierarchical alloca-tion roles/resources
legitimate/desirable
Socialize Others morally equal transcend
selfish interests cooperate voluntarily
4
CULTURAL DIMENSIONS PROTOTYPICAL STRUCTURE
Regulate use of human and natural resources
fit harmoniously, avoid change self-assertion
master, control, change through assertive action
5
Data and Sources
  • 77 cultural groups, 74 countries, N55,022
  • Dominant cultural group average of teachers
    students in most
  • 45 value items with near equivalent meaning in
    within-country analyses
  • a priori items to index 7 orientations validated
    in culture level analysis

6
(No Transcript)
7
Cultural Map of World Regions
EMBEDDEDNESS
HARMONY
Muslim Middle East Sub-Saharan Africa
East-Central Baltic Europe Prot/Cath
EGALITARIANISM
South South East Asia
East Europe Orthodox
West Europe
Latin America
INTELLECTUAL AUTONOMY
Confucian
English Speaking
HIERARCHY
AFFECTIVE AUTONOMY
MASTERY
8
Correlates of Cultural Orientations Controlling
GNPpc, 50 Countries
  • GNPpc spent on health Aut, Egal, on defense
    Mast, Hier
  • Govt. accountability, antitrust enforcement,
    protecting investors rights Aut, Egal
  • Graft, corruption in business Emb, Hier
  • unemployment benefits, social security benefits
    Aut, Egal, Harm
  • times military acts used as primary response in
    foreign policy crisis 1945-2001 Mast
  • Level of internal violence in country Mast, Hier
  • Competitiveness vs cooperativeness of capitalism
    Mast, Hier

9
Culture Affects Political Economic Change
  • Path analyses
  • Aut/Emb Egal/Hier predict change in democracy
    85-95-02 mediates effect of country wealth
  • Aut/Emb predicts change in GNIpc 1993-2004
    (democracy does not)
  • Cultural distance influences international
    investment flows (e.g., 1s Egal distance 16 drop)

10
Change in Cultural Values
  • 21 countries, 36 Sample pairs
  • Average interval 7.1 yrs. (during 1988-99)
  • Countries undergoing major social change (China,
    Hong Kong, Poland, Hungary)
  • Correlations range .85 to .90
  • Relative Positions of Countries Change Slowly
  • Variance across samples unchanged on 7 orient.
  • No sign of cultural convergence

11
Conclusions
  • Cultural orientations inferred from mean values
    of individuals in societies have meaningful
    associations
  • World composed of cultural regions, linked by
    history, geography, economics, religion, etc.
  • Cultural value orientations influence important
    societal policies practices
  • Slow change in basic cultural value orientations
    no evidence for convergence
  • Cultural value orientations reciprocally cause
    key social structural political features of
    society
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