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Title: Michigan State University


1
Pest Management
  • Chapter 1
  • National Pesticide Applicator Certification
  • Core Manual

2
Pest Management
  • This module will help you
  • Understand the historical perspective of pest
    management
  • Know the main groups of pests
  • Learn about resources to identify specific pests
    and damage symptoms
  • Understand Integrated Pest Management (IPM)

3
Pest Management
  • This module will help you
  • Understand the significance of preventive
    measures
  • Understand pest population levels and
    environmental influences
  • Understand pesticide resistance and what causes
    pesticides to fail

4
What is a Pest?
  • Any organism that is detrimental to humans
  • destroys crops structures
  • poses threats to human health and livestock
  • reduces aesthetic and recreational value
  • Pests include insects, mites, plant pathogens,
    weeds, mollusks, fish, birds, and mammals

5
Four Major Pest Categories
  • 1 - Weeds undesirable plants

6
Four Major Pest Categories
  • 2 - Invertebrates, such as
  • Insects
  • Spiders and mites
  • Sowbugs, pillbugs
  • Snails, slugs, and mussels

7
Four Major Pest Categories
  • 3 Vertebrates, such as
  • Birds
  • Snakes
  • Fish
  • Rodents and other mammals

8
Four Major Pest Categories
  • 4 - Plant Diseases
  • Pathogens living agents
  • Fungi
  • Bacteria
  • Viruses
  • Nematodes
  • Phytoplasmas
  • Non-living agents cold, heat, pollutants, dog
    urine

9
Pest Identification is Critical
  • Understand that all stages of a pest do not look
    the same
  • Know the host of the pest
  • Use books, extension bulletins, field guides,
    Web, etc.
  • Have pests examined by specialists
  • Handle samples carefully

10
Natural Controls
  • Wind
  • Temperature
  • Humidity, rain
  • Rivers, lakes, mountains
  • Pathogens, predators
  • Food supply of the pest

11
Human-applied Controls
  • Biological
  • Mechanical
  • Cultural
  • Physical
  • Genetic
  • Chemical
  • Regulatory

12
What is Biological Control?
  • Usually, pests are not native to area
  • Locate pests native homeland and find natural
    enemies
  • Before releasing natural enemy, evaluate if
    suitable
  • Rear, release, redistribute

C. Soder
13
Using Biological Control
  • Periodic mass release from cultures
  • Natural areas, greenhouses, orchards
  • Recognize naturally-occurring organisms
  • Manage to conservenative beneficials
  • Avoid broad-spectrum insecticides
  • Use non-chemical strategies

14
Applied Control Mechanical
  • Use of devices, machines, and other physical
    methods to reduce pest populations or to alter
    the environment

15
Mechanical Cultivation
  • Disrupt soil conditions for weeds and insects
  • Hoes
  • Plows
  • Disks
  • Control growth or destroy plants
  • Mowers

16
Mechanical Exclusion
  • Prevent pests from entering or traveling
  • Nets, screens, air curtains
  • Caulking, steel wool
  • Metal tree collars
  • Sticky materials
  • Sharp objects

17
Mechanical Trapping
  • Use of mechanical or sticky device
  • Captures pests in a holding device
  • Restrains the pest
  • Kills the pest

18
Applied Control Cultural
Alter conditions or pest behaviors
  • Mowing
  • Irrigation
  • Aeration
  • Fertilization
  • Mulching
  • Tolerant crop varieties
  • Planting timing
  • Crop rotation
  • Trap crops

19
Applied Control Cultural
  • Sanitation eliminate food, water, and shelter
  • destroy infected crop residues or infected
    ornamental plant materials
  • weed to reduce pest harborage
  • manage manure
  • seal garbage cans
  • remove soil near siding

20
Applied Control Physical
  • Alter physical environment
  • humidity
  • temperature
  • air movement
  • water
  • light

21
Applied Control Chemical
  • Pesticide any material that is applied to kill,
    attract, repel, or regulate pests
  • Disinfectants, fungicides, herbicides,
    insecticides, repellents, defoliants, piscicides,
    etc.
  • Advantages effective, fast, easy

22
Pesticides vary by
  • Mode of action how they work to control the
    pest
  • Systemic pesticides are absorbed through tissues
    and transported elsewhere where the pest
    encounters it through feeding
  • Used on plants or livestock
  • Contact pesticides must come in direct contact
    with the target pest

23
Pesticides vary by
  • Selectivity what range of pests they affect
  • Non-selective kills all related pests for
    example some herbicides kill all green plant that
    gets a sufficient dose
  • Selective kills only certain weeds, insects,
    plant pathogens for example other herbicides
    only kill broadleaf weeds not grasses

24
Pesticides vary by
  • Persistence how long they remain active in the
    environment
  • Residual pesticides remain active for weeks,
    months, years for example herbicides used
    around road guard rails
  • Non-residual inactivated immediately or within
    a few days for example some herbicides do not
    remain active in the soil once applied

25
Regulatory Pest Control
  • Quarantine prevents pests from entry to an area
    or movement from infested areas.
  • Monitor airports, ocean ports, borders
  • Nursery stocks and other plant materials
  • Eradication programs eliminate a pest from a
    defined area
  • Mosquito Abatement used for public health

26
Integrated Pest ManagementIPM a balanced,
tactical approach
  • Anticipates and prevents damage
  • Uses several tactics in combination
  • Improves effectiveness, reduces side effects
  • Relies on identification, measurement,
    assessment, and knowledge

27
Why Practice IPM?
  • Maintains balanced ecosystems
  • Pesticides alone may be ineffective
  • Promotes a healthy environment
  • Saves money
  • Maintains a good public image

28
Integrated Pest Management is Driven by Decisions
  • Identify the pest and know its biology
  • Monitor and survey for pests
  • Set IPM goal prevent, suppress, eradicate
  • Implement
  • Select control strategies
  • Timing
  • Economics
  • Environmental impacts
  • Regulatory restrictions
  • Evaluate

IPM
29
Components of IPM1. Identify and Understand
  • Is it a pest, beneficial, or just there?
  • Study pest biology
  • Pest classification
  • Life cycle
  • Over-wintering stage
  • Damage impacts
  • Environmental needs
  • Vulnerable control stages/timing

30
Components of IPM1. Identify and Understand
  • Key pests
  • Prior knowledge of which common pests may pose
    a problem
  • Recognition of damage symptoms
  • Recognition of diseases
  • Recognition of beneficial insects
  • Frequent monitoring

31
Components of IPM2. Monitor the Pest
  • Use scouting, trapping, weather data, models
  • Economics or aesthetics trigger need for action
  • Pest population
  • Beneficial population
  • Geographic location
  • Plant variety
  • Plant type stage of growth
  • Cost of control measure(s)
  • Value of plant or crop

How many pests need to be present before
action is taken?
32
Components of IPM2. Monitor the Pest
  • Action threshold unacceptable pest level do
    something
  • Sometimes the action threshold may be zero!
  • Action thresholds vary by pest, site, and season

6 aphids per wheat plant no problem - no
action 15 aphids per wheat plant hits the
pocketbook - take action
33
Treatment or Action Threshold
  • Economic Threshold
  • pest population density when control is necessary
    to prevent economic injury
  • Economic Injury Level
  • when the cost of losses equals the cost of
    control measures
  • Apply control measure prior to reaching economic
    injury level

Pest Population
Time
0
34
Components of IPM3. Develop the IPM Goal
  • Prevention weed-free seed, resistant plants,
    sanitation, exclusion, pesticide treatments
  • Suppressionreduction cultivation, biological
    control, pesticides
  • Eradicationelimination small, confined areas,
    or government programs

35
Components of IPM4. Implement the IPM Program
  • Make sure you have taken initial steps
  • Identification and monitoring
  • Set action thresholds
  • Know what control strategies will work
  • Select effective and least harmful methods!
  • Observe all local, state, federal regulations!

36
Components of IPM5. Record and Evaluate Results
  • Know what worked and what did not
  • Some aspects may be slow to yield results
  • Might be ineffective or damaging to the target
    crop, beneficial insects, etc.
  • Use gained knowledge in future planning efforts

37
Considerations for Pesticide Use
  • Identify the pest and select the appropriate
    product
  • old or new infestation
  • Avoid developing resistant pest populations
  • If using pesticides, use the correct application
    rate (dose) and timing

38
Pesticide Resistancethe ability of a pest to
tolerate a pesticide that once controlled it
  • Intensive pesticide use kills susceptible pests
    in a population, leaving some resistant ones to
    reproduce
  • Use of similar modes of action
  • Frequency of applications
  • Persistence of the chemical
  • Pest rate of reproduction offspring numbers

39
Q1. Which of the following are legally
classified as pesticides? 1. insecticides 2.
nematicides 3. growth regulators 4.
disinfectants
  • A. 1 only
  • B. 1 and 2 only

C. 1, 2, and 4 only D. 1, 2, 3, and 4
40
Q2. You have used a selective herbicide to
manage a weed infestation. You are concerned
that the weeds are herbicide-resistant. What
tactic should you consider to control resistant
weeds?1. use a herbicide with a different mode
of action2. use cultivation strategies to manage
the weed3. use the same herbicide, but apply at
double the highest label rate4. mix in a
spreader-sticker with the same herbicide
and apply using smaller droplets to achieve
better coverage
  • A. 1 and 2 only
  • B. 2 and 3 only

C. 1 and 4 only D. 2 and 4 only
41
Q3. Following are two scenarios that employ the
same pest control strategy. 1. Draining standing
water to manage for mosquitoes. 2. Closing
garbage lids to eliminate food access by rodents.
What type of pest control strategy was
employed? A. Exclusion B. Sanitation C.
Biological D. Mechanical
42
Federal Pesticide Laws
Chapter 2 National Pesticide Applicator
Certification Core Manual
43
Federal PesticideLaws
  • This module will help you
  • Understand key federal laws and regulations
  • Understand the importance of good record keeping

44
Federal Pesticide Laws
  • Are meant to protect public health and the
    environment
  • Regulate registration, labeling, sales,
    distribution, transport., storage, application,
    disposal, food safety

45
FIFRA
  • Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, Rodenticide Act
  • Enacted by U.S. Congress in 1947
  • Administered by the Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA)

46
EPA Important facts
  • The EPA can stop the sale or use of any pesticide
    at any time
  • Labeling and packaging must be consistent
    throughout the U.S.
  • State law can be more restrictive than federal
    law!

47
The EPA
  • Approves pesticide labels as LEGAL documents
  • Reevaluates older pesticides under current
    standards
  • Violators are subject to penalties

48
Pesticide Classification
  • General Use (or unclassified use)
  • normally lower toxicity
  • no special licenses or permits required
  • Restricted Use (RUP)
  • may cause adverse effects to human health or the
    environment
  • must be stated on the federal label
  • sold only to certified applicators
  • applied only by certified applicators or
    employees under their direct supervision

49
Pesticide Classification
General orUnclassified Use
Restricted Use
50
Private Applicator
  • a certified applicator producing an agricultural
    commodity on owned, rented, or leased property or
    his employers agricultural property

FIFRA Category states may use different name!
51
Commercial Applicator
  • a certified applicator operating on any other
    private or public property

FIFRA Category states may differ!
52
Certified Applicators
  • Only certified applicators or individuals under
    their direct supervision may mix, load, apply or
    direct the use of restricted use pesticides
  • Check to make sure direct supervision is allowed
    in your state

53
Certified Applicators
  • Certification requires applicators to demonstrate
    broad-based knowledge and competency in
    understanding label language, pesticide use and
    handling.

54
Label Rules of Thumb
  • The site must be stated on the label
  • The target pest does not need to be listed
  • Any application method may be used, unless
    prohibited by the label
  • Applications may be made at a rate less than that
    stated on the label, not more!
  • Tank mixtures are OK, unless the label says
    otherwise

55
State Pesticide Laws
  • State lead agencies enforce both federal and
    state pesticide laws
  • Commonly the Dept. of Agriculture or the
    environmental conservation agency
  • State law is often more restrictive than federal
    law
  • Applicators are responsible for knowing the law,
    even when it changes. Stay informed!

56
Pesticide Registrations
  • Any product that claims to control, repel,
    attract, mitigate a pest
  • Standard Section 3
  • Special Local Need 24c
  • Emergency Exemption section 18
  • Minimum Risk no registration required
  • Experimental Use Permits

57
Pesticide Reregistration
  • EPA reviews older pesticides every 15 years
  • Products must meet safety standards according to
    the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996
  • All products are screened for all routes of
    exposure in determining safe levels of residues
    in food

58
Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA)
  • establishes food residue tolerances only when
    there is reasonable certainty of no harm
  • considers cumulative exposures
  • considers greater risks to infants and children
  • mandates the review of older pesticides under new
    standards every 15 years
  • mandates testing for endocrine disruption
  • linked to sexual, behavioral, developmental,
    reproductive problems

59
Residues Tolerances
  • EPA regulates residues and tolerances
  • Residue the amount of pesticide that remains on
    food or feed at time of harvest
  • Tolerance the maximum legal amount of residue
    that is allowed to remain on or in treated crops
    or animals thats sold for food or feed

60
Violations of Federal Law
  • Violation Distributing, selling, or delivering
    an unregistered pesticide
  • Violation Advertising not in accordance with
    the label specifications
  • Violation Selling a registered product if its
    content does not conform with the label
    information

61
Violations of Federal Law
  • Violation Selling adulterated or misbranded
    pesticide
  • Violation Detaching, altering, or defacing a
    container or label
  • Violation Forbidding EPA inspections
  • Violation Making a guarantee or recommendation
    that does not conform to the label
  • Violation Inaccurate record keeping

62
Violations of Federal Law
  • Violation Making a restricted-use pesticide
    available to a non-certifiedapplicator
  • Violation Advertising a restricted use
    pesticide without telling the audience
  • Violation Using a pesticide in any manner
    inconsistent with its label!

63
The Worker Protection Standard (WPS - agriculture
only)
  • Employers must provide protections against
    possible harm from pesticides
  • Reduces pesticide risks to
  • agricultural workers
  • pesticide handlers
  • Applies to owners and operators who apply
    pesticides on agricultural lands, as well as
    consultants

64
The Endangered Species Act
  • Administered by U.S. Fish Wildlife Service
  • Must not harm endangered or threatened species or
    their habitat
  • it's illegal to kill, harm or collect endangered
    or threatened fish, plants, or wildlife
  • EPA must ensure pesticide use will not harm
    endangered and threatened species

Karner Blue Butterfly
Piping Plover
65
Endangered Species Protection Program
  • Administered by state lead agencies and the EPA
  • Labels direct applicators to consult a county
    bulletin to check for special restrictions

66
Endangered Species Protection Program
  • Must ensure pesticide use does not harm the
    threatened or endangered species or their habitat
  • Precautionary measures may include buffer strips,
    reduced application rates, timing restrictions
    and prohibited use in specific areas

Smallmouth Salamander
Redside Dace
67
Keeping Records
  • EPA administers federal laws for commercial
    applicators
  • USDA enforces federal laws for private
    applicators
  • State and local governments may have more strict
    requirements

68
Michigan LawsChapter 2
  • This module will help you
  • Understand key State of Michigan laws and
    regulations
  • Understand the importance of compliance with
    federal and state laws.

69
Michigan Pesticide Laws
  • Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
    Act No. 451, Part 83 Pesticide Control
  • Regulation 636 Pesticide Applicators
  • Regulation 637 Pesticide Use
  • Regulation 640 Commercial Pesticide Bulk
    Storage
  • Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
    Act No. 451, Part 87 Groundwater and Freshwater
    Protection
  • Natural Resources Environmental Protection Act
    No. 451, Part 111 Hazardous Waste Management
  • Michigan Occupational Safety and Health Act 154

70
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act. No. 451, Part 83 Pesticide Control
  • Gives the MDA (Michigan Department of
    Agriculture) the authority to
  • Regulate the distribution and sale of pesticides.
  • Set fees, including protection fees and any
    penalties.
  • Cancel or suspend use of a pesticide.
  • Maintain registration and register pesticides for
    special local needs (Section 24c of FIFRA).
  • Issue, prescribe terms, or revoke experimental
    use permits.
  • License restricted-use pesticide (RUPs) dealers.

71
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act. No. 451, Part 83 Pesticide Control (cont.)
  • Applicators must meet at least one of the
    following requirements in order to qualify for a
    commercial applicator business license
  • Service not less than 2 application seasons as an
    employee of a commercial applicator or comparable
    education and experience.
  • A Bachelors Degree in an area that covers
    pest/pest control education and one application
    season of service as an employee of commercial
    applicator.

72
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act No. 451, Part 83 Pesticide Control (cont.)
  • Requires certification of applicators
  • Must pay a fee and take the appropriate exams.
  • Must be at least 18 years old.
  • Must renew credentials every three years.

73
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act. No. 451, Part 83 Pesticide Control (cont.)
  • Defines requirements of pesticide applications
    for schools and licensed child care centers
  • Must have an Integrated Pest Management Program
    (IPM).
  • Advanced notification of pesticide application
    provided to parents and guardians.
  • No liquid spray or aerosol insecticide
    applications unless the room will be unoccupied
    for over four hours or longer refer to
    pesticide label use directions.

74
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act. No. 451, Part 83 Pesticide Control (cont.)
  • It is illegal to use pesticides that are not
    registered in Michigan.
  • It is illegal to use pesticides that are
    misbranded, have altered labels, or make false
    claims about uses, qualities, benefits or safely.

75
Regulation 636Pesticide Applicators
  • Establishes the two types of certified
    applicators private and commercial.
  • Defines state pesticide recordkeeping
    requirements.
  • Provides exemptions from some provisions for
    incidental use.

76
Regulation 636Pesticide Applicators
  • Pesticide recordkeeping requirements
  • General-use pesticide application one year
  • RUP three years
  • Must include
  • Name and concentration of the pesticide and EPA
    registration number
  • Target pest or purpose
  • Date of application
  • Address or location of application
  • Method and rate of application

77
Regulation 637Pesticide Use
  • Sets the standards for pesticide use
  • Registry of persons who must be notified before
    application can occur on adjacent properties
  • Use of containment structures
  • Acceptable means of pesticide disposal
  • Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and minimum
    requirements
  • Avoidance of off-target drift and use of drift
    management plans

78
Regulation 637Pesticide Use
  • Standards for pesticide use (cont.)
  • Posting and notification requirements of treated
    areas.
  • Requires commercial service agreements.
  • Prohibits false claims regarding pesticide safety.
  • Requires commercial applicator training in
    integrated pest management and use of IPM
    programs.
  • Sets the appropriate procedures for applying
    commercial pesticides in and around schools and
    day care centers.

79
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act No. 451, Part 87Groundwater and Freshwater
Protection
  • Allows MDA to satisfy EPAs requirements for
    state management plans (SMP) which promotes
  • Pesticide education.
  • Technical assistance.
  • Cost-share programs for persons interested in
    joining a groundwater stewardship program.
  • For information, contact MDA Environmental
    Stewardship Division.

80
Natural Resources and Environmental Protection
Act No. 451, Part 111Hazardous Waste Management
Strict hazardous waste disposal and handling
requirements must be followed.
  • Triple-rinsed or power-rinsed pesticide
    containers can be recycled at a Michigan Clean
    Sweep pesticide container recycling sites.
  • No free liquids can be placed in any landfill in
    the state.
  • Rinsate must be disposed of properly, i.e.
    applying rinsate at or below label rates.
  • Report spills and discharges to the Pollution
    Emergency Alerting System (PEAS)
  • 1-800-292-4706

81
Q1. Which federal agency sets pesticide
tolerances?
  • Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
  • US Department of Agriculture (USDA)
  • Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
  • Occupational Safety and Health Administration
    (OSHA)

82
Q2. Who can legally purchase a restricted use
herbicide? 1. certified private applicator 2.
certified commercial applicator 3. farmer 4.
government employee
  • A. 1 only
  • B. 1 and 2 only

C. 1 and 3 only D. 3 and 4 only
83
Q3. The Worker Protection Standard affects which
groups who apply pesticides?
  • Private applicators
  • Commercial turf and landscape applicators
  • Commercial seed treaters
  • Commercial rights of way applicators

84
Pesticide Labeling
  • Chapter 3
  • National Pesticide Applicator Certification
  • Core Manual

85
Pesticide Labeling
  • This module will help you
  • Understand the basis behind pesticide labels
  • Read a pesticide label and understand names,
    ingredients, formulations, signal words,
    precaution statements, and environmental hazard
    statements
  • Understand directions for mixing and loading,
    application, storage, and disposal

86
Labels and Labeling
  • Pesticide users must comply with all label
    instructions!
  • Labeling the label itself, plus all other
    information referenced on the label or received
    from the manufacturer (brochures and leaflets)

87
The Environmental Protection Agency
  • EPA reviews every pesticide product
  • EPA may require labeling changes
  • EPA must approve labeling language

88
What happens before you see a pesticide label?
  • Manufacturers conduct scientific tests
  • toxicity or toxicological tests
  • efficacy or performance tests
  • degradation (breakdown), mobility residue
  • effects on non-target species and the environment
  • EPA reviews the data and the label

89
Pesticide Registration
  • Section 3 - standard registration
  • Minimum-risk pesticides are exempted from
    registration under FIFRA Section 25 (b)
  • Requested by states
  • Section 24 (c) - special local needs
  • Section 18 - emergency exemptions

90
Read the label before
  • Buying the pesticide
  • Storing the pesticide
  • Mixing and applying the pesticide
  • Disposing of unused pesticide and empty containers

91
Trade, Brand, or Product Name
  • The brand name PLANTGUARD 50W indicates the
    registered trade name is PLANTGUARD, it is
    formulated as a wettable powder, and it contains
    50 active ingredient

PLANTGUARD 5OW ORNAMENTAL FUNGICIDE UNIRAY CHEMI
CAL
92
Ingredient Statement
  • Active ingredients (ai) chemicals responsible
    for pesticidal activity or perform desired
    function
  • Inert ingredients usually not named, but their
    percentage of total contents must be shown, have
    no pesticidal activity

SEVIN
COMPOSITION Active Ingredients ( by weight)
Carbaryl (1-naphthyl N-methylcarbamate)..........
................................................20
.0 Inert Ingredients............................
..................................................
.........................80.0 Total.............
..................................................
..................................................
.....100.0
93
Chemical Name
  • identifies chemical components and structure of
    the active ingredient

94
Common Name
  • Short version of the chemical name
  • Examples carbaryl, imidacloprid, dichlobenil,
    glyphosate, 2,4-D, permethrin, chlorothalonil
  • Purchase pesticides according to their common
    names!

95
Use Classification StatementRestricted Use or
Unclassified/General Use
96
Type of Pesticide
  • Pesticides include
  • Insecticide insects
  • Herbicide weeds, brush, trees
  • Disinfectant germs
  • Label indicates what the pests the product will
    control

97
Net Contents
  • Each container states the total amount of product
  • Expressed as pounds, ounces, gallons, pints, etc.
  • Determine total active ingredient per container,
    use rate of active ingredient in container
  • Dry formulations use Ai
  • Liquids use the lb Ai/gal equivalent on the
    label

98
Required Label Information
  • Name and address of manufacturer
  • EPA registration number, except 25(b)
  • identifies manufacturer and specific product
  • EPA establishment number
  • identifies the facility that produced the
    product

99
Signal Words and Symbols
  • Signal words indicate the relative acute toxicity
    to humans and animals
  • Very low toxicity signal words not
    required
  • Keep Out of Reach of Children

100
Choose the least toxic chemical that gives the
desired level of control!
101
Precautionary Statements
102
Specific Action Statements many products are
hazardous in more than one way--read carefully!
Causes irreversible eye damage. Wear goggles or
face shield when handling. Harmful if swallowed,
inhaled or absorbed through skin. Do not get in
eyes, on skin or on clothing. Avoid breathing
dust. Prolonged or frequently repeated skin
contact with this product may cause allergic skin
reactions in some individuals. Wash thoroughly
with soap and water after handling.
103
Protective Clothing and Equipment (PPE)
  • Follow all directions stated on the label!
  • Lack of a statement does NOT mean you do not need
    further protection

PROTECTIVE CLOTHING REQUIREMENTS When making
applications, applicators must wear a
long-sleeved shirt, long pants, mid-forearm
length protective gloves and protective boots. In
addition, a protective apron and goggles or face
shield must be worn during mixing/loading.
104
Statement of Practical Treatment
  • First-aid treatments for poisoning or accidental
    exposure

STATEMENT OF PRACTICAL TREATMENT IF IN EYES
Hold eyelids open and flush with a steady stream
of water for 15 minutes. Get medical
attention. IF SWALLOWED Call a physician or
Poison Control Center. Drink 1 or 2 glasses of
water and induce vomiting by touching back of
throat with finger, or if available, by
administering syrup of Ipecac. Do not induce
vomiting or give anything by mouth to an
unconscious person. IF INHALED Remove victim to
fresh air. If not breathing, give artificial
respiration, preferably mouth-to-mouth. Get
medical attention. IF ON SKIN Wash with plenty
of soap and water. Get medical attention.
105
Environmental Hazard Statements
  • Provides information on environmental impacts
    associated with the pesticide

ENVIRONMENTAL HAZARDS This product is extremely
toxic to aquatic and estuarine invertebrates. Do
not contaminate water by cleaning equipment or
disposal of wastes. BEE CAUTION MAY KILL
HONEYBEES IN SUBSTANTIAL NUMBERS. This product is
highly toxic to bees exposed to direct treatment
or residues on blooming crops or weeds. Do not
apply this product or allow it to drift to
blooming crops or weeds if bees are visiting the
treatment area.
106
Agricultural Use Requirements
  • Required on products covered by WPS
  • The Worker Protection Standard (WPS) requires
    training, notification, emergency assistance,
    protective equipment
  • Restricted-entry Interval (REI) the time that
    must pass between an application and the reentry
    of unprotected workers

107
Agricultural Use Requirements
  • No agricultural employee can enter least 4 hours
    after the application. After 4 hours but before
    the REI has expired, early enter workers must
    wear PPE
  • Non agricultural labels No REI statement
    listed? Wait until sprays have dried or dusts
    have settled

108
Find this statement on the label
109
Storage and Disposal
  • Provides general instructions for storage and
    disposal of the pesticide and its container

110
Directions for Use
instructions on how to use the product
  • Will tell you
  • Crops or sites intended for protection
  • Pests the manufacturer claims the product will
    control
  • How to mix and apply the product
  • Phytotoxicity and other effects
  • How to minimize drift

111
(No Transcript)
112
Material Safety Data Sheets(MSDS)
  • Manufacturers required to develop and provide
    upon request for each product
  • Get from your dealer
  • Details a products composition, properties,
    hazards, first-aid procedures
  • Companies required to keep MSDS for workers in
    contact with the substance

113
Parts of MSDS
  • Chemical product information (active and inert
    ingredients)
  • Physical and chemical properties
  • Solubility, vapor pressure, stability,
    freezing/boiling point
  • Fire and explosion hazards
  • Toxicological Information/ Human Health Data
  • Acute, chronic, and delayed toxicity,
    carcinogenicity, teratogenicity
  • Personal Protective equipment
  • Other information similar to pesticide label

114
Q1. Which of the following is an allowable
deviation from the label? 1. applying at a
greater application rate 2. applying at a
greater dilution 3. tank mixing pesticide with
a fertilizer 4. using chemigation, even it is
not specified on the label
C. 2 and 3 only D. 2 and 4 only
  • A. 1 and 2 only
  • B. 1 and 3 only

115
Q2. Pesticides that have high acute toxicity and
cause corrosive eye damage would display which of
the following signal words ?
116
Q3. Which of the following are examples of
Precautionary Statements Hazards to Humans and
Domestic Animals? 1. Fatal if swallowed 2.
Poisonous if inhaled 3. Causes skin and eye
irritation 4. This product is highly toxic to
bees
117
Pesticide Formulations
Chapter 4 National Pesticide Applicator
Certification Core Manual
118
Pesticide Formulations
  • This module will help you
  • Recognize formulation abbreviations
  • Identify formulation advantages and
    disadvantages
  • Understand role of adjuvants

119
Important Definitions
  • Active Ingredient (Ai) - the actual chemical in
    the product mixture that controls the pest
  • Inert Ingredient - other materials added with the
    AI when the product is formulated
  • Phytotoxicity - plant damage
  • Adjuvant - product added to spray tank to assist
    pesticide in its application

120
Pesticide Formulation
active ingredient (Ai) each Ai will be listed

inert ingredients
water, emulsifiers solvents, dry carrier material
stabilizers, dye surfactants spreaders,
stickerswetting agents
121
Pesticide Spray Batch
Pesticide Formulation

Water or oil Spray additivesAdjuvants
122
Adjuvant
  • The term adjuvant basically means additive (you
    need to memorize it)
  • Formulation additive
  • Additive which is soldseparately to mix with
    theproduct when tank mixing
  • Labels will often recommend to add an adjuvant
  • Include surfactants, spreaders, wetting agents,
    colorant dyes, buffers, antifoaming agents,
    safeners, etc.

123
Adjuvantspurchased additives to add to tank mix
or added during formulation process
Surfactants - group
Others
  • Buffers
  • Compatibility agents
  • Defoaming agents
  • Colorants/dyes
  • Safeners
  • Thickeners
  • Wetting agents
  • Spreaders
  • Emulsifiers
  • Stickers/Extenders

124
Deciphering the Ai Code in Product Names
80SP 80 active ingredient by weight Soluble
Powder
40DF 40 active ingred. Dry Flowable
125
Brand Name Abbreviations
  • Often brand names include abbreviations that
    describe something about the formulation

WSP water soluble packet ULV ultra low
volume RTU ready to use GL gel LO low odor
D dust G granular SP soluble powder S
solution WP wettable powder EC
emulsifiable concentrate DF dry
flowable WDG water dispersible granule
126
Selecting a Formulation
  • Evaluate advantages and disadvantages
  • Do you have the right application equipment?
  • Can the formulation be applied when and where it
    is needed?
  • Will the formulation reach the target pest and be
    there long enough?

127
Spray Mix Terminology
  • solution
  • suspension
  • emulsion

128
Solution
Active Ingredient Either liquid or dry substance
TRULY dissolves in water just like sugar or
whiskey in water usually transparent
129
Suspension
Solid particles suspended in a liquid like hot
chocolate
agitation required
130
Emulsion
One liquid dispersed within another liquid like
milk
Ai is dissolved in oil (oil/ai droplet) and mixed
with an emulsifier Ai/Oil mixture is suspended in
water forming a white emulsion
131
Liquid Formulations
  • Emulsifiable Concentrate (E or EC)

Active ingredient (liquid) dissolved in a
petroleum-based solvent with an emulsifier added
Turns white when mixed Smells of solvents
132
Liquid Formulations
Emulsifiable Concentrate (E or EC) High Ai
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
  • Phytotoxic plant injury
  • Easily absorbed by the skin
  • Flammable
  • Deterioration of rubber and plastic hoses
  • Easy to handle
  • Little agitation
  • Relatively easy on equipment
  • Leaves little residue

133
Liquid Formulations
Solutions (S)
Ai dissolves in liquid carrier once mixed with
water, solutions do not settle out
134
Liquid Formulations
Solutions (S)
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
  • None
  • Easy to handle
  • No agitation
  • Easy on equipment
  • No residue
  • Used indoors/outdoors

135
Liquid Formulations
Ready-to-Use Low Concentrate Solutions (RTU)
  • Easy and relatively safe to handle
  • Less than 1 per unit volume of active
    ingredient high cost

136
Liquid Formulations
Ultra-Low Volume (ULV)
  • Special-purpose formulation
  • Almost 100 active ingredient
  • Agriculture, forestry, mosquito control

137
Liquid Formulations
Aerosols (A)
  • Some are ready-to-use
  • Little active ingredient
  • High drift potential
  • Some require highly specialized equipment
  • Difficult to confine
  • Respiratory protection needed

138
Dry Formulations
Baits (B)
A bait is an example of a dry or liquid product
that is applied without mixing
139
Dry or Solid Formulations
Baits (B)
ADVANTAGES
DISADVANTAGES
  • Attractive to children
  • May kill domestic animals and wildlife
  • Dead pest odors
  • Old bait may serve as food source if inactive
  • Ready to use
  • Coverage not critical
  • Control pest that move in and out of area

140
Dry Formulations
Pastes (P), Gels (GL)
A bait formulated as a paste or gel that is
applied with a syringe or bait gun
  • Odorless
  • Minimal exposure
  • Easy to place
  • Melt at high temperatures
  • May stain porous surfaces
  • Repeat application can create unsightly buildup

141
Dry or Solid Formulations
Dusts (D) and Granules (G)
  • Ready-to-use
  • Can reach hard to get places
  • Very little active ingredient
  • Very fine, dry inert carrier
  • High drift potential
  • Distribution and calibration a problem
  • Dusts Irritating to eyes, nose, throat, skin

142
Dry Formulations Water
  • Buy Dry --gt Mix with water -gt Spray
  • Wettable Powders (WP)
  • Water Dispersible Granules (WDG)
  • Dry Flowables (DF)

143
Dry Formulations
Wettable Powders (WP or W)
Wettable powders settle out quickly, therefore
require constant agitation in the spray tank
diluted
product
144
Dry Formulations
Water-dispersible Granules (WDG) or Dry
Flowables (DF)
These materials possess some of the same
characteristics as wettable powders except they
are formulated into granular-sized particles, so
are easier to handle with little inhalation hazard
product
diluted
145
Other Formulations
  • Microencapsulated
  • High toxicity Ai in encased formulation
  • Water-soluble packets
  • No human exposure when mixing

146
Other Formulations
Fumigants
  • Active as a poisonous gas, penetrates cracks,
    crevices, and stored commodities
  • Highly toxic to all living organisms
  • Very high risk of inhalation exposure
  • Specialized protection equipment enclosed space

147
Pesticide Mixtures
  • Tank mixing multiple products is legal unless
    prohibited by the label
  • Manufacturer only warranties their product alone
    or product mixtures listed on the label
  • Manufacture notes known incompatibilities on
    label
  • Incompatibility
  • Heat, clumping, precipitate
  • Inactivity of active ingredients
  • Increased phytotoxicity
  • Use Jar-Test to test for incompatibility
  • Field incompatibility can still occur

148
Q1. Which of the following formulations
typically has the lowest rate of active
ingredient? A. Dusts (D) B. Wettable Powders
(WP) C. Emulsifiable Concentrate (EC) D.
Soluble Powder (SP)
149
Q2. Which type of nozzle would pose a concern
when using soluble powder formulations? 1. no
nozzle type poses a concern 2. brass
nozzles 3. aluminum nozzles 4. nylon nozzles
  • A. 1 only
  • B. 2 and 3 only

C. 2 and 4 only D. 3 and 4 only
150
Q3. Which of the following are considered
surfactant-type adjuvants? 1. spreaders 2.
buffers 3. wetting agents 4. colorant dyes
  • A. 1 and 2 only
  • B. 1 and 3 only

C. 2 and 3 only D. 3 and 4 only
151
Pesticide Hazardsand First Aid
  • Chapter 5
  • National Pesticide Applicator Certification
  • Core Manual

152
Pesticide Hazards First Aid
  • This module will help you
  • Know the different types of effects pesticides
    can have on your health
  • Understand signal words
  • Know the routes of exposure
  • Recognize symptoms of exposure
  • Know when and how to give first aid

153
HAZARD Toxicity x Exposure
154
Hazards Increase
  • when mixing and loading the concentrate
  • with a very high single exposure
  • after many exposures over time

155
Reduce Hazards!!
  • By using least toxic pesticides
  • Wearing personal protective equipment

HAZARD Toxicity x Exposure
156
Poisoning Effects
  • Contact
  • Systemic
  • Allergic

157
Contact Effects
  • Skin irritation (dermatitis) itching, redness,
    rashes, blisters, burns
  • Eyes swelling, stinging, burning
  • Nose, mouth, throat irritation
  • Typical of herbicides, fungicides and other
    products

Contact injury to the skin is the most common
form of pesticide poisoning!
158
Systemic Effects
  • From pesticides that target animals
  • Insecticides nervous system
  • Rodenticides circulatory system
  • Insecticide symptoms nausea, vomiting,
    diarrhea, headache, dizziness, weakness,
    excessive sweating, tearing, chills, thirst,
    chest pain, breathing difficulty, body aches
    cramps

159
Routes of Entry Skin (Dermal)
97 of all body exposure during spraying is by
skin contact!
160
Different parts of the body vary in their ability
to absorb pesticides.
161
Greater dermal absorption
  • Warm, moist areas groin, armpits, head, neck
  • Cuts, abrasions, and rashes
  • Pesticide formulations affect absorption

162
Routes of Entry Lungs (inhalation)
Inhalation exposure can occur
  • When using
  • Wettable powders
  • Dusts
  • Gases, vapors
  • Sprays
  • While mixing and loading
  • During applications

163
Fumigants are active as gases!
164
Routes of Entry Eyes
Eyes are able to absorb surprisingly large
amounts of chemical
165
Routes of Entry Oral
Wash your hands!
...before eating, drinking smoking, or going to
the bathroom at breaks!!
166
Possible Harmful Effects from Pesticides
  • Acute effects
  • Chronic effects
  • Delayed effects

167
Acute effects
  • Occur from a single exposure
  • Develop within 24 hrs of exposure
  • Any effect is measured
  • Toxicity usually expressed as LD50 or LC50

168
LD50 and LC50
  • LD50 the dose of a substance that kills 50 of
    a population of test animals
  • measured in milligrams of toxicant per kilogram
    of body weight (mg/kg)

96 dead

12 dead
50 dead
Dose 100 mg/kg 10 mg/kg 1 mg/kg
  • LC50 concentration of a substance in air or
    water that kills 50 of a test population,
    measured in parts per million

169
Signal Words
170
Not Just for Pesticides!
Low Hazard due to Low Exposure!
171
LD50 and LC50 have limitations because
  • they only measure death rates, not less serious
    acute effects
  • they do not translate directly to humans
  • they only measure effects of a single exposure,
    not multiple exposures

172
Chronic Effects
Low dose exposures over an extended period of time
  • Birth defects
  • Toxicity to a fetus
  • Production of tumors
  • Genetic changes
  • Blood disorders
  • Nerve disorders
  • Reproductive effects

173
Delayed Effects
  • After 24 hours
  • After repeated exposures

For example, organophosphates and carbamate
INSECTICIDES
174
Organophosphates and carbamate insecticides
inhibit cholinesterase
  • Over-exposure may decrease available
    cholinesterase nerve enzyme
  • Cholinesterase is the nernous system off
    switch. If inhibited, nerves continuously fire
  • Over-stimulating muscles, glands, and organs

175
Symptoms from Organophosphate and Carbamate
Insecticide Exposure
  • mild fatigue, headache, giddiness, sweating,
    tearing, dizziness or blurred vision, cramps,
    nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
  • moderate numbness, changes in heart rate,
    general muscle weakness, difficulty breathing and
    walking, pinpoint pupils, excessive salivation
  • severe convulsions and coma

176
Antidotes for OP and Carbamate Poisoning
  • Organophosphates
  • Atropine sulfate, plus
  • Protopam chloride (2-PAM)
  • Carbamates
  • Atropine sulfate ONLY
  • NEVER USE ANTIDOTES TO PREVENT EXPOSURE!!

177
Heat Stress
  • Caused by heat, NOT pesticide exposure
  • Wearing PPE increases risk
  • Symptoms (similar)
  • Fatigue, dizziness, altered behavior
  • Clammy skin or hot-dry skin
  • Headache, nausea, chills
  • Severe thirst
  • Heavy sweating or lack of sweating

178
If Exposure Occurs, Administer First Aid
  • Dilute the pesticide
  • On skin remove contaminated clothing, wash
    skin, gently dry and loosely cover
  • In eyes wash across eyes for 15 minutes
  • If inhaled, get victim to fresh air and laid down
  • If ingested, induce vomiting EXCEPT
    and administer activated charcoal in water
  • DO NOT USE syrup of ipecac ineffective!

179
Seek medical attentionTake the labelKeep
extra copies of the label (and MSDS) in your
vehicle and office for emergencies!!
180
  • Q1. The ability of a pesticide to cause
  • harm from extended exposures
  • to low doses, years later, is termed
  • A. Acute Toxicity
  • B. Behavioral Toxicity
  • C. Chronic Toxicity
  • D. Lactic Toxicity

181
  • Q2. HAZARD is the measure of
  • Cholinesterase levels
  • LD50 and LC50 values
  • Oral, skin, eye, and inhalation exposure
  • The capacity of a pesticide tocause injury

182
  • Q3. The most common way pesticides enter the
    body is by
  • Eyes
  • Lungs
  • Mouth
  • Skin

183
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Chapter 6
  • National Pesticide Applicator Certification
  • Core Manual

184
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • This module will help you
  • Understand PPE selection
  • Understand PPE care, storage, and disposal

185
Required PPE is determined by...
  • The toxicity of the pesticide
  • The formulation of the pesticide
  • The activity you are performing
  • Measuring, mixing and loading
  • Applying
  • Maintenance operations

186
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
  • Minimum
  • Long-sleeved shirt
  • Long trousers or coveralls
  • Gloves
  • Shoes plus socks
  • Hat

Protect Yourself!

187
Chemical-resistant Materials
  • Read the label
  • What clothing is specifically required

188
Chemical-Resistant Clothing
  • Prevents most chemicals from reaching the skin
  • PVC plastic, rubber, non-woven coated fabrics

189
Use Gloves!
  • Especially during mixing loading
  • Unlined and waterproof
  • Check for holes
  • If spraying overhead, tuck sleeves inside gloves

and fold the cuffs up
190
What is wrong with these gloves?
Lining can absorb pesticide!
191
Footwear
  • No sandals!
  • Consider wearing unlined, rubber boots... even if
    not required
  • Hang pant legs outside the boots!

192
Cotton, Denim, LeatherNot recommended for most
pesticide applications!
193
Chemical-Resistant Aprons
  • Use when
  • mixing and loading
  • cleaning equipment
  • From neck to knees
  • WARNING aprons can get caught in machinery!

194
Check the label to determine if you need
specific chemical-resistant gloves, and what kind
195
Protect your eyes when mixing concentrates or
handling dusts or toxic sprays
Eyewear should have shields on all sides!
196
If goggles are required, so is access to an
eyewash dispenser!
  • A portable eyewash is recommended for people in
    the field without access to a stationary eyewash

197
When should a respirator be used?
  • When the label requires it
  • When exposed to spray mist
  • When working in confined spaces
  • When using dusts, gases, vapors, or fumigants

198
Chemical cartridge and canister respirators
  • Both half-face mask and full-face mask styles
  • Get cartridges that are right for the chemicals
    you are using!

199
Use and Care of Respirators
  • Fit-check and make sure it works before every use
  • MUST have tight seal!
  • Make sure valves are in proper working order
  • Replace filters
  • Taste, smell, breathe
  • State regulations
  • Manufacturer recommendations

200
Fit check before each use!
  • Positive pressure check Put hand over
    exhalation valve and exhale gently. If there is
    pressure in the mask, its a good fit

201
Fit check before each use!
  • Negative pressure check Cover cartridges with
    hands, inhale gently, and hold breath for 10
    seconds. If the facepiece exhibits no leakage,
    the respirator fits properly
  • Facial hair does not allow a respirator to seal!

202
Get to Fresh Air Immediately if...
  • You smell or taste contaminants
  • Your eyes, nose or throat become irritated
  • Your breathing becomes difficult
  • The air you are breathing becomes uncomfortably
    warm
  • You become nauseous or dizzy

203
Clean Up!
  • Discard disposables and worn-out items!
  • Wash at the end of each day, including gloves and
    all PPE
  • Launder pesticide clothing

204
Separate from family clothing
Wash contaminated clothing in hot water with
detergent
205
Laundering PesticideContaminated Clothing
  • Use heavy-duty liquid detergent for ECs
  • Use 2 cycles for moderate to heavy contamination
  • Rinse the washer with an empty load

2
206
Keep all PPE separate from pesticides in storage!!
207
PPE Use
  • Wear adequate PPE
  • When mixing
  • When applying
  • When doingequipmentmaintenance

208
PPE Use
  • If a nozzle becomes plugged during an
    application
  • Do not remove your PPE!
  • Use an old toothbrush to clean the nozzle. Never
    try to blow it out with your mouth

209
Q1. Who must legally follow Personal Protective
Equipment instructions on the pesticide
label? 1. applicators 2. mixers/loaders 3.
early-entry agricultural workers 4.
hand-picking harvest crew
  • A. 1 only
  • B. 1 and 2 only

C. 1, 2, and 3 only D. 1, 2, 3, and 4
210
Q2. A pesticide label may require a respirator
be worn for personal protection when handling
the pesticide product. Which of the following are
types of air-purifying respirators? 1. Chemical
cartridge respirators 2. Gas masks 3. Self-conta
ined breathing apparatus 4. Supplied-air
respirators
  • A. 1 and 2 only
  • B. 2 and 3 only

C. 3 and 4 only D. 2 and 4 only
211
Q3. Where does most pesticide exposure occur
for pesticide handlers? A. Eyes B. Hands C.
Forearms D. Feet
212
Pesticides in the Environment
  • Chapter 7
  • National Pesticide Applicator Certification
  • Core Manual

213
Pesticides in the Environment
  • This module will help you
  • Understand the environmental consequences of
    pesticide application
  • Understand how to prevent drift and runoff
  • Identify pesticide-sensitive areas
  • Understand how to adjust your methods to minimize
    environmental impact and maximize effectiveness

214
The Environment everything that surrounds us
  • Air, soil, water, plants, animals, people,
    in/outside buildings
  • Beneficial organisms, endangered species
  • There is public concern about the effect of
    pesticides on the environment

215
Understand How Pesticides Impact the Environment
  • Chemical characteristics of pesticides
  • Degradation methods
  • Pesticide movements during and after application
  • Special environmental considerations

216
Pesticide Characteristics Adsorptionbinding of
chemicals to soil particles
  • Higher with oil-soluble pesticides
  • Clay and organic matter increase binding
  • Decreases the potential for a pesticide to move
    through soil

217
Pesticide Characteristics Persistence
  • Ability of a pesticide to remain present and
    active for a long time
  • Provides for long-term pest control, but may harm
    sensitive plants and animals
  • May lead to illegal residues on rotational crops

218
Pesticide Characteristic Vo
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