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EDD 5229

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Title: EDD 5229


1
EDD 5229 Liberal Studies in Knowledge Society
Lecture 5 Understanding the Curriculum
Content of Liberal Studies I Society and Culture
in Informal-Global System
2
From Metacognition to Metatheory
  • Conception of metacognition
  • Flavell defines metacognition as ones knowledge
    concerning ones own cognitive processes and
    products (1976, quoted in Son and Schwartz,
    2002, P.16)
  • Hacker defines the concept of metacognition as
    thinking about ones own thoughts. This thinking
    can be of what know (i.e.metacognitive
    knowledge), what one is currently doing (i.e.
    metacognitive skill), or what ones current
    cognitive and affective state is (i.e.
    metacognitive experience). …. Metacognition
    sometimes has been defined simply as thinking
    about thinking, cognition of cognition, or using
    Flavalls (1979) word, knowledge and cognition
    about cognitive phenomena. (Hacker, 1998, p. 1)

http//logic.itsc.cuhk.edu.hk/b885764/Metacogniti
on2.html
3
From Metacognition to Metatheory
  • Conception of metacognition
  • Nelson and Narens model of metacognition
  • Levels of cognition
  • Object-level cognition
  • Meta-level cognition
  • Process of metacognition
  • Monitoring
  • Control

4
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6
Meta-level
RETRIEVEL
Confidence in Retrieved Answers
Termination of Search
Output of Response
Monitoring
Control
Self-directed Search
Selection of Search Strategy
Feeling-of-knowing Judgments
RETENTION
Flow of Information
Termination of Study
Maintenance of Knowledge
Allocation of Time
ACQUISITION
Judgments of learning
On-going Learning
Selection of Kind of Processing
Ease-of-learning Judgments
In Advance of Learning
Object-Level
Source Nelson and Narens, 1994
7
From Metacognition to Metatheory
  • Two paradigms in cognition (Bruner, 1996)
  • Computionalism
  • Culturalism

8
From Metacognition to Metatheory
  • Metatheory in understanding the curriculum of
    liberal studies
  • Metatheory has been perceived by social
    scientists as the fundamental theoretical
    framework underlying theories on social phenomena
  • Accordingly, metatheory underlying any
    disciplinary-based school curriculum is the
    knowledge system of the respective discipline
    itself.
  • However, in understanding the curriculum of
    liberal studies, which is interdisciplinary or
    integrative based, the metatheory or metatheories
    underlying the curriculum do not come with a
    well-established discipline and teachers have to
    constructed them by themselves.

9
From Metacognition to Metatheory
  • Metatheory in understanding the curriculum of
    liberal studies
  • Examples of metatheories in understanding the
    curriculum of liberal studies in the context of
    knowledge society.
  • Society and culture in informational-global
    system
  • Self and identity in post-traditional and
    individualized society
  • Science and technology in reflexive-modernity and
    risk society

10
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1st Draft
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2st Draft
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Final Version 2007
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Final Version 2007
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Final Version 2007
To what extent does science and technology
enhance the Development of public health
2. Science, technology and public health
How do energy technology and environmental
problems relate to each other?
1. The influences of energy technology
15
Understanding the Structure of the Areas of
Study Society and Culture
  • The formal structure outlined by the CCD and
    HKEAA
  • Module 2 Hong Kong Society
  • Theme1 Quality of life
  • Theme2 Rule of law and socio-political
    participation
  • Theme3 Identity
  • Module 3 Modern China
  • Theme1 Chinas reform and opening-up
  • Theme 2 Chinese culture and modern life
  • Module 4 Globalization
  • Theme Impact of globalization and related
    response

16
Understanding the Structure of the Areas of
Study Society and Culture
  • The organic theoretical structure
  • Globalization under the information technology
    paradigm
  • Social consequences in HK and China
  • Cultural consequences in HK and China

17
Globalization under the in the Age of Information
Technology
  • Debate on the origins of globalization
  • A.G. Frank Grill (1993) World History
    Perspective Originated 5000 year ago
  • Braudel (1979) Wallerstein (1974) World-system
    Approach Originated from the 16th century and
    the rise of mercantile capitalism
  • J. W. Meyer (1979) World Polity Perspective
    Originated from the late 18th early 19th
    century and the constitution of inter-state
    competition world polity
  • M. Castell (1996) M. Carnoy (2000) Global IT
    Economy Perspective Originated from 1970s

18
Globalization under the in the Age of Information
Technology
  • Globalization under the Information-Technology
    paradigm
  • Compression of time and space In connection to
    the penetrating, reconfiguring and converging
    capacities of IT, the globalization at the end of
    the twentieth century has outgrown its ancestors
    in bridging if not annulling the temporal and
    spatial distances between human societies and
    cultures
  • Anthony Giddens (1994) in The Consequences of
    Modernity indicates that globalization is
    really about the transformation of space and
    time. I would define it as action at distance,
    and relate its growth over recent years to the
    development of means of instantaneous global
    communication and mass transportation. (1994, p.
    22)

19
Globalization under the in the Age of Information
Technology
  • Globalization under the Information-Technology
    paradigm
  • Compression of time and space
  • Zygmunt Bauman (1998) Globalization as
    annulment of temporal/spatial distances (1998,
    p.18).
  • David Harvey (1989) in The Condition of
    Postmodernity has simply defines globalization as
    time-space compression. It signifies processes
    that so revolutionize the objective qualities of
    space and time that we are force to alter … how
    we represent the world to ourselves. (p. 240)

20
Globalization under the in the Age of Information
Technology
  • Globalization under the Information-Technology
    paradigm
  • Space of flow Manuel Castells (1996) in The
    Network Society defines globalization as the
    process of separating simultaneous social
    practices from physical contiguity, that is
    time-sharing social practices are no long
    embedded in space of physical place. As a result,
    the traditional notion of space of places has
    been transformed into space of flows. As a
    result, the globe is now able to work as a unit
    in real time on a planetary scale.

21
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • The advent of the virtual community
  • Transformation of pattern of communication
  • Instantaneous social practices are separated
    from physical contiguity, the traditional
    face-to-face and time-consuming communications,
    which are the cornerstone of primary association,
    have given way to fast, cheap and forgetting
    communications (Benedikt, 1995, quoted from
    Bauman, 1998, p.16).

22
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • The advent of the virtual community
  • Dissolve of community of yoke
  • The so-called 'closely knit communities' of
    yore were … brought into being and kept alive by
    the gap between the nearly instantaneous
    communication inside the small-scale community
    (the size of which was determined by the innate
    qualities of 'wetware', and thus confined to the
    natural limits of human sight, hearing and
    memorizing capacity) and the enormity of time and
    expense needed to pass information between
    locality. On the other hand, the present-day and
    short life-span of communities appears primarily
    to be the result of the gap shrinking or
    altogether disappearing inner-community
    communication has no advantage over
    inter-communal exchange, if both are
    instantaneous. (Bauman, 1998, p.5)

23
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • The advent of the virtual community
  • Cultural-spatial based communities are replaced
    by virtual community
  • Erosion of spatial based communities scattered
    around factories and industrial compound in
    advanced industrial societies as globalized and
    flexible economy emerged. Class-based and
    ethnic/religious-based communities also
    evaporated with the factory-location based
    communities
  • The emergence of the cyberspace The space of
    place and that based on physical contiguity is
    replace by the space of flow and that based on
    informational flow.

24
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • The advent of the virtual community
  • Cultural-spatial based communities are replaced
    by virtual community
  • In their replacement advents the virtual
    community.
  • Howard Rheingold in The virtual community
    Homesteading on the electrical frontier (1989)
    specifies that
  • Virtual communities are social aggregations
    that emerge from the Net when enough people carry
    on those public discussions long enough, with
    sufficient human feeling, to form webs of
    personal relationship in cyberspace. (p.3)

25
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • New notions of community in knowledge society
    (Carnoy, 2000)
  • In flexible economy new communities will have to
    incorporate workers who are more educated, more
    choice-oriented, more flexible, more
    time-conscious, and more eager to influence their
    environment. The new bond that holds these
    individuals together in the global information
    age is the search for knowledge. (Carnoy, 2000,
    p. 171)

26
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • New notions of community in knowledge society
    (Carnoy, 2000)
  • Accordingly, Martin Carnoy categorizes these
    knowledge-searching communities into
  • The self-knowledge community Ethnicity, gender
    and cultural identity. For examples, black Muslim
    communities in the US constituted in the 1960s,
    feminist communities emerged in the 1980s,
    fundamentalist Muslim in global context since the
    late 1990s.
  • The knowledge-use community Professional
    identification and work networks
  • Informal work-information network
  • Temporary agencies as knowledge-use networks
  • Computer networks as knowledge-use communities

27
Globalization and Its Social Consequences I The
Advent of Community of Flow
  • New notions of community in knowledge society
    (Carnoy, 2000)
  • Accordingly, Martin Carnoy categorizes these
    knowledge-searching communities into
  • The knowledge-production community Schools as
    community centers
  • Knowledge-production centers themselves can
    be the organizing space for new communities.
    Individuals and families may no longer be linked
    socially to a particular neighborhood, but those
    with children are increasingly linked to
    child-care centers, preschools, and elementary
    schools. …Children and parents build friendships
    and social and civic activities around their
    childrens care and learning, wherever it takes
    place. Thus, their community space is defined
    by their childrens day care and schooling rather
    by where they live. (Carnoy, 2000, p. 183)

28
Globalization and Its Social Consequences II The
Advent of Flexible Family
  • The brief history of the fundamental unit of
    social integration Family
  • Family in agrarian society
  • Family as reproduction unit of society
  • Family as production unit of economy
  • All members held designated role in the
    production process and were interdependent on
    each others
  • Family in early industrialized society
  • Structural differentiations between reproduction
    and production functions of family
  • Man and matured children usually boys worked away
    from home
  • Man assumed the breadwinning role and woman
    submitted to the dependent role in the family
    structure

29
Globalization and Its Social Consequences II The
Advent of Flexible Family
  • The brief history of the fundamental unit of
    social integration
  • Family in Post-WWII welfare-state
  • Welfare-state intervened into family functions
    through social policy measures, such as
    birth-control policy, child labor laws, education
    policy, housing policy, social welfare policy
    etc.
  • Family was deprived of most of its functions
    reproductive, productive, and socializing
    functions and left with only emotional and
    spiritual supportive function.
  • Nevertheless, family assume a new function in
    mass consumption society, i.e. as consumption and
    even investment unit
  • Woman liberation movement spawned structural
    changes in the role/power structure of family.
    Woman would no long assume to dependent or even
    submissive roles in the patriarchal structure of
    family

30
Globalization and Its Social Consequences II The
Advent of Flexible Family
  • Flexible family and flexible work
  • The very concept of a job is changing. In the
    years after World War II, industrial societies
    constructed the ideal of a full-time, secure job
    working thirty years for one company with
    ever-rising real wages. Pay in this job would be
    high enough that within American family
    households, only the man had to work. His wife
    could stay at home, raising the children and
    managing the household. The ideal of secure work
    and increasing consumption was matched by
    government policies that constructed social
    security (old-age pension, unemployment
    insurance, and health insurance) largely around
    the ideal of a men and very little paid work for
    women is going by the boards, and the new
    information technology is only one cause of
    change. The simplest description of the nature of
    this transformation is increased flexibility.
    (Carnoy, 2000, p.64-65)

31
Globalization and Its Social Consequences II The
Advent of Flexible Family
  • Flexible family and flexible work
  • Flexibility in work implies
  • Flexible in work schedule as well as work
    duration
  • Flexible in work locations as well as positions
  • Flexible in work conditions, flexibility has
    replaced fixed-term contract and long-term
    commitment between employers and employees
  • With increased competition in the globalized
    economy and the rapidly rising capacity to use
    world time to enhance productivity, the very
    best workers are now those who never sleep, never
    consume, never have children, and never spend
    time socializing outside of work. (Carnoy, 2000,
    p. 143)

32
Globalization and Its Social Consequences II The
Advent of Flexible Family
  • Flexible family and flexible work
  • In knowledge economy and lifelong learning
    society, family is demanded to assume a new
    function. It is expect to be the basic unit
    supporting the everlasting learning projects
    demand for both working parents and their
    children
  • Fundamental contradiction in functions of
    flexible family
  • What result is a serious social
    contradiction the new workplace requires even
    more investment in knowledge than in the past,
    and family are crucial to such knowledge
    formation, especially for children but also for
    adults. The new workplace, however, contributes
    to greater instability in the child-centered
    nuclear family, degrading the very institution
    crucial to further economic development. (ibid,
    p.110)

33
Globalization and Its Social Consequences II The
Advent of Flexible Family
  • Changes in family structure in flexible economy
  • Less people would enter into marriages. Even if
    they did, they were much more likely to be
    divorced than in the 1960s.
  • Marriages were delayed and child rearing were
    also delayed or even more likely forgone.
  • A smaller percentage of the population lived in a
    nuclear family household headed by a married
    couple with children.
  • More percentage of the population lived in
    nuclear family with no child or even stayed
    single.

34
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The Advent of Post-Traditional Society
  • Culture as the symbolic universe of a society
  • Time-space compression entails compression of
    symbolic universes
  • Legitimation bases of symbolic universes under
    threats
  • Detradionalization and the rise of
    post-traditional society
  • A post-tradition social order…is not one in
    which tradition disappears - far from it. It is
    one in which tradition changes its status.
    Traditions have to explain themselves, to become
    open to interrogation or discourse. … In a
    globalizing, culturally cosmopolitan society,
    traditions become forced into open view reasons
    or justifications have to be offered for them.
    (Giddens, 1994, p.23)

35
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The Advent of Post-Traditional Society
  • The rise of fundamentalism
  • "The rise of fundamentalism has to be seen
    against the backdrop of the emergence of the
    post-traditional society. … What is
    fundamentalism? It is, so I shall argue, nothing
    other than tradition defended in the tradition
    way - but where that mode of defence has become
    widely called into question. … In a globally
    cosmopolitan order … such a defence become
    dangerous, because essentially it is a refusal of
    dialogue." (Giddens, 1994, p.23)
  • An explanation of the September 11 incidence
    Terrorism in post-traditional and global
    societies

36
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • Cultural logic of late capitalism in the
    information age
  • Production of information and knowledge replacing
    production of manufacturing goods, especially
    heavy industrial goods, as the core of
    productivity enhancement and wealth accumulation
  • The rise of mass production, mass distribution,
    mass consumption, and mass communication
  • Accelerations of the commoditfication cycle
    M?C?P?C?M, i.e. Money capital ? Commodity (i.e.
    labor and the means of production) ? Production ?
    Commodity (products) ? Money

37
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • Cultural logic of late capitalism in the
    information age
  • The commodification of culture and information
  • The use value of cultural products Communicative
    values and meaningfulness
  • The exchange value of cultural products Reifying
    cultural meaningfulness into cultural commodities
    and cultural industries
  • Culture of signifiers of referent depth was
    replaced by self-referencing and free-floating
    signifiers, information, data, icon…
  • Empirically and objectively existing reality
    replaced by hyper-reality and virtual reality
  • The proliferation of simulacra and the coming of
    the culture of simulacra
  • The culture of heritage and tradition was
    replaced by culture of pastiche and hybrid

38
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39
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The rise of culture of consumerism
  • Retreat of culture of production and spirit of
    capitalism Culture of asceticism and endurance,
    industrious, and enterprising investment

40
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The rise of culture of consumerism
  • Constituents of culture of consumerism
  • Hedonism Consumption as desire-satisfaction was
    replaced by consumption as desire-creation.
    Desire does not desire satisfaction. To the
    contrary, desire desires desire." (Bauman, 1998,
    p. 25)
  • Ephemeralism "Consumer goods are meant to be
    used up and to disappear the idea of
    temporariness and transitoriness is intrinsic to
    their very denomination as objects of
    consumption" (Bauman, 1998, P.28)

41
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The rise of culture of consumerism
  • Constituents of culture of consumerism
  • Instantaneousness "Ideally, the consumer's
    satisfaction ought to be instant, and this in a
    double sense. Consumed goods should bring
    satisfaction immediately, requiring no delay, no
    protracted learning of skills and no lengthy
    groundwork but the satisfaction should end the
    moment the time needed for their consumption is
    up, and that time ought to be reduced to a bare
    minimum." (Bauman, 1998, p. 25)
  • Fetishism From consumption of commodity to
    collection of commodity from consumption as act
    of desire-satisfaction to consumption (or
    possession) as identification of status and life
    style

42
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The constitution of culture of Information
    Management and Publicity
  • Rational critical citizens of the 19th century
    relegate to clients of the welfare state and
    consumers of welfare services in post WWII
  • From culture-debating public to culture-consuming
    public
  • The rise of cultural industry and mass media
  • Commodification of culture Meanings and
    consensus are no longer constituted through
    critical-rational debates but manufacture by
    cultural industry and mass media
  • The rise of the professions of public relation,
    publicity and image consultancy

43
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The constitution of culture of Information
    Management and Publicity
  • From culture-debating public to culture-consuming
    public
  • The replacement of a reading public that debated
    critically about matters of culture by the mass
    public of culture consumers (Habermas, 1989,
    p.168)
  • Going to salons and book clubs are replaced
    by going to movies, listening to radio and
    watching TV. These activities are noncommittal,
    one-sided non- participatory activities
  • Debating public relegated into captive audience

44
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The constitution of culture of Information
    Management and Publicity
  • Rational public debates relegated to administered
    or even commercialized projects
  • Public debates were taken over or even
    monopolized by
  • compartmentalized intellectual minority,
    professionals and specialists in cultural
    industry and mass media
  • lobbyists of organized interests,
  • think tank of political parties and the state,
  • specialist in information management, public
    relation and publicity, spin doctors

45
Globalization and Its Cultural Consequences
  • The constitution of culture of Information
    Management and Publicity
  • Rational public debates relegated to administered
    or even commercialized projects
  • Public debates were commercialized, standardized
    and be consumption-ready, Cultural goods had to
    be packaged into consumption items, e.g.
  • literary communications were pushed aside by
    illustrative, pictorial, sensational
    representations, the constitution of TV news and
    then news in global network (CNN)
  • delay reward news (public affairs, social
    problems, education, and health) were pushed into
    the background by immediate reward news
    (comics, corruption, accidents, disasters,
    sports, recreation, social events, and human
    interests). (Habermas, 1989, p. 170)

46
Lecture 5 Understanding the Curriculum Content
of Liberal Studies I Society and Culture in
Informal-Global System End
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