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Architecture Class 5


SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. BA 530 John A. ... ERP Technology Note en passant. CISCO Systems Architecture Case. SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture Class 5

ArchitectureClass 5
  • Feb 4, 2003

  • Ch. 6 from Pearlson
  • ERP Technology Note en passant
  • CISCO Systems Architecture Case

Figure 6.2 From strategy to business requirements
Biz. Req.
Biz. Req.
Figure 6.3 From business requirements to
Arch. Req.
Biz. Req.
Biz. Proc.
Figure 6.4 From architecture to infrastructure
HW Spec.
Func. Spec.
SW Spec.
Func. Spec.
Data Protocol
Interface Spec.
Information System Components
  • Information systems have 4 basic components
  • Hardware physical components that handle the
    computation, storage and transmission of data.
  • Software programs that run on hardware and
    enable work to be performed
  • Network hardware and software components
    connected according to a common protocol to
    create a shared computing environment.
  • Data numbers and text that the IT infrastructure
    performs work on.

A Framework for the translation (See Figure 6.5a
in text).
  • The framework for translating business strategy
    into an IT architecture begins with a simple
    overview of the current IS components, asking
    what, who and where for each.
  • For example, for hardware
  • What hardware does the firm have?
  • Who manages, uses and owns it?
  • Where is it located? Where is it used?
  • Similar questions apply to the software, network
    and data components of the system.

A Framework for translation(cont.)
  • The next step is to ask questions about the
    future IT architecture and infrastructure for the
    components of the system under development
  • For example, for hardware
  • Arch. Does our strategy require thick or thin
  • Infra. What hard drives to we use on the thick
  • Arch. Who knows most about servers in the the
  • Infra. Who will operate the sever?
  • Arch. Does out architecture require centralized
    or decentralized servers?
  • Infra. Must we hire a server administrator for
    the Tokyo office?

Examples of Architectures
  • Two examples of generic architectural styles are
    client/server and mainframe architectures.
  • Client/server architecture is an example of a
    type of architecture that is growing in use.
  • Because it is modular, it is easy to add
    additional servers to a client/server
  • Mainframe architecture has a central computer and
    is easier to manage in some ways because of this.

BluntCo. fictitious case
  • The following fictitious case for BluntCo., a
    cigar clipper maker is intended to illustrate the
    process of creating IT architecture and
  • The process includes four steps
  • Step 1 Defining the Strategic Goals
  • Step 2 Define Related Architectural Goals
  • Step 3 Apply Strategy-to-Infrastructure
  • Step 4 Evaluate Additional Issues

Step 1 Defining the Strategic Goals
  • Blunt Cos. business strategy is to respond to
    possible changes in demand by outsourcing clipper
  • The companys strategic goals are as follows
  • To lower costs by outsourcing manufacturing
  • To lower costs by clipper distribution
  • To improve market responsiveness by outsourcing
    clipper manufacturing
  • To improve market responsiveness by outsourcing
    clipper distribution

Step 2 Define Related Architectural Goals
  • Consider the first goal outsourcing clipper
    manufacturing. How can the companys IT
    architecture support this goal?
  • It must provide the following interfaces to its
    new manufacturing partners
  • Sales to mfg. partners send forecasts, confirm
    orders received
  • Mfg. partner to sales send capacity, confirm
    orders shipped
  • Mfg. partner to accounting confirm orders
    shipped, electronic invoices, various inventory
    levels, returns
  • Accounting to mfg. partners transfer funds for
    orders fulfilled

Step 3 Apply Strategy to Infrastructure Framework
  • Translating the strategic goals to the
    architectural and infrastructural framework means
    asking the what, who and where questions
    discussed before.
  • For example, for the network
  • Arch. What is the anticipated volume of
    transactions between BluntCo and its
    manufacturing partners?
  • High volume may require leased lines to carry
    transaction data, dial-up connections may suffice
    for low volume (I.e., whats the best leased line
    to use?).
  • Figure 6.7 presents a detailed list of questions.

Step 4 Evaluate Additional Issues
  • The last step is to compare managerial
    considerations such as strategic time frame,
    technological advances, etc., with the
    architectural goals listed in step 2.
  • For example, regarding HR compatibility
  • Arch. The new model will displace some current
    human resources. BluntCo must analyze costs and
    the effect on morale.
  • Infra. Current staff not familiar with EDI must
    be trained, some new staff hired. BluntCo must
    analyze associated costs.

ERP Tech Note
  • The Footprint

Managers Beliefs
And if you make me Well all die a horrible death
Business Issues/ Considerations
  • Level of Standardization in Business Process
  • What are arguments each way?
  • Single Vendor or Best in Breed
  • Why do 60 of companies adopt best of breed
  • Project Staffing Model
  • Where does the staff come from?
  • Where does it go when you are done?

How did CISCO Deal with the Management Belief
What decisions did CISCO reach?
  • Level of standardization?
  • Single Vendor /BoB?
  • Project Staffing Model?

What decisions have your firms made?
  • Level of Standardization
  • Single Vendor
  • How IT projects are staffed
  • Why???

Key questions
  • How was the decision made to implement ERP?
  • Evaluate the analysis made to recommend ERP to
    the board and the quality of the justification?
    (propose improvements)
  • What made it possible to implement ERP in 9
    months at CISCO?
  • How did CISCO build out their I-Net to
    electronically connect with the customer? What
    benefits were enabled by this initiative?
  • Identify the main benefits of the strategic I-net
    at Cisco, what benefits do you think they
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