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Architecture Class 5

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SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION. BA 530 John A. ... ERP Technology Note en passant. CISCO Systems Architecture Case. SCHOOL OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Architecture Class 5


1
ArchitectureClass 5
  • Feb 4, 2003

2
Topics
  • Ch. 6 from Pearlson
  • ERP Technology Note en passant
  • CISCO Systems Architecture Case

3
Figure 6.2 From strategy to business requirements
Biz. Req.
Goal
Biz. Req.
Strategy
Goal
Goal
4
Figure 6.3 From business requirements to
architecture
Arch. Req.
Architecture
Biz. Req.
Biz. Proc.
5
Figure 6.4 From architecture to infrastructure
HW Spec.
Func. Spec.
SW Spec.
Architecture
Func. Spec.
Data Protocol
Interface Spec.
6
Information System Components
  • Information systems have 4 basic components
  • Hardware physical components that handle the
    computation, storage and transmission of data.
  • Software programs that run on hardware and
    enable work to be performed
  • Network hardware and software components
    connected according to a common protocol to
    create a shared computing environment.
  • Data numbers and text that the IT infrastructure
    performs work on.

7
A Framework for the translation (See Figure 6.5a
in text).
  • The framework for translating business strategy
    into an IT architecture begins with a simple
    overview of the current IS components, asking
    what, who and where for each.
  • For example, for hardware
  • What hardware does the firm have?
  • Who manages, uses and owns it?
  • Where is it located? Where is it used?
  • Similar questions apply to the software, network
    and data components of the system.

8
A Framework for translation(cont.)
  • The next step is to ask questions about the
    future IT architecture and infrastructure for the
    components of the system under development
  • For example, for hardware
  • Arch. Does our strategy require thick or thin
    clients?
  • Infra. What hard drives to we use on the thick
    clients?
  • Arch. Who knows most about servers in the the
    firm?
  • Infra. Who will operate the sever?
  • Arch. Does out architecture require centralized
    or decentralized servers?
  • Infra. Must we hire a server administrator for
    the Tokyo office?

9
Examples of Architectures
  • Two examples of generic architectural styles are
    client/server and mainframe architectures.
  • Client/server architecture is an example of a
    type of architecture that is growing in use.
  • Because it is modular, it is easy to add
    additional servers to a client/server
    architecture.
  • Mainframe architecture has a central computer and
    is easier to manage in some ways because of this.

10
BluntCo. fictitious case
  • The following fictitious case for BluntCo., a
    cigar clipper maker is intended to illustrate the
    process of creating IT architecture and
    infrastructure.
  • The process includes four steps
  • Step 1 Defining the Strategic Goals
  • Step 2 Define Related Architectural Goals
  • Step 3 Apply Strategy-to-Infrastructure
    Framework
  • Step 4 Evaluate Additional Issues

11
Step 1 Defining the Strategic Goals
  • Blunt Cos. business strategy is to respond to
    possible changes in demand by outsourcing clipper
    manufacturing.
  • The companys strategic goals are as follows
  • To lower costs by outsourcing manufacturing
  • To lower costs by clipper distribution
  • To improve market responsiveness by outsourcing
    clipper manufacturing
  • To improve market responsiveness by outsourcing
    clipper distribution

12
Step 2 Define Related Architectural Goals
  • Consider the first goal outsourcing clipper
    manufacturing. How can the companys IT
    architecture support this goal?
  • It must provide the following interfaces to its
    new manufacturing partners
  • Sales to mfg. partners send forecasts, confirm
    orders received
  • Mfg. partner to sales send capacity, confirm
    orders shipped
  • Mfg. partner to accounting confirm orders
    shipped, electronic invoices, various inventory
    levels, returns
  • Accounting to mfg. partners transfer funds for
    orders fulfilled

13
Step 3 Apply Strategy to Infrastructure Framework
  • Translating the strategic goals to the
    architectural and infrastructural framework means
    asking the what, who and where questions
    discussed before.
  • For example, for the network
  • Arch. What is the anticipated volume of
    transactions between BluntCo and its
    manufacturing partners?
  • High volume may require leased lines to carry
    transaction data, dial-up connections may suffice
    for low volume (I.e., whats the best leased line
    to use?).
  • Figure 6.7 presents a detailed list of questions.

14
Step 4 Evaluate Additional Issues
  • The last step is to compare managerial
    considerations such as strategic time frame,
    technological advances, etc., with the
    architectural goals listed in step 2.
  • For example, regarding HR compatibility
  • Arch. The new model will displace some current
    human resources. BluntCo must analyze costs and
    the effect on morale.
  • Infra. Current staff not familiar with EDI must
    be trained, some new staff hired. BluntCo must
    analyze associated costs.

15
ERP Tech Note
  • The Footprint

16
Managers Beliefs
And if you make me Well all die a horrible death
17
Business Issues/ Considerations
  • Level of Standardization in Business Process
  • What are arguments each way?
  • Single Vendor or Best in Breed
  • Why do 60 of companies adopt best of breed
  • Project Staffing Model
  • Where does the staff come from?
  • Where does it go when you are done?

18
CISCO SYSTEMS ARCH
19
How did CISCO Deal with the Management Belief
Problems?
20
What decisions did CISCO reach?
  • Level of standardization?
  • Single Vendor /BoB?
  • Project Staffing Model?

21
What decisions have your firms made?
  • Level of Standardization
  • Single Vendor
  • How IT projects are staffed
  • Why???

22
Key questions
  • How was the decision made to implement ERP?
  • Evaluate the analysis made to recommend ERP to
    the board and the quality of the justification?
    (propose improvements)
  • What made it possible to implement ERP in 9
    months at CISCO?
  • How did CISCO build out their I-Net to
    electronically connect with the customer? What
    benefits were enabled by this initiative?
  • Identify the main benefits of the strategic I-net
    at Cisco, what benefits do you think they
    achieved?
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